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PUBLISHED    BY    J.    B.    MOORE. 



[the  NEW  York", 

[PUBLIC  library! 








biographical  sketch  of— 


biographical  Sketch  of — 

Nathaniel  Peabody 


Benjamin  Thompson 


Edward  Handolph 

29  J 

Ezra  Carter 


Jonn  Wheelock 


Jonathan  Belcher 


John  Paul  Jones 


John  Smitli 


Robert  Cushiuaij 


Timothy  Walker 


Robert  Cntt 

84  i 

Thomas  W.  Thompson 


Richard  Cutt 

Benjamin  Church 


John  Cutt 


David  Webster 


William  Pepperell 

55  5 

La  Fayette 


Col.  Moultoii 




William  Moore 


William  Gregg 


Jabez  Kimball 


Daniel  Gookin 


Richard  Montgomery 



Ecclesiastical  History  of  N.  Hamp- 
shire. 21   41,  77, 

Account  of  Indian  Bridge   &c. 

Declaration  of  Independence  by 
New-Hampshire,  in  1776 

Account  of  an  Affairat  Bloomfield, 

Account  of  the  Captivity  of  Mrs. 
Rowlandson  105, 

Description  of  tne  County  of  Mer- 

J  Notices  of  News-papers  published 
115?     in  New  Hampshire  174,240 

27yOn     the    Origin    and    Progress  ef 

?       our  National  Character,  329 

37  ?  Notices  of  an  Excursion  to  the  Old 
88'      Colony  342 

?  Historical     Sketch  of  Sanbornton, 
137  i     N.  H.  3.51 

I  Account  of  the  Insurrection  in  New- 
169*     Hampshire,  1788  355 


William  Vanghan  to  Richard  Wal- 

William  Pepperell  to  Richard  Wal- 

David  Dunbar  to  Gov.  Belcher 

William  Pepperell  to  the  Duke  of 

Jonathan  Belcher  to  Richard  Wal- 

Richard  Waldron  to  Jonathan  Bel- 
cher 225, 

Thomas  Chittenden  to  Meshech 

S  Alexander  Scamraell  to  Nathaniel 
355     Peabody  253 

?  Jonathan  Belcher  to  Richard  Wal- 
36  ?     dron  254 

90?Ricnard  Waldron  to  Jonathan  Bel 

i     Cher  255 

91 J  Alexander  Scammel  to    Nathaniel 
e     Peabody  235.  286,  287,  28» 

225^  Joseph  Woudbridge  to  Town  of  An- 

5     dover  289 

226  i  Richard  Waldron  to  Jonathan  Belch- 

'-     er  323 

253  J  Jonathan  Belcher  to  Richard  Wal- 

#r»n  323,  324 



Randolphs  Welcome                          20 ^ The  Album  99 

Winter                                                    40;  Yankee  Doodle  159 

Lovewell's  Figlit  (ancient  song)          64  ;iMni.tgomeiy's  Return  187 

do.      (original  ballad)        94$Foreiathpr's  Song  230 

Ou  the  Great  Fire  in  Boston,  1711  262 


Cincinnatug  on  Government,  5 Tales  of  the  Revolution,  210,316,371 

No.  XCVII,      17jTlie  Album  97 

"  •<  "     X'.;VIII,    73;  Yankee  Doodle  157,217 

•'  ''  "     XCIX,     1235  First  Class  ot  Graduates   at  Har- 

"  '•  '•    C,  160^     vir-l  College,   1642,  183 

•'  "  "     Cr,  201  ^IniJian  Shrewdness  187 

■    «•  "  "      CII,        243^  New-Hampshire  Law,  its  sources,&c. 201 

"  "  ''     cm,        275^  New-Engl»nd  Superstitions  213 

"  »  "     CIV,       312   Bill  of  Mortality  in  Exeter  232 

'«  "  "     CV,         361 'Sketches  of  the  Presidential  Candi- 

"    CVL        364^         dates  247 

Miscellanies,    32,  99,  128, 149, 188, 228. ;  Notices  of  Revolutionary  Officers,    269 
257.  280, 325, 379  J  Remarks  on  Longevity  279 

Literarv  Notices,    38,  72,  104.  131,  164,  J  Fecundity  284 

199,  263,  387  j  Bunker  Hill  Monument  319 

Names,  &c.  of  Attorneys  who  have         J  The   Old   Plymouth  Con- 
resided  in  the  county  of  Cheshire,  52*     tract  349 
Anecdotes  of  the  Revolution,  67,69,70,5 
152,  154,  155 1 


New  V, 

..V.,:w^^Al^     &^... 

i  Otcr  -ir.ox  orfJ  itsodr,  (iTAsi  smi  o(fto-r!|  siii'i'j 

Mf XMS:2L  ffMSOlS'Sro 

[TbiB  profile  was  taken  about  the  year  1810.J 

JANUARY,  1824. 


Nathaniel  Peabody  was  born  at  Topsfield  in  the  county 
©f  Essex  and  Province  of  Mtissachusetts-Bay,  Wednesday 
the  18th  day  of  February,  O.  S.  1740,  corresponding  with 
March  1,  1741.  His  father,  Jacob  Peabody^  who  was  an  em- 
inent physician  and  a  man  of  h'terature  and  science,  remov- 
ed in  April,  1745,  from  Topsfield  to  Leominster  in  the  county 
of  Worcester,  and  resided  there  till  his  death  in  1758. 
His  mother  was  Susanna,  daughter  of  the  Rev.  John  Rogersy 
who  was  for  fifty  years  minister  of  Boxford,  Mass.  She  was 
of  the  tenth  generation  in  the  direct  line  of  descent  from  John 
Rogers,  the  martyr  burnt,  at  Smithficld,  and  possessed  a 
strong  and  cultivated  mind.  Nathaniel  derived  his  early  ed- 
ucation entirely  from  hisfather,  never  having  attended  school 
a  day  in  his  life.  He  also  studied  and  practised  physic  with 
him  from  twelve  till  eighteen  years  of  age,  when  his  father 
died.  At  about  the  age  of  twenty,  he  went  to  that  part  of 
Plaistow  in  New-Hampshire,  which  was  afterwards  annexed 
to  the  town  of  Atkinson,  and  there  soon  acquired  extensive 
practice.  March  1,  1  763,  he  married  Abigail,  daughter  of 
Samuel  Li'ttle,  Esq.  of  Plaistow,  but  they  had  no  children. 
She  still  survives,  though  bowed  down  with  infirmity  and  age. 
Early  in  life  the  subject  of  this  notice  was  a  favourite  with 
the  government  of  the  province,  and  held  several  offices  un- 
der it.  April  30,  1771,  when  only  thirty  years  old,  he,  to- 
gether with  Meshech  Weare,  Matthew  Thornton,  Wyseman 
Clagett  and  others,  was  commissioned  by  Gov.  John  Went- 
worth  as  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  and  of  the  quorum  for  the 
county  of  Rockingham,  and  was,  no  doubt,  in  the  commission 
of  the  peace,  for  some  years  previously  to  that  time.  In  the 
same  commission  several,  who  were  considerably  his  elders 
and  afterwards  became  distinguished,  were  appointed  mere- 
ly justices  of  the  peace.  From  these  facts  it  may  be  inferred 

2  Hon.  Kathaniel  Peahody. 

that  he  was  at  that  early  period  of  life  regarded  as  no  ordiii- 
arj  man  ;  for  the  office  of  justice  of  the  quorum  was  then, 
and  for  many  years  afterwards,  much  more  responsible  and 
important  than  at  the  present  day.  Any  three  or  more  jus- 
tices of  the  quorum  had  power  to  hold  courts,  to  "  enquire 
by  the  oath  of  good  and  lawful  men  of  the  county,"  as  to 
numerous  misdeeds  and  offences,  "  and  to  inspect  all  indict- 
ments taken  before  them,  and  to  hear  and  determine  all  in- 
dictments, trespasses  and  misdeeds,  and  all  other,  the  prem- 
ises (in  their  commission  mentioned.)  and  to  punish  offenders 
by  fines,  amerciaments,  forfeitures  or  otherwise  according  to 
law."  Oct.  27,  1774,  Doct.  Peabody  was  appointed  Lieut. 
Colonelof  the  7th  regiment  of  militia.  At  this  time  the  con- 
troversy between  the  colonies  and  the  yjarent  country  had 
approached  near  its  crisis  ;  the  revolution  was  rapidly 
dawning,  and  the  battle  of  Lexington  was  fought  the  succeed- 
ing April.  Col.  Peabody  espoused,  with  ardour,  the  cause 
of  hiR  country  and  was  the  first  man  in  New-Hampshire  who 
resigned  si  King's  commission  ou  account,  of  political  opin- 
ions. In  December  of  this  year  he  went  with  Maj.  Sullivan, 
Capt.  John  Langdon,  Josiah  Bartlett  and  others,  who  assault- 
ed Fort  William  and  Mary  at  New-Castle,  confined  the  cap- 
tain of  the  fort  and  his  five  men,  and  carried  ofl'  a  hundred 
barrels  of  powder.  T'his  important  enterprize  was  accom- 
plished at  the  most  fortunate  pointof  time,  just  before  the  ar- 
rival of  several  companies  of  the  King's  troops,  who  took 
possession  of  the  fort. 

Col.  Peabody  was  a  delegate  or  agent  from  Atkinson  to  a 
convention  of  agents  from  about  forty  towns  in  Massachusetts- 
bay  and  New-Hampshire,  held  at  the  house  of  Maj.  Joseph 
Varnum  in  Drarut,  Nov.  2G,  1776.  Capt.  John  Bodwell  of 
Methuen  was  chairman,  and  Nathaniel  Peabody,  clerk.  Its 
object  was,  as  the  record  states,  to  take  into  consideration 
"  the  alarming  situation  of  our  public  aftairs  at  this  time  on 
account  of  the  exorbitant  prices  that  are  demanded  and  tak- 
en in  consideration  for  many  of  the  necessaries  of  life,  by 
which  means  our  paper  currency  is  daily  depreciating  in 
value  and  the  honest  mechanic  and  labourer  very  much  dis- 
tressed by  the  extortion  of  tlie  merchant,  trader,  farmer  and 
others,  whereby  many  good  and  valuable  men  are  much  dis- 
couraged from  engaging  in  the  service  of  these  states,  to  the 
great  damage  of  the  continental  army,  upoa  which,  under 
God,  the  future  safety  and  well  being  of  these  states  very 
much  depend.  The  convention  voted  to  petition  the  Gen- 
eral Courts  of  Massachusetts-bay  and  New-Hampshire  "to 

Hon^  Nathaniel  Peahody,  3 

take  the  premises  under  consideration  and  so  to  regulate  the 
purchases  and  sales  of  the  necessaries  of  life   as   to   obviate 
the  evil  we  imagine  will  otherwise  ensue."     Two  committees 
were  appointed  to   draft   the   petitions.     Colonel   PeaboHy 
was  chairman  of  one  of  them,  and  his  draft  was  adopted  bjr 
the  other  committee,     't  was  voted  that  "  Oliver  Barron  and 
Nathaniel  Peabody  be  a  committee  in  behalf  of  this  conven- 
tion to  prefer  the  aforementioned  petition   to   the  honorable 
General  Court  of  the  State  of  Massachusetts-baj  and  that 
thej  pursue  the  same  so  far  as  shall  be  reasonable  in   order 
to  have  the  prayer  thereof  granted."     In   December  of  the 
same  year,  Colonel  Peabody  appears  as  a  Representative  in 
the  General  Court  from  the  district  of  Atkinson  and  Plaistow. 
In  1777,he  was  again  in  the  Assembly,and  appears  from  the 
journals  to  have  been  a  very  efficient  and   leading  member. 
He  was  on  a  committee  with  John  Wentworth,  jr.   Jonathan 
Mitchell  Sewall  and  Samuel  Gilman,  jr.  Esquires,  "  to   draw 
up    and  bring  in   a  bill  for   the   trial  and  punishment   of  per- 
sons, who  shall  by  any  misbehaviour,  in   word  or  deed,  be 
adjudged  inimical  to  the  liberty  and  freedom  of  tlie  States  of 
America  (not  within  the  act  against   treason,)  and   directing 
how  such  trials  shall  be  had  and  how  judgment  thereon  shall 
be  executed."     January  8,  he  was  first  on  a   committee   ap- 
pointed to  consider  and  report  '•'  what  and  who  shall  be  deem- 
ed the  supreme  executive  power  in  this  State  within  the  intent 
and  meaning  of  the  act  against  treason  and  misprison  of  trea- 
son."    He  and  Wyseman  Clagett  were  a   committee  on   the 
part  of  the  Assembly,  to  prepare  and  bring  in   a   bill  for  a 
new  proportion  of  taxes.     Besides  these,  he  was  chairman  of 
several  other  committees  to  whom  were  referred  subjects   of 
the  greatest  importance  to   the  liberty  and   welfare   of  the 
State.     Jan.  10th,  he,  together  with  Meshech  Weare,  Nicho- 
las Gilman,  Josiah  Bartlett,  John  Dudley  and   others,   was 
appointed  by   the  council   and   assembly   a   committee  of 
safety,  and  he  took  his  seat  Avith  the  committee  the  20th  of 
that  month.     This  was,  perhaps,  the  highest  trust  in  the  gift 
of  the  General  Court,  and  was  committed  to  none  but  men  of 
tried  patriotism  and  integrity.     "  To   this  committee,"  says 
Belknap,  "the  genera]  instruction  was  similar  to  that,   given 
by  the  Romans  to  their  Dictators,  '  to  take  under  considera- 
tion ail  matters  in  which  the  welfare  of  the  Province,   in   the 
security  of  their  rights  is  concerned  ;  and  to  take  the  utmost 
care,  that  the  public  sustain  no  damage.'     Particular  instruc- 
tions were  given  to  them  from  time   to  time,   as  occasion  re- 
quired.    They  were  considered  as  the  supreme  executive; 

4  Hon.  Nathanid  Peabody. 

and  during  the  recess  of  the  convention,  their  orders  and 
recommendations  had  the  same  effect  as  the  acts  and  re- 
solves of  that  whole  body."  So  extensive  were  the  powers  of 
this  committee  in  1 775  and  for  several  years  afterwards  ;  but 
at  the  close  of  1779  or  the  beginning  of  I  780  they  were,  for 
some  pique  against  the  committee,'*  ilraost  wholly  taken  away.'' 

In  the  course  of  1 777,  '78,  and  '79,  Col.  Peabody  was  elect- 
ed, at  six  or  seven  different  times,  a  member  of  the  commit- 
tee and  in  1778  served  on  it  forty-two  days.  His  shrewdness, 
vigilance,  and  activity,  qualified  him  in  a  peculiar  manner 
for  this  station ;  and,  it  is  said,  he  was  eminently  successful 
in  detecting  and  exposing  the  treasonable  practices  of  the 

June  27,  1777,  he  was  appointed  by  the  General  Court, 
and  commissioned  by  Meshech  Weare,  a  justice  of  the  peace 
and  of  the  quorum  for  the  county  of  Rockingham. 

July  18,  Josiah  Bartlett  and  Nathaniel  Peabody  were  ap- 
pointed by  this  State  "  to  meet  committees  from  the  States  of 
Massachusetts-Bay,  Rhode-Island,  Connecticut,  and  New- 
York,  at  the  town  of  Springfield,  in  the  county  of  Hampshire, 
on  the  30th  day  of  July,  inst.  ()  778,)  then  and  there  to  hold  a 
conference  respecting  the  state  of  paper  currency  of  the  said 
Government :  of  the  expediency  of  calling  in  the  same  by 
taxes  or  othei^vise :  of  the  most  effectual,  expeditious,  and 
equal  method  of  doing  it ;  and  to  consult  upon  the  best  means 
for  preventing  the  depreciation  and  counterfeiting  the  same; 
and  also  to  consider  what  is  proper  to  be  done  with  respect 
to  the  acts  lately  made  to  prevent  monopoly  and  oppression  ; 
and  to  confer  upon  the  late  acts  for  preventing  the  transporta- 
tion by  land  of  certain  articles  from  one  State  to  another ; 
and  to  consider  such  other  matters  as  particularly  concern 
the  immediate  welfare  of  said  States,  and  are  not  repugnant 
to,  or  interfering  with  the  powers  and  authorities  of  the 
Continental  Congress  :  And  report  the  result  of  their  con- 
ference, to  the  General  Court  of  this  State,  as  soon  as  may 

A  report  was  accordingly  made  to  the  General  Court,  and 
on  the  1 9th  of  September,  several  measures,  recommended 
by  the  Convention.were  adopted  by  the  Council  and  Assem- 
bly in  committee  of  the  whole.  One  of  them  was  the  re- 
deeming and  calling  in  of  the  paper  currency  emitted  by  this 
State,  by  means  of  the  issue  of  Treasury  notes  bearing  in- 
terest and  founded  on  the  faith  and  credit  of  the  State.  Anoth- 
er was  the  "  repealing  of  the  acts  for  regulating  prices,  &:c. 
and  for  making  provision  for  the  families  of  the  non-commis- 

Hon.  Kaihaniel  Peahody,  £ 

sioned  officers  and  soldiers  in  the  service  of  this  State  and  en- 
gaged in  the  Continental  army  for  3  years  or  during  the  war.'^ 

July  19th,he  was  appointed  Adjutant-General  of  Militia  of 
this  State,  with  the  rank  of  Colonel,  and  in  the  following 
year  was  in  that  capacity  with  our  troops  at  Rhode-Isl- 
and under  General  Whipple,  as  appears  by  the  pay  roll. 
He  commanded  a  regiment  of  volunteers  at  the  same  place 
and  as  one  of  them  remarks,  "  was  an  excellent  officer,  kind 
and  attentive  to  the  soldiery,  but  when  on  parade,  they 
had  to  look  well  to  the  right."  He  and  Josiah  Bartlett  went 
to  Bennington  by  appointment  of  the  State  to  take  care  of, 
and  provide  for,  the  remains  of  the  sickly  retreating  troops 
who  fought  the  battle  of  Bennington,and  those  who  had  evac- 
uated Ticonderoga. 

The  Continental  Congress  having  passed  a  resolve  recom- 
mending to  the  Legislatures  of  the  States  of  New-Hampshire, 
Massachusetts-Bay,  Khode-Island  and  Providence  Planta- 
tions, Connecticut,  New-York,  Ne\v-Jersey,  Pennsylvania, 
aod  Delaware  respectively  to  appoint  commissioners  to  con- 
vene at  New-Haven  in  Connecticut  on  the  15th  day  of  Jan- 
uary, 1778,  "  in  order  to  regulate  and  ascertain  the  price  of 
labor,  manufactures,  internal  produce,  and  commodities  im- 
ported from  foreign  parts,  military  stores  excepted,  and  al- 
so to  regulate  the  charges  of  inn-holders,  and  that  on  the  re- 
port of  the  Commissioners,  each  of  the  respective  Legisla- 
tures enact  suitable  laws  for  enforcing  the  observance  of  such 
of  the  regulations  as  they  shall  ratify  ;"  Jonathan  Blanchard 
and  Nathaniel  Peahody  were  appointed  commissioners  by 
New-Hampshire,  and  went  to  New-Haven.  Pennsylvania 
and  Delaware  were  not  represented.  The  convention  elect- 
ed  Hon.  Thomas  Gushing  of  Massachusetts-Bay,  President, 
and  proceeded  to  the  discharge  of  their  duty. 

After  saying  in  their  report  that  the  Commissioners  "  have 
not  been  insensible  of  the  principles  upon  which  an  opposi- 
tion to  the  regulation  of  prices  by  law  is  founded,"  they  de- 
fend their  measures  on  the  ground  of  the  recommendation  of 
Congress,  and  of  their  being  "  an  immediate  remedy  of  the 
exorbitant  evils  complained  of."  In  this  convention  were  sev- 
eral men  distinguished  f©r  talents  and  patriotism,  and  among 
them  the  celebrated  Roger  Sherman  of  Connecticut,  and 
Robert  Treat  Paine  of  Massachusetts-Bay. 

Early  in  the  revolution,  and  probably  about  1777  or '78, 
Colonel  Peabody  and  General  Blanchard,  were  appointed 
to  perform  the  duties  of  Attorney  General,  and  they  dis- 
charged them  in  a  manner  satisfactory  to  the  Government, 
and  advantageous  to  the  people. 

6  Hon.  Nathaniel  Peahody, 

In  1778,  he  was  again  representative,  and  re-appointed  a 
justice  of  the  peace,  and  of  the  quorum  for  Rockingham, 
He  was  (with  Josiah  Bartlett  and  Nicholas  Gilman.)  on  the 
committee  of  secret  correspondence  till  '70. 

In  1779,he  was  re-elected  to  the  Assembly  and  acted  with 
the  committee  of  safety  till  the  27th  of  February.  Being 
elected,  March  25,  a  Delegate  to  the  Continental  Congress, 
he  of  necessity  resigned  his  other  employments  in  the  Legis- 
lature and  committee.  April  3d,  he  and  \Voodbury  Lang- 
don  were  appointed  Delegates  to  Congress  "  in  the  room  and 
stead"  of  Josiah  Bartlett  and  John  Wentworth,  jr.  who  had 
resigned.  Colonel  Peabody  was  named  in  this  vote  for  the 
purpose  of  supplying  a  defect  in  the  former  one,  by  deter- 
mining when  his  duties  should  commence.  He  took  his  seat 
in  Congress  the  22d  of  June,  and  immediately  became  an  ac- 
tive and  useful  member.  The  3d  of  September  he  was  add- 
ed to  the  Medical  Committee,  and  must  soon  have  become 
chairman  of  it,  as  the  •'  general  return  of  the  sick  and  wound- 
ed in  the  hospital  of  the  United  States,"  made  by  W.  Ship- 
pen,  jr.  Director-General  of  the  Medical  Department,  the 
27th  of  December  following,  was  directed  to  him  as  "  Chair- 
man of  the  Medical  Committee."  The  functions  of  this  com- 
mittee, though  at  first  highly  important,  were,  after  the  ar- 
rest ot  the  Director-General,  greatly  augmented  by  a 
resolve  of  the  26th  of  June,  1780,  authorising  said  commit- 
tee to  take  proper  measures  for  carrying  on  the  business  of 
the  Hospital  Department,  and  requiring  all  medical  gentle- 
men, and  others  attached  to  t!>e  said  department,  to  pay 
obedience  to  the  orders  of  the  committee. 

November  16,  1779,  Colonel  Peabody  and  Mr.  Langdon, 
our  Delegates  in  Congress,  were  appointed  commissioners 
on  the  part  of  this  State  to  meet  commissioneriJ  from  "  all 
the  States  as  far  westward  as  Virginia  inclusive,"  in  a  con- 
vention to  be  holden  at  Philadelphia  the  following  January, 
"  to  take  into  consideration  the  expediency  of  limiting  the 
prices  of  merchandize  and  produce,with  the  view  of  thereby 
preventing  the  further  depreciation  of  our  currency."  This 
convention,  it  seems,  was  called  upon  the  .recommendation 
of  another,  which  had  been  holden  at  Hartford  the  October 
preceding,  "  to  consider  these  matters."  In  the  letter  of 
President  VVeare  to  our  Delegates,  informing  them  of  their 
appointment  to  the  Philadelphia  convention,  he  speaks  of 
"  the  alarming  situation  of  our  currency,  and  the  great  dan- 
ger there  is  that  our  military  operations,  which  at  present 
are  greatly  embarrassed,  will   be  finally   totally  destroyed 

Hon.  Kathanitl  Peabody.  ■  7 

through  the  enormous  demands  which  are  made  for  the  ne- 
cessaries of  life."  "  The  measure  of  regulating  prices,"  he 
remarks,  "  is  found  to  be  attended  with  many  difficulties, 
and  it  is  feared,  will  have  little  or  no  good  effect,  unless  it 
be  general.  And  what  effect  it  may  then  have  is  problemat- 
ical ;  but  every  method  which  appears  to  have  a  tendency 
to  remedy  the  evils,  which  threaten  the  ruin  of  our  currency, 
must  be  attempted."  The  total  failure  of  all  these  expedi- 
ents to  avert  the  ruin  of  the  currency,  and  relieve  the  gener- 
al distress,  should  not  derogate  from  the  honor  of  being  se- 
lected to  make  the  attempt.  In  times  like  those,  the  people 
naturally  look  to  the  best  and  wisest  men  for  relief. 

At  the  commencement  of  the  year  1780,  the  country  was 
apparently  on  the  brink  of  ruin.  The  public  treasury  was 
empty  ;  the  paper  currency  had  almost  entirely  lost  its  val- 
ue ;  the  public  faith  had  failed ;  the  army  greatly  reduced 
in  number,  destitute  of  pay,  clothing,  and  sometimes  of  food, 
was  on  the  point  of  mutiny;  peculation  and  disorder  had 
crept  into  the  public  offices;  and  speculation,  engrossing, 
forestalling,  and  extortion  every  where  prevailed. 

In  this  state  of  affairs.  Congress  resolved  to  appoint  a  com- 
mittee to  proceed  to  head  quarters,  to  consult  with  the  Com- 
mander in  Chief,  and  the  Commissary  and  Qsartermaster 
General  about  the  defects  of  the  present  system  ;  to  carry  in- 
to execution  any  plan  for  conducting  the  Quartermaster  and 
Commissary  departments;  to  consolidate  regiments,  abolish 
unnecessary  posts,  erect  others,  discharge  unnecessary  offi- 
cers, retrench  expenses,  and  generally  to  exercise  every  pow- 
er requisite  to  effect  a  reformation  of  abuses  and  the  general 
arrangements  of  the  departments  in  any  way  connected  with 
the  matters  committed  to  them.  These  powers  were  extend- 
ed, by  subsequent  acts  of  Congress,  The  13th  of  April,  1780, 
Philip  Schuyler*  ef  New- York,  John  Matthevvst  of  South 
Carolina,  and  Nathaniel  Peabody  of  New-Hampshire,  were 
by  ballot,  appointed  the  committee,  and  forthwith  proceed- 
ed to  Morristown. 

In  a  communication  of  the  2Bth  of  May  to  the  President 
of  Congress,  written  by  Colonel  Peabody,  the  committee  say  : 

"  In  our  letter  of  the  9th  instant  to  Congress,  we  observed,  that  if  the  spirit  of  dis- 
content, which  then  prevailed  among  the  soldiery,  shoulil  fully  establish  itself,  it 
would  be  productive  of  the  most  serious  consequences.  The  causes  which  contribut- 
ed to  the  first  rise  of  dissatisfaction  continuing,  have  increased  and  ripened  into 
mutiny.  Two  entire  regiments  ofihe  Connecticut  line,  paraded  on  Thursday  eve- 
ning with  their  arms,  accoutrements,  and  packs,  intending  to  march  off  and  return 

*  Afterwards  General  Schuyler. 

t  Aftsrwards  Governor  of  South  Carolina. 

Hon.  J^athaniel  Peabody. 

to  the  State.  Thej' complained  of  inability  any  longer  to  endure  the  torture  of 
faniine  and  tVie  variety  of  distress  tliey  experienced.  On  liiis  serious  occasion  the 
officers  displayed  a  v\isdoni  and  prudence  which  does  them  honor  ;  their  exertions 
reduced  the  disorder  to  hounds  of  moderation,  and  the  soldiery  \vt  re  prevailed  on 
to  desist  from  intent'.ons  so  injurious  to  their  country,  so  derogatory  to  tiieir  honor  : 
they  retired  to  their  huts  with  ijassions  cooled  down  indeed,  hut  with  evident  sie,ns 
of  discontent  and  cliagrin,  and  left  tlieir  officers  with  the  painful  reflection  that  a 
repetition  of  similar  distress  was  only  wanting  to  complete  a  scene  which  the}'  can- 
not contemplate  without  horror.  The  brave,  patriotic,  and  virtuous  band  of  officers 
of  every  line,  hive  alrerdy  given  up  their  rations  to  tl  n  soldiery,  submitted 
literally  to  bread  and  vvaier  as  il  eir  only  su^•tenance.  By  this  scanty  fare,  they 
continue  to  set  an  examine  to,  find  keep,  the  soldiery  in  tolerable  tevnper;  but  with 
tears  in  their  eyes,  such  IS  men  who  feel  for  the  distresses  of  tlieir  conutry  may 
sheJ  without  pusillanimity,  stated  their  apprehensions,  that  the  dissolution  of  tiie 
army  was  at  hand,  unless  constant  supplies  of  provisions  at  least  were  kept  up. 

"  Persuaded.  Sir,  that  to  be  silent  on  occasions  would  be  criminal,  we  will 
address  our  compeers,  with  decency,  but  with  freedom;  we  will  advise  them,  that 
something  more  is  necessary  than  mere  recommendation,  or  they  will  lose  an  ar- 
my, and  thri-eby  risk  th«  lossoC  an  empire.  Times  and  exigencies  render  it  some- 
times necessary  for  the  governing  power  to  deviate  from  the  strait  line  of  conduct 
which  rei^u'ar  constitutions  prescribe.  When  such  deviation  is  necessary  for  the 
presei-vation  of  the  whole,  it  is  incumbent  on  rulers  to  put  themselves  on  the  judg- 
ment of  their  country,  to  stand  acquitted  or  condemned  by  il ;  such  times,  such 
fxigency,  such  deviation,  have  heretofore  taken  place  ;  they  are  marked  on  the 
journals  of  Cong'ess ;  and  the  honest  patriot  reflects  with  gratitude,  that  there 
were  men  who  at  all  hazards  dared  to  save  their  country.  We  entreat  Congress 
seriO'.is'y  to  consider,  whether  such  times  and  exigencies  do  not  now  exist;  if  they 
do,  shall  posterity  say  that  those  who  directed  the  aflfairs  of  America  at  this  aera, 
were  les«  intrepid  and  more  attentive  to  personal  consequences  than  their  prede- 
cesf ors  ?  Heiven  forbid  the  thought  !  Our  aflairs,  it  is  true,  are  alarmingly  de- 
raof^eii ;  bM  bold  and  derisive  measures,  adopted  and  prudently  executed,  will  re- 
store all;  owv  i)ristine  vigour  will  be  renewed,  and  the  contest  end  in  a  glorious 
e.^pulsioa  of  the  minions  of  a  tyrant." 

In  another  letter  of  June  5th,  they  wrilCj  "  Since  our  last, 
we  have  receive.^  a  letter  from  the  Commander  in  Chief,  stat- 
ing the  nccossitj'^  of  .specific  requisitions  from  the  States,  for 
men,  provisions,  fora^r^  and  the  mM7is  of  transportalion.  We 
have,  in  consequence,  aildressed  ourselves  to  the  several 
States  on  the  subject,  and  made  requisitions  from  each." 

Their  appeal  to  the  States  was  urgent  and  eloquent,  and 
produced  a  favourable  effect.  In  a  letter  from  Schuyler  and 
Peabody  to  the  President  of  Congress,  dated  Preakness,  July 
18th,  they  say, 

"  It  was  reasotiable  to  conclude,  that  every  State,  so  fully  advised  of  the  alarm- 
ing situation  of  public  affiirs,  would  not  have  left  any  measure,  to  which  it  was 
eqnul,  unassayed,  to  nreserve  the  empire  from  the  impending  ruin  with  which  it 
was  threatened,  support  its  honor,  and  maintain  its  character  amongst  the  powers  of 
the  earth  ;  and  especially  to  establish  the  great  object,  to  accomolish  which  they 
had  already  expended  such  a  deluge  of  blood.  We  have  learnt,  with  the  most  sen- 
sible satisfaction,  that  the  people  in  most  of  the  States  are  roused  from  the  torpor 
which  bad  generally  prevailed  ;  that  a  due  sense  of  duty  to  their  country  has,  with 
all  ranks  of  men,  been  productive  of  a  patriotic  activity,  evincing  that  they  mean 
effectually  to  support  the  common  cause  ;  that  some  of  the  States,  from  whom  aid 
has  been  required,  have  explicitly  advised  us  of  their  intentions;  whilst  others 
have  been  partial,  and  some  altogether  silent  on  the  subject?' 

This  important  committee  was  discharged  August  11,  1780, 
and  directed  to  report  their  proceedings  to  Congress.  From 
the  brief  sketch  here  given,  only  a  very  inadequate  estimate 

Hon.  Kathaniel  Peahody.  9 

of  their  special  powers  and  labours  can  be  formed.  The 
record  of  their  proceedings,  including  copies  of  many  letters 
from  General  Washinton,  General  Greene,  and  others,  to- 
gether with  military  returns  and  other  official  documents, 
fills  a  folio  volume  of  three  hundred  and  fifty-four  closely 
written  pages,  and  is  an  honorable  monument  of  the  untiring 
industry,  enlightened  views,  distinguished  firmness  and  en- 
ergy, and  devoted  patriotism,  of  the  committee.  These 
qualities,  however,  did  not  shield  them  from  the  arts  and  in- 
trigues of  a  "  wicked  cabal"  in  Congress,  who  sought  the  ru- 
in of  Gen.  Greene  and  some  other  men,  that  were  an  honor 
to  their  country,  and  for  whose  services  in  the  revolution, 
the  American  people,  while  they  continue  to  value  liberty, 
will  never  cease  to  be  grateful.  In  a  letter  to  Col.  Peabody, 
dated  "Camp at  Kennemach,  Sept.  6,  1780," Gen.  Greene  re- 

"  You  have  had  your  day  of  difficulty,  as  well  as  I.  Congress  seems  to  have  got 
more  out  of  temper  with  the  committee  tlian  with  me:  and  I  am  told,  charge  great, 
part  of  tiie  difficulties  upon  the  committee,  that  have  taken  place  between  them 
and  me.  However,  of  this,  I  suppose,  you  are  better  informed  than  I  am.  It  ap- 
pears to  me,  that  Congress  were  apprehensive  some  disagreeable  consequences 
might  take  place  from  the  measures  they  liave  been  pursuing  contrary  to  the  ad- 
vice of  the  committee  ;  and,  therefore,  they  took  the  earliest  opportunity  to  bring 
them  into  disgrace,  to  lessen  their  influence.  The  committee  stand  fair  with  the 
army,  and  I  believe  with  the  public  at  large;  and,  bad  as  our  condition  is,  I  be- 
lieve we  are  altogether  indebted  to  the  committee  for  the  tolerable  state  we  are  in." 

Mr.  Matthews,  of  the  committee,  whom  Gen.  Sullivan,  in  a 
letter  to  Col.  Peabody,  calls  "your  friend  Matthews, an  hon- 
est and  sincere  man,"  wrote  Col.  Peabody  from  Philadelphia, 
Oct.  3,  1780:— 

"  Thus  much  from  my  friendship  you  may  rely  on,  that  no  man  shall  take  your 
name'in  vain.  Asto  "the  conmiittee's  wanting  to  be  made  Lords  and  Protectors," 
I  can  say  thus  much,  that  by  the  Great  God  that  made  me  !  if  I  thought  I  could 
have  influence  enough  to  make  any  honest  set  of  men  the  REAL  protectors  of 
this  greviou?ly  injured  people,  I  would  harangue  the  multitude  night  and  day  !  I 
would  rush  into  the  midnight  cabals  of  artful  and  designing  men,  and  drag  them 
forth  to  public  view  !  In  short,  wliat  is  it  I  would  not  do,  at  the  hazard  of  mj'I'fe, 
to  save  ihis  land  from  impending  ruin  !  I  each  day  see  the  rocks  and  shoals  pre- 
sent their  ghnstly  forms  to  us  ;  yet,  alas !  my  forebodings  are  treated  with  deris- 
ion, and  our  helmsmen  invariably  steer  the  same  course.  It  will  take  no  great 
length  of  time  to  shew  what  will  be  the  event.     1  trenible  for  our  fate." 

Excepting  the  time  consum.ed  by  the  mission  to  Head  Quar- 
ters, or  when  Col.  Peabody  was  confined  by  sickness,  the 
journals  bear  evidence,  that  he  was  always  at  his  post  in  Con- 
gress, faithfully  discharging  the  duties  of  his  station.  Let- 
ters in  his  files  also  show,  that  his  conduct  was  approved  and 
applauded  by  many  of  the  most  illustrious  patriots  of  ^  that 
time.  One  from  Richard  Henry  Lee  of  Virginia,  dated  Nov. 
2,  1779,  contains  the  following  tribute  of  praise  :— 

"Tiiough  not  personally  acquainted  with  you,  I  hope  I  shall  be  pardoned  for  this 
Istter.     I  have  seen  the  proceedings  of  Congress  iu  a  late  aflkir,  and  I  have  obsei-v- 


1©  Hon.  Nathaniel  Peahody, 

ed  New-Hampshire  supporting  the  cause  of  virtue  against  a  very  powerful  and  no^ 
less  artful  and  wicked  cabal,  aiming  at  tlie  public  injury  through  the  sides  of  its 
faithful  servant ;  and  I  have  been  informed  particularly,  Sir,  of  your  very  worthy 
support  of  a  character  that  has  not  deserved  the  treatnteut  he  has  met  with.  NeAV- 
Harapshite  has  loug  been  celebrated  for  spirit ;  and  it  has  now,  on  an  extraordinary 
occasion,  when  very  powerful  efforts  were  made  to  debauch  and  to  mislead,  proved 

its  title  to  the  still  higher  qualities  of  wisdom  and   virtue 

"  I  shall  esteem  myself  much  honoured  by  your  correspondence." 

In  a  letter  to  him,  dated  Dec.  6,  1779,  Hon.  John  Lang- 
don  says,  "  About  a  fortnight  since,  I  received  a  letter  from 
my  brother,  mentioning  your  name  in  high  terms  as  a  very 
useful  member  of  Congress,  and  wishing  that  you  might  be 
prevailed  upon  to  tarry  through  the  Avinter;  and  three  day* 
since  he  returned  home,  and  seems  much  pleased  with  you 
as  a  colleague.  I  mention  this  only  as  an  agreeable  circum- 
stance in  favour  of  the  public,  and  your  mutual  good  char- 

Though  Colonel  Peabody  was  never  weary  or  faint  in  (he 
cause  of  his  country,  it  seems,  that  early  in  1780  he  was  de- 
sirous of  resigning  his  seat  in  Congress.  His  affairs  in  New- 
Hampshire  then  required  his  attention,  and  the  ill  state  of  his 
health,  in  August  and  September  following,  must  have  turn- 
ed his  thoughts  with  double  force  on  home. 

February  7,  1 780,  he  wrote  to  Judge  Langdon — 

"  I  was  in  great  hopes  to  have  been  relieved  by  Mr.  Livermore,  but  find  I  am  not. 
Notliiug  hut  the  cause  of  my  country  and  the  advice  of  my  friends,  among  whom  I 
have  placed  not  a  little  dependance  upon  your  opinion,  could  have  induced   me  to 

sacrifice  my  interest  and by  tarrying  here  through  the  winter,  and   I  must 

beg  your  influence,  that  I  may  be  relieved  very  early  in  the  spring  as  I  shall  abso- 
lutely, if  alive,  within  about  eight  weeks  from  this  time  at  furthest." 

The  18th  of  March,  Hon.  John  Langdon  wrote  him — 

"  The  General  Court  adjourns  this  day.  The  sickness  and  death  of  my  f^ither- 
prevented  my  attending  the  session.  I  understand  by  Gen.  Whipple  that  they  liave 
not  appointed  any  person  to  relieve  you,  and  as  the  court  do  not  meet  again  until 
Junenext,  you  must  go  on  in  doing  all  the  good  you  can  for  us,  for  "verily  you 
shall  have  your  reward."  1  am  fully  sensible  that  no  gentleman  can  add  to  his  for- 
tune by  attending  Congress." 

President  Weare,  in  a  letter  to  him  of  the  8th  of  August,  ob- 
serves, "  I  am  fully  sensible  your  absence  must  be  very  inju- 
rious to  your  private  affairs,  and  your  speedy  return  be  very 
grateful  to  your  friends,  but  the  public  service  requires  your 
attendance  there,  and  you  must  look  for  your  reward  from 
the  satisfaction  of  having  done  service  in  the  important  cause 
for  which  America  is  now  contending.  If  you,  and  many 
others,  expect  any  other  reward  here,  I  believe  they  will  be 
much  disappointed.  But  put  a  good  face  on  it,  we  hope  for 
better  times."  On  the  subject  of  his  sickness.  Gen.  Greene 
wrote  the  6th  of  September.  "  I  am  made  very  unhappy 
by  your  long  and  obstinate  indisposition.  When  you  left 
the  army,  we  were  in  hopes  it  was  only  a  slight  touch  of  ai 

Hon.  Nathaniel  Peabody.  1 1 

fever,  which  a  little  relaxation  and  recess  from  business 
would  soon  remove.  But,  to  our  sorrow,  we  hear  you  are 
still  persecuted  with  an  intermitting  fever,  which  threatens 
you  with  a  still  longer  confinement.  You  have  my  prayers 
for  your  speedy  recovery,  as  well  from  motives  of  private 
friendship,  as  public  good."  The  27th  of  September,  Col- 
onel Peabody  wrote  General  Sullivan,  then  at  Congress, 
"  the  state  of  my  health  is  still  such  as  will  make  it  necessary 
for  me  to  take  a  tour  eastward,  as  soon  as  the  report  of  the 
committee  is  completed,  which  in  all  probability  will  deprive 
me  of  a  personal  interview  with  you  this  season."  Colonel 
Peabody  having  received  at  Morristown  "  some  very  favora- 
ble intelligence  from  the  southward,"  and  esteeming  it  of  vast 
importance  that  the  commander-in-chief  should  have  the 
earliest  advice  of  every  interesting  occurrence,  communicat- 
ed it  by  express  to  General  Washington,  on  the  25ih  of  Oc- 
tober, and  the  General  the  next  day  replied,  "  I  am  exceed- 
ingly obliged  by  the  very  agreeable  and  important  intelli- 
gence communicated  in  yours  of  last  evening.  This  blow, 
if  rightly  improved,  may  give  a  total  change  to  the  southern 
affairs.  I  am  glad  to  hear  that  your  health  has  so  far  mend- 
ed as  to  make  you  think  of  going  abroad.  It  will  give  me 
great  pleasure  to  see  you  at  Head  Quarters."  Colonel  Pea- 
body was  relieved  by  the  appointment  of  Woodbury  Lang- 
don  in  his  room,  November  9,  and  no  doubt,  returned  to 
New-Hampshire  about  that  time.  He  did  not,  however,  re- 
tire to  "the  shades  of  private  hfe,"  for  in  178J  we  find  him 
in  the  Hous*^  of  Representatives. 

In  1782  and  1783,  Colonel  Peabody  was  a  representative 
to  the  General  Court.  He  was  also  a  member  of  the  con- 
vention to  form  a  constitution  for  the  Stale,  and  chairman  of 
the  committee  which  drew  it  up. 

In  1784,  he  was  a  member  of  the  House,  and  was  elected 
«ounsellor  by  both  branches  in  convention.  At  the  October 
session  he  also  acted  on  several  committees  in  the  House, 
The  14th  of  December,  he  was  appointed  a  justice  of  the 
Court  of  Common  Pleas,  but  declined  the  office :  and  the 
25th,  was  appointed  a  justice  of  the  peace  and  quorum,  for 
the  several  counties. 

In  1785,  he  was  elected  a  representative  for  his  district, 
and  a  senator  for  Rockingham,  by  the  people,  and  a  coun- 
sellor by  the  Legislature.  June  21,  he  was  appointed  a 
Delegate  to  Congress  for  one  year,  commencing  the  Novem- 
ber following ;  but  it  is  probable  he  never  took  his  seat,  as 
he  informed  the  General  Court,  November  3,  that  having 

1 2  Hon,  Nathaniel  Peahody, 

good  reason  to  expect  that  Mr.  Long,  one  of  the  Delegates^ 
then  at  Congress,  would  tarry,  and  that  Mr.  Langdon  would 
accept,  and  take  his  scat  by  the  1st  of  November;  he  had 
not  made  the  necessary  arrangements  for  leaving  the  State 
for  any  considerable  time;  and  requesting,  as  he  should  not 
be  able  to  attend  to  his  duties  in  Congress  so  early  as  the 
public  affairs  demanded,  that  some  other  gentleman  might  be 
appointed  in  his  room,  March  25th,  be  was  appointed - 
Brigadier  General  of  the  corps  of  Light-horsemen.  This 
corps  consisted  of  two  regiments  of  six  companies  each,  be- 
sides independent  companies  composed  of  gentlemen  not  lia- 
ble to  do  duly  in  the  train  band. 

In  178  7,  'as  and  '89,  he  was  in  the  House.  The  last  year, 
he  was  commissioned  by  President  Sullivan,  a  justice  of  the 
peace  and  quorum  through  the  State;  was  chairman  of  a 
committee  "to  examine  the  laws  of  this  State,  and  report 
whether  any,  and  what  laws  of  this  State  militate  with  the 
laws  and  constitution  of  the  United  Stales;"  and  was  appoint- 
ed, with  President  Sullivan,  and  Hon.  Josiah  Bartlett,  to  re- 
view the  militia  laws  in  the  recess  of  the  Legislature. 

In  I  790,  he  was  in  the  Senate,  and  was  appointed  with 
Jeremiah  Smith  and  Tohn  Samuel  Sherburne,  "  a  committee 
(as  the  vote  expresses  it)  to  select,  revise,  and  arrange  all 
the  laws  and  public  resolves  of  the  State  now  in  force,  wheth- 
er passed  before  or  since  the  revolution,  that  the  same  may 
be  compiled  in  one  volume,  and  to  prepare  an  intelligible  in- 
dex to  be  affixed  thereto."  This  task  was  performed  by  the 
committee.  Of  the  New-Hampshire  Medical  Society,  which 
was  incorporated  at  the  close  of  this  political  year,  General 
Peabody  was  one  of  the  chief  founders. 

In  1791,  he  was  a  Senator ;  chairman  of  the  committee  "  to 
report  the  measures  necessary  to  be  adopted  to  carry  into 
effect  that  part  of  the  constitution  of  this  State  directing  a 
convention  to  be  called,  for  a  revision  of  the  same  ;"  was  a 
member  of  that  convention,  Vice-President  of  it,  and  on 
most  of  its  important  committees.  In  June,  President  Whee- 
lock,  by  desire  of  several  of  the  Trustees  of  Dartmouth  Col- 
lege, wrote  to  him,  to  solicit  the  honor  of  his  presence  at 
the  approaching  commencement,  and  saying,  that  they  should 
then  be  happy  to  show  him  respect.  He  added,  "  we  have 
a  particular  sense  of  your  friendship  and  influence  in  favor 
of  the  institution."  They  did  at  that  commencement  confer 
on  him  the  honorary  degree  of  Master  of  Arts. 

In  1 792,  he  was,  as  Governor  Bartlett  informed  him,  "elect- 
ed senator  for  the  county  of  Rockingham,  bj  the  free  suf- 

Hon.  Kathanid  Peahody,  13 

frages  of  the  people."  In  1793,  he  was  Speaker  of  the 
House  of  Representatives.  March  27,  he  was  appointed 
Major  General  of  the  first  division  of  militia,  and  resigned  that 
office  July  6,  1798.  In  1795,  he  was  a  representative,  and 
this,  as  far  as  the  writer  knows,  was  the  last  time  he  appear- 
ed in  either  the  Legislature  or  Council. 

His  retirement  may  be  considered  voluntary,  for  he  gave 
notice  in  the  papers  of  the  da,y,  that  he  should,  in  future,  de- 
cline all  public  trusts.  After  this  long  catalogue  of  the  many 
important  offices  he  had  sustained,  no  person  will  wonder, 
that  he  was  satisfied  with  the  toils,  and  ihe  honors,  of  public 
life.  His  commission  as  justice  of  the  peace  and  quorum 
through  the  State,  was,  however,  renewed  this  year,  by 
Governor  Gilman,  and  he  continued  in  that  office,  with  the 
exception  of  a  year  or  two,  in  the  rage  of  party  spirit,  till 
1821,  when  a  rule  of  the  Executive,  applying  to  justices  the 
constitutional  limitation  as  to  the  age  of  judges,  deprived  him 
of  this  little  remnant  of  official  power. 

One  strong  reason  for  General  Peabody's  declining  public 
appointments,  was,  probably,  the  situation  of  his  property  and 
finances,  which,  at  that  period,  had  become  greatly  derang- 
ed and  embarrassed.  In  an  expose  of  his  affairs  made  about 
the  year  (  800,  he  stated,  "  that  previous  to  the  year  1  794, 
his  creditors  were  few  in  number — that  the  aggregate  of  their 
just  and  legal  demands  did  not  exceed  20  per  cent,  of  the 
debts  then  due  to  him,  including  his  lands  and  other  proper- 
ty, at  a  just  valuation,  although  he  had  before  that  time  been 
guilty  of  many  acts  of  humanity  to  people  in  distress,  by 
means  of  which  he  had  sustained  considerable  damage;"  and 
imputed  his  embarrassment  to  great  losses  by  means  of  surety- 
ship, and  the  plunder  and  sale  of  his  property  through  the 
negligence,  misconduct  and  turpitude  of  his  agents  and  sup- 
posed friends.  These  misfortunes  resulted  in  his  confinement 
for  debt  to  the  limits  of  the  prison  at  Exeter,  for  several  of 
the  last  years  of  his  life.  His  losses  of  necessity  became  the 
losses  of  his  creditors,  and  exposed  him  to  a  full  share  of  the 
blame  and  odium  common  in  such  cases. 

General  Peabody  was  not  without  foibles  and  faults.  He 
was  always  rather  vain  and  opinionative.  At  middle  age  he 
was  almost  passionately  fond  of  dress  and  ostentatious  pa- 
rade, and  expended  large  sums  for  such  purposes.  He  was 
a  fine  horseman,*  and   in  his  golden  days   usually  travelled 

*  In  a  sportive  advertisement.which  Gen.  Schuyler  sent  to  Gov.  Matthews  and 
Gen.  Peabody,  who  had  been  a  few  days  absent  from  Head  Quarters,  he  described 
them  as  "  commonly  dressed  in  greea  coats,  booted  and  spurred," 

14  Hm.  Nathanitl  Peahody. 

with  the  most  elegant  horses,  (of  whicti  he  was  a  good  judge, 
and  great  admirer)  attended  by  his  servant;  and  the  people 
regarded  him  as  a  personage  of  high  rank  and  consequence. 
But  as  imperfection  is  the  lot  of  humanitj,  let  his  errors  and 
his  faul's  rest  in  oblivion  ;  let  him  receive  thatgeneral  amnes- 
ty, which  the  livi/tg,  conscious  of  their  own  frailties,  do,  in 
charity,  freely  crant  to  the  dead. 

General  Pea'"ody's  natural  abilities,  though,  by  some  cal- 
led "  airy  and  lofty,"  were  nearly,  if  not  quite,  of  the  first 
order,  and  had  he  not  devoted  them  so  early  to  his  country, 
might  have  raised  him  to  a  proud  emioence  in  his  profession. 
His  perceptions  were  quick,  his  invention  powerful,  his  reas- 
oning tolerably  prompt,  just  and  perspicuous,  and  his  memo- 
ry remarkably  tenacious  ;  but  he  was  most  distinguished  for 
his  caustic  wit,  and  resistless  ridicule.  These  powers  made 
him  more  formidable  as  an  opponent  than  desirable  as  an  al- 
\y.  and  it  is  said  of  him,  by  his  contempori'ries  in  the  legisla- 
ture, that  though  not  always  successful  in  carrying  his  own 
measures,  he  seldom  failed  in  an  attempt  to  defeat  the  projects 
of  others.  At  the  time  when  he  was  Speaker,  his  influence 
"was  so  great,  that  by  means  of  three  or  four  of  his  associates, 
he  ruled  the  State;  and  letters  from  some  of  the  first  men, 
who  flourished  at  that  period,  show  the  high  value  which 
was  placed  on  his  friendship.  His  disposition  was  rather 
hasty,  yet  he  could  bend  his  will  to  his  purposes,  and  regu- 
late his  passions  to  his  views.  His  stock  of  general  knowl- 
edge was  ouiie  reputable.  Of  national  politics  his  views  were 
liberal,  accurate,  and  often  original.  From  his  knowledge 
of  human  nature,  and  the  selfish  policy  of  nations,  he  fore- 
saw approaching  danger,  and  raised  his  warning  voice.  His 
leaning  was  always  decidedly  in  favor  of  popular  rights.  In 
his  politics,  he  was  a  republican,  and  he  finnlj  adhered  to 
that  party. 

In  early  life,'  General  Peabody  was  a  good  Physician,  and 
practised  with  success,  and  general  applause ;  in  his  latter 
daj' 5  he  far  excelled  any  tyro,  or  young  medical  practition- 
er, however  learned,  both  in  experieuce,  and  the  judicious 
selection  and  application  of  remedies.  He  continued  to  ad- 
minister to  the  health  of  others  till  he  could  no  longer  help 
himself.  Patients  came  to  him  from  distant  parts,  and  he 
cured  or  alleviated  many  diflicult  chronic  cases  beyond  the 
skill  of  his  younger  contemporaries.  His  manner,  as  well  as 
his  application  was  always  pleasing,  and  his  wit  and  humor 
made  him  popular.  About  a  year  before  he  died,  a  youHg 
girl  was  brought  to  him  troubled  w^ith  a  humour  or  glandular 

Hon.  Nathaniel  Peabody.  1 6 

swelling  in  her  neck  :  the  anxious  mother  dreaded  the  scro- 
fula, which  ;.he  called  by  the  ancient  name  of  King's  Evil. 
She  asked  him  if  it  was  not  the  king's  evil,  and  feared  he  world 
answer  in  the  affirmative.  The  General  replied,  "  king's  evil, 
king's  evil !  I  know  of  none  who  have  the  king's  evil,  but 
tories.'^^  This  answer  excited  a  laugh,  dispelled  her  fears, 
and  produced  a  good  effect.  Many  such  witticisms  were  in- 
terspersed through  his  whole  life,  which,  if  collected,  would 
make  his  biography  very  entertaining.  Many  sayings,  in- 
finitely more  witty  than  this,  are  within  the  knowledge  of  the 
writer,  but  to  record  them  would  surpass  the  limits  of 
this  sketch. 

General  Peabody  had  a  taste  for  the  science  of  law,  and 
this,  together  with  considerable  discrimination  and  critical 
acumen,  no  doubt,  served  to  make  him,  as  he  certainly  was, 
an  abl©  and  leading  legislator.  He  wrote  a  fair  easy  hand, 
and  long  experience  rendered  him  a  safe  and  skilful  drafts* 
man.  In  his  habits  he  was  regular  and  correct ;  he  ate  and 
drank  but  little,  and  that  of  the  best;  seldom  slept  more  than 
four  or  five  hours,  often  not  over  two,  and  those  the  latter 
part  of  the  night.  A  very  respectable  and  intelligent  gentle- 
man, to  whom  the  writer  is  indebted  for  many  of  the  views 
and  expressions  contained  in  this  notice,  remarks,  "  I  have 
had  some  acquaintance  with  the  late  General  Peabodv,  about 
forty  years,  and  I  always  considered  him  a  cheerful,  socia- 
ble, witty  and  friendly  man.  He  was  generous,  noble  spir- 
ited and  honorable." 

In  his  friendships.  General  Peabody  was  generous,  sincere 
and  constant ;  never  deserting  his  friends  in  the  hour  of  need. 
The  unjust  treatment  General  Sullivan  received  from  Con- 
gress in  the  revolution,  is  matter  of  history,  and  it  is  but  just, 
that  the  character  of  General  Peabody  should  be  honored 
with  the  following  tribute  from  a  man  so  universally  esteem- 
ed, and  respected,  as  his  friend  General  Sullivan.  "  I  am 
much  indebted  for  the  part  you  have  ever  taken  respecting  me, 
and  the  opinion  you  have  been  pleased  to  form  of  my  public 
conduct,  and  hope  no  future  transaction  of  my  life  will  com- 
pel you  to  alter  yoar  sentiments."  Just  after  ihis.  General 
Peabody  wrote  him,  "  I  am  now  going  to  head  quarters,  and 
thence  shall  proceed  to  New-Hampshire,  and  shall  be  happy 
to  have  it  in  my  power  to  serve  you  in  person  or  estate,  if 
you  think  of  a  single  act  wherein  I  can  be  beneficial  to  either, 
you  will  please  to'command,"  &c. 

He  was  a  patron  of  enterprise  and  merit,  and  several  young 
men  were  indebted  to  him  for  liberal  educations,  and   their 

1 6  Hon.  Nalhanid  Ptahody, 

subsequent  prosperity.  A  mind  like  General  Peabody's  was 
calculated  for  great  changes  in  popularity  and  fortune.  This 
was  verified  in  his  biography ;  great  and  sudden  variations  in 
his  ambitious  schemes,  variegated  his  walk  through  this 
stage  of  existence.  These  changes  in  early  life  served  to  steel 
his  mind  against  vicissitudes,  and  made  him  a  more  able  gen- 
eral in  avoiding  or  recovering  from  them.  They  did  not, 
however,  sour  his  temper,  and  cloud  his  intellect.  He  en- 
deavored to  enjoy  life  himself,  and,  by  his  pleasantry,  make 
his  friends  happy.  His  mental  powers  were  but  little  impair- 
ed by  age.  The  anguish  of  sickness  and  disease  he  bore  with 
fortitude,  and  was  rarely  heard  to  complain,  till  attacked 
with  that  complication  of  most  excruciating  disorders,  which, 
after  two  or  three  weeks,  terminated  his  earthly  career  on 
Saturday,  June  27,  1823. 

On  a  candid  review  of  all  the  transactions  and  peculiar 
circumstances  of  General  Peabody's  long  life,  from  his  cradle 
to  his  grave,  we  are  impelled  to  the  conclusion,  that  he  was  an 
useful  citizen,  an  enlightened  politician,  and  in  times  of  trial 
and  danger,  as  well  as  in  the  halcyon  days  of  peace  and 
prosperity,  a  firm  and  ardent  friend  to  his  cotantry.  When 
the  waves  of  time  shall  have  rolled  over  the  present  genera- 
tion, and  washed  away  the  last  trace  of  prejudice  and  enmity 
from  his  character,  who  will  venture  to  predict,  that  he  will 
not  be  placed  by  grateful  posterity  in  the  bright  and  glorious 
constellation  of  revolutionary  worthies,  and  with  his  compat- 
riots and  friends,  the  illustrious  Weare,  Bartlett,  Sullivan, 
and  Langdon ;  Lee,  Laurens,  Greene,  Matthews,  Gerry, 
and  Schuyler,  shine  with  unclouded  lustre,  through  long 
ages  of  American  freedom  and  glory  ? 


^^  Portsmouth^  March  G,  1712. — Tuesday  last  (March  3d) 
the  Superior  Court  met  at  the  State-House  in  this  town  ;  and 
this  being  the  first  time  of  their  sitting  in  Portsmouth  since 
the  division  of  the  Province  into  Counties,  the  Hon.  Judges, 
in  their  robes,  and  the  Attorneys  in  their  bands,  walked  in 
procession  to  the  Court  House,  at  which  place  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Langdon  attended  and  made  a  proper  prayer." — Old  Paper. 

(     17     ) 




The  supreme  executive  officers  in  our  government  are  divid- 
ed into  two  classes — the  president  of  the  United  States,  and  the 
governors  of  the  several  states.  The  principles  and  modes 
of  electing  them,  and  the  qualifications  requisite  for  those  offi- 
cers, have  heen  considered. 

The  vice-president  of  the  United  States,  though  nominally  the 
second  in  rank  in  the  nation,  is  not  an  executive  officer.  He  is 
president  of  the  senate,and  his  husiness.,io  use  the  language  of  Mr. 
JefiFerson,who  held  that  office  four  years,  is  merely  to  preside  over 
the  forms  of  that  house.  That  the  senate  of  the  United  States 
should  he  deprived  of  the  power  of  electing  their  presiding  offi- 
cer, is  an  anomaly  in  our  system.  I  know  of  no  senate  in  any 
state  deprived  of  this  authority;  and  I  know  of  no  reason  why  the 
senate  of  the  United  States  should  not  have  the  same  right  to  elect 
their  president  as  the  house  of  representatives  have  to  choose 
their  speaker.  The  vice-president  has  no  right  to  participate  in 
the  debates  or  deliberations  of  the  senate  ;  no  authority  to  vote, 
except  where  the  senate  are  equally  divdded  upon  a  question,  an 
event  that  seldom  happens.  But  if  he  has  much  influence  in  the 
senate,  it  gives  more  authority  in  that  branch  of  the  government 
to  the  state  to  which  he  belongs  than  any  other  state  in  the 
union  has,  and  that  whether  he  is  from  a  large  or  small  state. 

It  is  true  in  case  of  the  removal,  death,  resignation,  or  inability 
of  the  president,  the  Aice-president  is  to  succeed  him  until  an- 
other election  :  but  a  vacancy  has  never  yet  occurred,  and  prob- 
ably will  not  ©nee  in  half  a  century.  Such  remote  probability 
can  have  little,  if  any,  influence  upon  the  minds  of  the  electors  in 
selecting  a  man  for  the  second  office,who  is  qualified  for  the  first. 
It  is  obvious,  the  nation  would  be  equally  as  safe  if  the  president 
of  the  senate,  elected  by  the  senators,  or  the  speaker  of  the 
house  of  representatives,  were  to  supply  the  vacancy  in  the  pre- 
sidency whenever  in  might  happen. 

By  a  law  of  congress,  the  vice-president  is  made  a  member  of 
the  board  of  commissioners  of  the  sinking  fund.  The  board  con- 
sists of  five  persons,  of  whom  three  constitute  a  quorum.  Their 
dutigs  are  few  and  plain  ;  and  more  than  a  hundred  members  ot 
congress  are  as  we^ll  qualified  for  the  trust  as  the  vice-president. 

These  are  the  duties  the  vice-president  is  by  the  constitution 
and  laws  bound  to  perform  ;  and  for  these  he  has  an  annual  sala- 
ry of  five  thousand  dollars — a  sum  equal  to  that  of  the  secretary  of 
state,  or  chief-justice  of  the  supreme  court,  whose  duties  are 
great,  highly  responsible,  and  engross  their  whole  time  and  at- 

18  Essays  of  CincmnalUi. 

It  appears  to  me,  that  the  constitution  of  the  United  States 
ought  to  be  so  amended  as  to  give  authority  to  the  senate  to  ap- 
point their  presiding  officer,  and  abolish  the  office  of  vice-presi- 
dent.which  appi'oaches  nearer  to  a  sinecure  than  perhaps  any  other 
office  in  our  government.  Hence  it  is,  that  some  men  who  have 
held  this  office  appear  to  have  considered  it  as  created  for  them 
and  not  for  the  public  benefit,  and  neglected  the  few  duties  it  re- 
quired. In  four  years,  (the  term  for  which  a  vice-president  is 
elected  )  ending  the  3d  of  March,1821,  he  did  not  attend  the  sea- 
ate  but  little  more  than  one  fifth  of  the  time  it  was  in  session. 
They  sat  during  those  four  years,  five  hundred  and  twenty  two 
days,  and  from  inspecting  the  journals,  it  appears  that  he  was 
present  only  one  hundred  and  ten  days.  For  that  service,  he  re- 
ceived not  only  twenty  thousand  dollars  more  than  one  hundred 
and  eighty  dollars  for  each  day's  actual  attendance,  but  subjected 
the  nation  to  the  additional  expenditure  of  three  thousand  two 
hundred  ninety-six  dollars,  the  sum  paid  the  president  pro.  tem. 
for  presiding  in  the  senate. 

By  abolishing  the  office  of  pice-president,  a  considerable  sum 
of  money  would  be  annually  saved,  which  is  an  object  of  impor- 
tance to  a  nation,  which  in  a  time  of  peace  is  compelled  to  resort 
to  loans  to  support  the  charges  of  government,  and  pay  the  inter- 
est of  its  public  debt.  But  there  is  another  and  more  important 
reason  in  favor  of  the  measure.  As  our  constitution  is  now  for- 
med, the  election  of  the  vice-president  has  a  pernicious  influence 
upon  the  election  of  the  president.  It  not  only  occasions  combi- 
nations between  the  candidates  for  the  two  offices  and  their  friends 
and  supporters,  but  the  office  of  vice-president  is  virtually  brought 
into  the  market,  and  tendered  to  the  highest  bidder,  not  indeed  for 
money,  but,  what  is  worse,  for  votes  for  the  presidency.  When 
the  friends  of  a  candidate  for  the  presidency  find  a  large  state 
hostile  to  him,  or  even  hesitating,  they  too  often  select  a  candi- 
date from  such  a  state  for  vice-president,  and  have  too  often  suc- 
ceeded. These  offers  have  been  made  to  large,  not  small  states, 
for  small  states  have  but  few  votes  to  give.  No  vice-president 
has  ever  been  elected  from  a  small  state.  No  congressional 
caucus  even  thought  of  nom.inating  a  man  for  that  office  unless 
he  belonged  to  a  large  state,  except  in  one  instance,  and  that  of 
a  man  who  was  known  to  be  too  old  and  too  infirm  for  that  office, 
and  who,  for  that  reason,  as  was  expected  he  would,  to  the  grati- 
fication of  all  his  real  friends,  positively  declined  being  a  candi- 
date. If  we  judge  of  the  future  from  the  past,  small  states  have 
no  reason  to  expect  a  vice-president  will  be  taken  from  them : 
for,  in  nine  elections,  a  period  of  thirty-six  years,  the  vice-presi- 
dent has  been  elected  from  the  three  great  states  of  Massachusetts, 
Virginia,  and  New-York — and  from  the  latter  for  twenty  years, 
more  than  half  of  the  whole  time.  Since  Maine  has  become  a 
state,  the  claim  of  Massachusetts,  though  powerful,  must  yield 
to  some  other  State  whose  numbers  are  greater — such  as  Penn- 

Essays  of  Cincinnatus.  19 

feut  it  is  time  to  return  to  the  consideration  of  executive  pow- 
er. Tlie  president  of  the  United  States,  in  every  point  oP 
view,  is  pre-eminently  our  first  and  greatest  executive  officer — 
he  is  the  head  of  the  nation  and  of  the  government.  The  i>ower 
and  authority  given  to  himbj"  the  people,  and  the  laws  made  by 
their  representatives,  are  very  great.  The  nature  of  a  great  gov- 
ernment, the  state  and  condition  of  a  vast  continent,  and  a  numer- 
ous and  rapidly  increasing  population,  with  a  great  variety  of  con- 
flicting interests,  necessarily  require  that  the  president  should  be 
vested  with  great  power  and  extensive  authority. 

The  president  has  not  only  the  right  to  recommend  such  meas- 
ures to  congress  as  he  may  judge  necessary  and  expedient,  but 
he  has  a  qualified  negative  upon  all  their  acts  ;  he  has  authority 
to  execute  the  laws,  and  pardon  those  who  violate  them  ;  to  re- 
ceive ambassadors ;  form  treaties  with  foreign  nations,  and  the 
Indian  tribes,  and  with  the  assent  of  the  senate,  ratify  and  confirm 
them  ;  appoint  the  officers  in  the  national  government ;  and  com- 
mand the  army  and  navy,  and  the  militia  when  in  actual  service. 

This  power  when  properly  executed  is  useful  and  salutary ,but 
when  abused  is  unjust,oppressive,  and  tyrannical.  It  may  be  trans- 
ferred from  the  public  interest  to  promote  the  unhallowed  pur- 
poses of  party  and  of  faction,  increase  the  interest  of  a  selfish  in- 
cumbent, and  aggrandize  and  serve  his  friends  and  partisans. 
And,  what  is  more,  the  president  may  assume  authority  not  del- 
egated to  him :  for  such  is  the  nature  of  man,that  those  who  have 
most  power,  are  most  prone  to  increase  it  by  usurpation.  The 
remedy  for  these  abuses  is  in  the  legislature,judiciary,andthe  peo- 
ple ;  and  if  they  are  watchful,  vigilant,  and  faithful,  the  president 
cannot  materially  injure  the  nation.  The  legislature  may  im- 
peach, convict,  and  remove  him  from  office ;  the  judiciary  mav, 
when  he  infringes  the  rights  of  individuals,  declare  such  of  his 
acts  illegal  and  void;  and  the  people  may  withdraw  their  confi- 
dence and  support,  and  withhold  their  suffrages  from  him  at  the 
next  election. 

The  power  and  duties  of  the  president,  which  we  have  enu- 
merated, require  a  further  and  more  particular  consideration. 
They  are  intimately  connected  with,  and  have  a  powerful  influ- 
ence upon  the  peace,  prosperity,  and  welfare  of  the  nation,  and 
?;very  individual  in  it. 

His  power  in  recommending,  making,  and  executing  the  laws 
is  important  and  ought  to  be  exercised  with  sound  judgment  and 
great  discretion.  Considering  the  information  he  must  neces- 
sarily have  of  the  state  of  our  foreign  relations,  as  well  as  our 
internal  affairs,  and  the  great  influence  which  the  nature  of  his  of- 
fice will  ever  have  upon  Congress,  his  recommendations,  though 
not  obligatory  upon  them,  are  entitled  to  much  respect,  and  usu- 
ally have  great  effect.  Those  acquainted  with  the  history  of 
congressional  proceedings  know,that  some  laws  have  been  enact- 
ed and  measures  adopted,  which,  if  he  had  not  recommended 
would  never  have  taken  place.     Of  these   measures  some  have 

20  Essays  of  Cincinnalus. 

proved  useful,  and  others  injurious  to  the  nation.  Can  any  maa 
believe  congress  would  have  passed  the  law  granting  pensions  to 
the  soldiers  of  the  revolutionary  war,  thirty-five  years  after  that 
war  terminated,  if  the  president  had  not  particularly  recommen- 
ded it  ?  It  is  certain,  congress  did  not  contemplate  such  a  law 
until  after  he  advised  it,  and  it  is  equally  certain,  that  upon  his 
recommendation,  they  did  make  liberal  provisioH  for  the  support 
of  a  class  of  paupers  that  neither  juf^tice  or  policy  required, 
which  has  already  cost  the  nation  several  millions  of  dollars,  at 
a  time  when  they  were  pressed  for  the  want  of  money,  and  still 
continues  a  heavy  claim  upon  the  public  treasury.  The  injus- 
tice, impropriety,  and  evil  effects  of  that  law,  I  intend  to  exhib- 
it when  I  consider  our  system  of  pensions. 

It  is  not  only  the  duty  of  the  president  to  recommend  laws  to 
be  passed,  but  he  has  authority,  and  is  bound  to  approve  each 
bill  and  resolve  which  congress  pass,  or  return  it  with  his  ob- 
jections, and  unless  two  thirds  of  the  members  of  both  houses 
afterwards  consent,  it  cannot  become  a  law.  The  objections 
must  therefore  be  argumentative,  and,  as  Hamilton  observes, 
"  are  to  be  approved  or  disapproved  by  those  to  whom  they  are 
addressed."  This  authority,  as  I  observed  on  another  occasion 
in  a  preceding  number,  (XCII)  is  very  useful  when  duly  exer- 
cised, in  checking  the  disposition  of  congress  to  legislate  too 
much,  correcting  their  errors — and  that  the  nation  has  really 
more  danger  to  apprehend  from  this  power  not  being  used,  than 
from  its  exercise.  This  qualified  veto  is  a  power  of  that  nature 
which  necessarily  renders  him  who  possesses  it  cautious  how  he 
exercises  it.  If  the  objections  which  a  president  makes  to  a 
bill  or  resolve  are  not  sound  in  principle  and  true  in  fact,  he  has 
every  reason  to  believe  congsess  will  not  only  reject  them,  but 
that  his  character  as  a  statesman  will  suffer  in  the  estimation  of 
his  constituents,  and  of  the  world.  So  cautious  have  our  presi- 
dents been  in  the  exercise  of  this  authority,  and  so  conclusive 
their  reasoning,  that  I  do  not  recollect  the  instance  of  a  single  bill 
or  resolve  becoming  a  law,  to  which  they  objected.  And  I  verily 
believe,if  they  exercised  their  veto  oftcner,  they  would  more  ef- 
fectually serve  the  public  interest,  as  well  as  increase  their  own 
reputation  and  fame.  The  British  king  has  an  absolute  negative 
upon  the  proceedings  of  parliament,  and  formerly  exercised  it 
freely,  but  it  is  a  long  time,  perhaps  a  century,  since  he  has  exer- 
cised it  at  all.  His  disuse  of  that  prerogative  has  not  rendered 
parliament  more  free  and  independent ;  for  since  then,  the  king 
and  his  ministers  check  and  eventually  defeat  every  measure 
they  dislike,  by  finesse  and  management,  by  bribing  and  cor- 
rupting the  electors  to  elect  members  who  are  pensioners,  place- 
men, office-seekers,  and  men  dqvoied  to  the  interest  of  the  exec- 
utive. If  our  presidents  should  disuse  their  authority  to  return 
their  objections  to  the  proceedings  of  congress,  have  we  not  too 
much  reason  to  fear  the  same  course  will  be  adopted  here  as 
has  been  in  Great-Britain  ?  But  with  this  difference,^  instead  of  at- 
tempting to  corrupt   the  great  mass  of  electors,  the  members  of 

Ecclesiastical  History.  21 

congress  and  their  particular  friends  and  dependants  will  be  secur- 
ed by  being  appointed  to  such  offices  as  are  in  the  disposal  of  the 
president.  It  is  certain  that  even  new  members  of  congress  are 
too  often  appointed  to  office. 

The  constitution  enjoins  it  as  a  particular  duty  upon  the  presi- 
dent, to  "  take  care  that  the  laws  be  faithfully  executed."  This 
is  a  charge  which  requires  not  only  much  time  and  attention,  but 
great  watchfulness,  vigilance  and  fidelity.  But  if  the  president 
neglects  this  duty,  the  laws  will  become  a  dead  letter  and  worse 
than  useless-,  a  monument  of  the  weakness  of  the  government,and  of 
the  disrespect  and  contempt  of  the  people.  The  best  of  laws  can 
afford  no  security  to  the  people,  if  they  are  not  executed;  indeed 
they  are  worse  than  no  laws,  because  they  deceive  those  who 
trust  in  them.  If  we  had  few  laws,  and  those  strictly  executed, 
we  should  enjoy  more  security. 


November  3,  1823. 

Memoranda  :  relating  to  the  Churches  and   Clergy  of  J^ew- 


[Continued  from  page  370,  of  the  Collections  for  1823.] 

In  1757,  the  Rev.  John  Houston  was  ordained  at  Bed- 
ford; Rev.  JosiAH  Bayley  at  Hampton-Falls;  Rev.  James 
Scales  at  Hopkinton ;   and  Rev.  John  Rand  at  Lyndebor- 


Mr.  Houston  was  ordained  at  Bedford,  the  first  minister 
of  that  town,  Sept.  28,  1757.  He  was  a  Presbyterian,  and 
a  member  of  the  "Boston  Presbytery,"  until  1775,  when  a 
division  was  amicably  agreed  on,  and  Mr.  Houston  became 
a  member  of  the  Western  Presbytery,  called  the  "  Presby- 
tery of  Palmer,"  of  which  he  was  appointed  moderator.  He 
remained  the  minister  of  Bedford  about  21  years,  and  was 
dismissed  in  1778. 

Mr.  Bayley  was  the  successor  of  Mr.  Whipple,  at  Hamp-, 
ton-Falls;  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College,  in  1752;  or- 
dained Oct.  19,  1757;  and  died  in  1762,  aged  29. 

Mr.  Scales  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College,  in  1733. 
He  was  ordained  the  first  minister  of  Hopkinton,  Nov.  23, 
1757,  and  was  dismissed  July  4,  1770.  His  son  Stephen  was 
graduated  at  Harvard  College,  in  1763  ;  was  a  tutor  in  that 
institution,  and  much  distinguished  as  a  scholar.     He  died 

22  Ecclesiastical  History, 

at  Chelmsford,  in  the   practice  of  the  law,  Nov.   5,    1772, 
aged  31.* 

Mr.  Rand  was  the  first  minister  of  Ly^ndeborough.  He 
was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1748,  ordained  Dec. 
3,  1767,  and  dismissed  April  8,  1762. 

The  Rev.  Josiah  Stearns  was  ordained  at  Epping,  March 
8,  1  758  ;  and  the  Rev.  Benjamin  Butler  was  ordained  at 
Nottingham  the  same  year. 

The  ancestors  of  Mr.  Stearns  were  among  the  early  set- 
tlers of  Watcrtown,  Massachusetts;  but  the  branch  of  the 
family  from  which  he  descended  removed  to  Billerica,  where 
he  was  born,  in  Jan.  1732.  He  was  graduated  at  Harvard 
College,  1751.  His  annual  salary  at  Epping  was  60/.  ster- 
ling and  25  cords  of  wood.  His  first  wife  was  Sarah  Abbot, 
of  Andover,  whom  he  buried  Nov.  5,  1 766 ;  and  in  Septem- 
ber following  he  married  Sarah  Ruggles,  of  Billerica.  By 
each  of  his  wives  he  had  three  sons  and  three  daughters, 
twelve  in  all.  He  died  July  25,  1788,  in  his  57th  year. 
His  last  wife  survived  him,  and  died  at  the  house  of  her  son, 
the  Rev.  Samuel  Stearns,  of  Bedford,  Massachusetts,  April 
2,  1808,  aged  76.  During  Mr.  Stearns'  ministry,  about  87 
persons  were  added, to  the  church  in  Epping.  He  published 
two  sermons  preached  Jan.  29,1777,  on  a  public  fast,  ap- 
pointed on  account  of  the  war  with  Great-Britain,  from 
Judges  XX.  26,  27,  28  ;  a  sermon  at  the  ordination  of  the 
Rev.  Nicholas  Dudley,  in  Townsend,  New- York,  June  26, 
1777,  from  Ezra  vii.  10;  a  sermon  from  Psalm  xc.  14, 
preached  at  Epping,  Sept.  19,  1779;  and  two  sermons  on 
the  Divine  Character,  dchvercd  Nov.  4,  1787,  from  1  John 
iv.  16. 

Mr.  Butler,  at  Nottingham,  received  a  settlement  of  2000/. 
old  tenor,  equal  to  $333  33,  and  a  salary  of  35/.  sterling. 
He  was  graduated  at  Harvard,  in  1752.  After  preaching 
about  a  dozen  years,  he  became  convinced  that  he  was  not 
calculated  for  usefulness  in  the  ministry,  and  at  his  own  re- 
quest, was  dismissed  in  1770.  He  was  afterwards  a  magis- 
trate for  the  county,  and  died  about  the  year  1 805.  The  late 
General  Henry  Butler,  of  Nottingham,  was  his  son.  There 
has  been  no  Congregational  minister  settled  in  Nottingham 
since  Mr.  Butler's  dismission.  The  church  has  dwindled 
away  ;  and  although,  about  twenty  years  since,  a  new  church 
was  organized  there,  that  too  has  become  extinct,  and  there 
is  not  a  male  member  of  it  left  in  the  place.      Tl^e  town  has 

*  To  his  memory  thers  is  a  tomb-stone  in  Chelmsford,  on  which  is  a 
Latin  inscription,  bearing  honorable  testimony  to  the  powers  of  his 
mind,  and  the  good  qaalities  of  his  head  and  heart. 

Ecclesiastical  History.  23 

a  handsome,  well  finished  meeting  house,  which  has  been 
furnished  with  a  bell,  by  the  liberality  of  the  Hon.  Bradbury 
Ciiley,  but  the  voice  of  publick  worship  is  seldom  heard 

The  Rev.  Jeremiah  Eames  was  graduated   at   Harvard 
College,  in  1752.     He  was  ordained  at  Newtown,  Jan.  17,' 
1759;   dismissed  in  1791  ;  and  died  at  Wentworth,  in  1800. 
He  was  the  first  minister  of  the  Congregational  order  settled 
in  Newtown,  and  has  had  no  successor. 

The  Rev.  Josiah  Cotton  was  ordained  at  Sandown,  Nov. 
28,  1759.  He  was  the  first  minister  of  the  town,  and  con- 
tinued there  till  his  death,  in  1781. 

In  1760,  the  Rev.  John  Kinkead  was  ordained  at  Wind- 
ham ;  Rev.  Stephen  Farrar  at  New-Ipswich ;  Rev.  Samu- 
el Hill  at  Rochester  ;  and  Rev.  Daniel  Mitchell  over  the 
Second  Presbyterian  Church  at  Pembroke. 

Mr.  Kinkead  was  a  Presbyterian,  and  succeeded  Mr. 
Johnson.  He  was  ordained  in  October,  1760,  and  dismissed 
in  April,  1765. 

Mr.  Farrar  was  born  in  Lincoln,  Massachusetts,  Oct.  22, 
1732.  His  great  grandfather  came  from  Lincolnshire,  Eng- 
land, about  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century;  but  died 
on  his  passage,  or  shortly  after  his  arrival  in  New-England, 
leaving  one  son,  George,  who  purchased  the  estate  in  Lin- 
coln, where  his  descendants  now  live.  He  left  four  sons,  the 
youngest  of  whom,  Samuel,  the  father  of  Stephen,  lived,  and 
at  an  advanced  age,  died  on  his  paternal  estate.  Of  his  eight 
children,  four  were  lately  living,  the  sum  of  whose  ages  was 
308  years.  Mr.  Farrar  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College, 
at  the  age  of  17,  in  the  class  of  1755,  which  contained  an 
unusual  number  of  distinguished  characters.  He  was  or- 
dained at  New-Ipswich,  on  the  anniversary  of  his  birth,  Oct. 
22,  1760,  when  that  town  contained  about  forty  families. 
The  church  was  organized  there  at  the  same  time.*  He 
died  June  23,  1809.  His  wife,  who  survived  him  about  ten 
years,  was  sister  of  the  late  Moses  Brown,  of  Beverly.  Their 
twelve  children,  all  of  w^hom  had  arrived  at  the  age  of  man- 
hood when  their  father  died,  are  believed  to  be  stiH  living. 
His  numerous  and  well  ordered  church,  and  the  moral  and 
religious  habits  of  the  people,  the  respect  and  affection  they 
bore  towards  him,  and  the  veneration  in  which  his  memory 
is  still  held,  are  evidences  of  the  extent  and  utility  of  Mr. 
Farrar's  influence  among  them.     "  As  a  theologian,   he  was 

*  [The  first  settlers  of  New-Ipswich  bsd  preaching  before  1750;  a 
church  was  collected,  and  oocasionaliy  communeJ. — JilS.  communica- 
tion of  B.  Champney^  Esq.  to  the  Edilors.'\ 

24  Ecclesiastical  History. 

decidedly  a  Calvinist.  In  his  private  deportment,  as  well  as 
in  the  publick  duties  of  the  ministry,  he  never  failed  to  man- 
ifest a  very  deep  sense  of  the  majesty  and  holiness  of  God, 
and  the  value  of  the  Gospel.  Scarcely  any  thing  can  be  con- 
ceived more  solemn  than  his  devotional  addresses.  His  tem- 
per, naturally  severe,  was  so  softened  by  the  spirit  of  Christ, 
that  prudence  and  moderation  held  a  distinguished  place 
among  the  large  assemblage  of  his  virtues."  One  who  knew 
him  well,  and  was  well  qualified  to  appreciate  his  worth, 
says — "  I  have  knov^rn  no  man,  the  recollection  of  whose 
moral,  intellectual  and  personal  qualities,  rests  with  so  much 
force  on  my  mind,  as  forming  a  character  truly  venerable, 
and  becoming  a  Father  and  Aposllt  in  the  church."  The 
Rev.  Y)v.  Payson  preached  at  his  funeral  from  these 
words,  "  And  devout  men  carried  Stephen  to  his  burial,  and 
made  great  lamentation  over  him."  About  three  years  after- 
wards,Dr.  Payson, who,on  entering  the  rainistry,received  his 
charge  from  Mr.  Farrar,  was  called  upon  to  give  the  charge 
to  Mr.  Farrar's  successor ;  and,  after  an  appropriate  intro- 
duction, he  proceeded  to  give  the  same  charge  he  had  him- 
self received.  The  circumstance  had  a  powerful  effect  on 
his  own  mind,  and  the  manner  in  which  he  performed  the 
service,  rendered  it  no  less  powerful  on  the  minds  of  his  hear- 
ers. Standing  in  the  place  which  Mr.  Farrar  so  long  had 
occupied,  and  using  his  words,  the  speaker  seemed  to  ex- 
hibit their  venerable  pastor  from  the  grave,  instructing  his 
youthful  successor  how  to  break  the  bread  of  life  to  his  peo- 
ple. On  a  plain  marble  slab,  placed  over  Mr.  Farrar's  grave, 
the  following  neat  inscription  is  added  to  the  memorial  of  his 
death  and  age : 

"  THE    PEOPLE    OF    HIS    CHARGE 



W^HERE    THEY    HAVE    LAID    HIM." 

Mr.  Hill  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College,  in  1 736,  and 
had  been  in  the  ministry  previous  to  his  settlement  at  Ro- 
chester, where  he  was  installed  Nov.  5,  1760,  and  continued 
tillhisdeath,  Nov.  19,  1764. 

Mr.  Mitchell  was  a  native  of  Scotland,  and  was  educated 
at  the  university  in  Edinburgh.  After  his  arrival  in  this 
country,  he  was  licensed  by  the  Boston  Presbytery,  in  1746, 
and  sent  the  next  year  to  Georgetown,  Me.,  and  preached 
for  some  time  in  that  neighborhood.  He  was  ordained  Dec. 
3,  1760,  over  the  Presbyterian  Church,  then  recently  organ- 
ized, in  Pembroke,  Upon  the  division  of  the  Boston  Pres- 
bytery, in  1 775.  he  became  a  member  of  the  "  middle  Pre»« 

Eccksiastical  History.  25 

bytery,"  called  "  the  Presbytery  of  Londonderry."  He  con- 
tinued in  the  ministry  to  Dec.  15, 1776,  when  he  died  at  the 
age  of  69. 

In  1761,  the  Rev.  Abiel  Foster  was  ordained  at  Canter- 
bury; Rev.  BuLKLEY  Olcott  at  Charleslown  ;  Rev.  Jona- 
than Leavitt  at  Walpole;  Rev,  Clement  Sumner  at  Keene; 
Rev.  Amos  Tappan  at  Kingston;  Rev.  John  Tucke  at  Ep- 
som ;  Rev.  Samuel  Drow:-!  at  Portsmouth ;  and  Rev.  Robie 
Morrill  at  Boscavven. 

Mr.  Foster  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1  756 ; 
was  the  first  minister  of  Canterbury,  where  he  Wds  ordained 
Jan.  21,  1761,  and  continued  there  in  the  ministry  till  1779, 
when  he  was  dismissed.  He  immediately  entered  upon  pub- 
lic life,  at  a  time  when  able  and  honest  men  were  prized  and 
sought  for;  and  sustained  with  reputation  to  himself  and  use- 
fulness to  the  community,  various  offices  of  trust  and  honor. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  Senate,  and  President  of  that  body 
— Chief  Justice  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  fur  the  Coun- 
ty of  Rockingham — a  Delegate  to  Congress,  under  the  Con- 
federation— and  a  member  of  Congress  from  1789  to  1791, 
and  again  from  L795  to  1803.     He  died  in  Feb.  1806. 

Mr.  Olcott  was  graduated  at  Yale  College  in  1758,  and 
succeeded  Mr.  Dennis  atCharlestown,  May  28,  1761.  At  the 
time  of  his  ordination,  the  Church  was  re-organized  or  a 
new  one  formed.  He  was  appointed  a  trustee  oi  Dartmouth 
College  in  1788,  and  died  June  26,  1793. 

Mr.  Leavitt  was  the  first  minister  of  Walpole,  v/here  he 
was  settled  June  10,  1761,  at  the  time  the  Church  in  that 
town  was  gathered.  He  remained  there  in  the  ministry  but 
two  years,  and  was  dismissed  in  June,  1 763. 

Mr.  Sumner  was  grs^duated  at  Yale  College  in  1758,  and 
succeeded  Mr.  Carpenter,  (who  was  the  minister  both  of 
Keene  and  Swanzey,)  at  Keene  June  11,  1761  ;  and  was  dis- 
missed April  30,  1772. 

Mr.  Tappan  was  the  successor  of  Mr.  Secombe  at  Kings- 
ton. He  was  a  graduate  of  Harvard  College  in  1758,  mar- 
ried Margaret  Sanborn,  March  24,  1  770,  and  died  June  23, 
1771,  leaving  an  infant  daughter  who  survived  him  but  a 
few  months. 

Mr.  Tucke  was  a  son  of  Rev.  John  Tucke,  of  the  Isles-of- 
Shoals,  and  graduated  at  Harvard  college  in  1758.  He  was 
ordained  Sept.  23,  1761.  He  married  a  daughter  of  Rev. 
Mr.  Parsons,  of  Rye.  He  was  dismissed  from  the  ministry 
at  Epsom  in  1774,  was  afterwards  appointed  a  chaplain  in 
the  revolutionar}'-  army,  and  while  on  his  way  to  join  it,  died 
of  the  smallpox  in  1776  ;  leaving  4  sons,  of 'whom  Samuel  J. 
Tucke,  merchant,  of  Baltimore,  is  the  onlv  survivor,  and  two 


26  Ecclesiastical  History, 

daughters,  one  of  whom  married  Simeon  Drake,  and  the  oth- 
er S.  G.  Bishop,  Esq. 

Mr.  Drown  was  a  native  of  Bristol,  R.  I.  The  church, 
over  which  he  was  ordained,  was  embodied  Oct.  14,  1758, 
and  was  formed  hy  seceders  from  the  Congregational  church- 
es, because  in  their  opinion  those  churches  had  departed 
from  the  discipline  of  the  Cambridge  platform,  and  from  the 
doctrines  of  the  New-England  confession  of  faith.  He  was  its 
first  minister,  and  ordained  Nov.  2,  1761.  The  Rev. 
Messrs.  Alexander  Miller  of  Plainfield,  Paul  Parks  of  Preston, 
and  John  Palmer  of  Windham,  Conn,  were  the  officiating 
clergymen  in  Mr.  Drown's  ordination.  He  continued  in 
the  ministrj  till  he  died,  Jan.  17,  1770,  in  his  50th  j-ear. 
The  baptisms  in  this  church  at  the  time  of  his  death  had 
been  81,  and  the  admissions  76  ;  of  these,  16  were  receifed  in 
1764.  One  of  ?vlr.  Drown's  sons  was  killed  at  or  near 
New-Durham,  in  1787  or  '88,  by  Elisha  Thomas,  who  was 
executed  at  Dover,  June  3,  1788. 

Mr.  Morrill  was  a  classmate  of  President  Adams,  graduated 
at  Harvard  college  in  1755,  and  succeeded  Mr.  Stevens  at 
Boscawen,  Dec.  29,  1761.  For  his  settlement,  he  had  a 
right  of  land  purchased  for  him  at  the  expence  of  1000/. 
New-Hampshire  money  by  the  proprietors,  and  a  salary  of 
700/.  of  the  same  currency;  one  third  of  which  was  to  be 
paid  by  the  inhabitants,  and  the  remainder  by  the  proprie- 
tors. He  continued  in  the  ministry  about  five  years,  when 
difficulties  arising,  he  was  by  mutual  agreement  and  advice 
of  an  ecclesiastical  council,  dismissed  Dec.  9,  1776:  but  con-  ' 
tinned  in  town  a  very  useful,  respectable  and  exemplary 
citizen  till  his  death,  Sept.  23,  1813,  at  the  age  of  77  years. 
In  1 763,  the  Rev.  Nathaniel  Noyes  was  ordained  at  South- 
Hampton  :  Rev.  Bunker  Gay  at  Hinsdale  ;  Rev.  Paine  Win- 
OATE  at  Hampton-Falls;  Rev.  Jonathan  Livermore  at  Wil- 
ton ;  and  Rev.  John  Page  at  Hawke. 

Mr.  Noyes  was  a  son  of  Dea.  Parker  Noyes,  of  Newbu- 
ryport  and  a  descendant  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Noyes,  formerly 
minister  of  Newbury.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Nassau,  and 
succeeded  Mr.  Parsons  at  South-Hampton,  Feb.  23,1763. 
He  was  dismissed  Dec.  8,  1800,  afterwards  resided  in  New- 
bury and  preached  in  that  vicinity  till  his  death  in  Dec.  1810. 
Mr.  Gay  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1760.  He 
was  the  first  settled  minister  of  Hinsdale,  where  he  was  or- 
dained August  17,  1763  ;  continued  there  in  the  ministry 
more  than  half  a  century;  and  died  Oct.  19,  1815.  His 
interesting  account  of  Mrs.  Howe's  captivity,  originally  pub- 
lished in  Belknap's  History  of  New-Hampshire,  has  been 
extensively  circulated  and  generally  read. 

l^v.  Wingate  was  a  son  of  t^**  Rev.   P-^iixe   Wingate,  and 

Indian  Bridge.  27 

grand-son  of  Joshua  Wingate,  of  Hampton,  whose  father, 
John  Wingate,  was  one  of  the  first  settlers  of  Dover.  Mr. 
Wingate  was  graduated  at  Harvard,  in  1759.  He  was  dis- 
missed from  Hampton-Falls  in  1771,  and  afterwards  remov- 
ed to  Stratham.  He  has  been  a  member  of  ihe  State  Le- 
gislature, a  Senator  and  Representative  in  Congress,  and 
was  one  of  the  Judges  of  the  Superior  Court  from  1798,  to 
1809.  He  is  still  living  at  Stratham,  in  his  85th  year,  and  is 
supposed  to  be  the  oldest  man  living  who  has  sustained  the 
ministerial  office  in  New-Hampshire. 

Mr.  Liverraore  was  born  at  Northborough,  Massachusetts, 
Dec.  7,  1739,  and  graduated  at  Harvard,  1760.  In  Feb. 
1777,  he  was  dismissed  from  his  people  in  consecjuence  of 
political  difficulties,  and  died  at  Wilton,  in  his  80th  year,  July 
20,  1809. 

Mr.  Page  was  a  native  of  Salem,  in  this  State,  and  a  grad- 
uate of  Harvard  in  1761.  Mr.  Bay  ley,  of  Salem,  preach- 
ed his  ordination  sermon,  which  was  published.  Mr.  Page 
continued  at  Havvke  till  he  died,  in  1783,  at  the  age  of  48, 
and  has  had  no  successor.  His  wife  was  Mary  Stevens,  of 

The  Rev.  William  Goddard,  was  ordained  at  Westmore- 
land Nov.  14,  1764.  He  was  the  first  settled  minister  of  the 
town,  and  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1761.  On 
the  same  day,  in  1764,  the  Rev.  Micah  Lawrence  was  or- 
dained as  successor  of  Mr.  Ashley  at  Winchester.  He  was 
a  graduate  of  Harvard  College  in  1759,  and  after  a  ministry 
of  a  little  more  than  12  years,  was  dismissed  Feb.  19,  1777. 

[To  be  continued.] 


In  the  fall  of  the  year  1753,  Sabatis  and  Plausawa,  two 
Indians,  were  at  the  place  where  Deacon  Sawyer  now  lives 
in  Canterbury.  There,  Joshua  Noyes  and  Thomas  Thorla, 
from  Newbury,  who  were  looking  after  cattle  which  had 
been  turned  into  the  woods  the  spring  before,  met  them. 
Plausawa  had  been  several  times  at  Newbury  and  knew 
Noyes  and  Thorla,  and  they  knew  him.  The  Indians  ap- 
peared not  much  pleased  at  seeing  them,  and  began  to  put 
their  baggage  into  their  canoe,  and  to  prepare  to  go  away. 
Sabatis  appeared  sullen  and  disposed  to  do  mischief,  hut  was 
kept  from  it  by  Plausawa.  Noyes  and  Thorla  proposed  to 
buy  their  furs.  At  first  they  refused  to  sell,  saying  they 
would  not  trade  with  the  English,  but  would  go  to  Canada. 
Afterwards  they'  offered  to  sell  furs  for  rum.     Those  men  had 

28  Indian  Bridge. 

brought  rum  on  purpose  to  trade  with  the  Indians,  butseeinsf 
their  temper,  especially  that  of  Sabatis,  thty  refused  to  let 
them  have  any,  and  concluded  to  go  away  and  leave  them. 
As  they  were  departing,  PlausaAva  in  a  friendly  manner  ad- 
vised them  to  go  home,  and  to  avoid  meeting  with  Indians  lest 
they  shotild  be  hurt.  When  they  had  gone  a  little  distance 
from  the  Indians,  Sabatis  called  thern,anil  said,  "no  more  you 
Eiiglish  come  here — me  heart  bad,  me  kill  you."  Thorla  re- 
plied ''no  kill — -English  and  Indians  now  all  brothers."  They 
soon  met  Peter  Bowen  going  towards  the  Indians,  told  him 
in  what  temper  the  Indians  were,  and  advised  him  not  to  go 
to  them,  and  by  no  means  to  let  them  have  a  drop  of  rum. 
He  replied  that  he  was  not  afraid  of  them ;  that  he  was  ac- 
quain'Lcd  with  lnc!ians,and  knew  how  to  deal  with  them.  The 
Indians  had  got  into  their  canoe  and  were  going  up  the  river. 
Bowen  called  them,  and  asked  them  to  go  his  house  and  stay 
that  night,and  (old  them  he  would  give  them  s^me  rum.  It  was 
then  near  nit.':ht.  They  went  with  Bowen  to  his  house,  which 
was  in  Contoocook  at  some  distaiice  below  where  they  then 
were.  He  treated  them  freely  with  rum, which  made  them  at 
first  very  well  pleased,  but  as  they  became  more  intoxicated, 
they  began  to  be  troublesome. — Bowen,  who  had  every  qual- 
ity of  an  Indian, had  lived  much  with  them,and  knew  perfect- 
ly well  how  they  would  conduct  ;  fearing  they  might  do  mis- 
chief, he  took  the;  precaution  to  make  his  wife  engage  their 
attention  while  he  drew  the  charges  from  their  guns, 
which  were  left  behind  the  door  in  the  entry.  After  this 
was  done,  the  night  was  spent  in  a  drunken  Indian  frolick, 
for  wljich  Bowen  had  a=:  good  a  relish  as  his  guests.  The 
next  morning,  they  asked  Bowen  to  go  with  his  horse  and 
carry  their  baggage  to  the  place  where  their  canoe  was  left 
the  evening  before.  He  went,  and  carried  their  packs  on 
his  horse.  As  they  went,  Sabatis  proposed  to  run  a  race 
with  the  horse.  Bowen  suspecting  mischief  was  intended, 
declined  the  race,  but  finally  consented  to  run.  He  howev- 
er took  care  to  let  the  Indian  outrun  the  horse.  Sabatis 
laughed  heartily  at  Bowen,  because  the  horse  could  run  no 
faster.  Thf.y  then  proceeded  apparently  in  good  humour. 
After  a  while,  Sabatis  said  to  Bowen — "Bowen  walk 
woods" — meaning  "  go  with  me  as  a  prisoner."  Bowen  said 
"  no  wnlk  woods,  all  one  brothers."  They  went  on  togeth- 
er until  they  were  near  the  canoe,  when  Sabatis  proposed 
a  second  race,  and  that  the  horse  should  be  unloaded  of  the 
baggage  and  should  start  a  little  before  him.  Bowen  refu- 
sed to  start  so,  but  consented  to  start  together.  They  r^n, 
and  as  soon  as  the  horse  had  got  a  little  before  the  Indian, 
Bowen  heard  a  gun  snap.     I^ooking  round,he  saw  the^smoke 

Ed7oard  Randolph.  29 

of  powclor  and  the  gun  aimed  at  him;  he  turned  and  struck 
his  tomahawk  in  the  Indian's  head.  He  went  back  to  meet 
Plausaiva,  who,  seeing  the  fate  of  Sabatis,  took  aim  wiih  his 
gun  at  Bowen  ;  the  gun  flashed.  Plausawa  fell  on  his  knees 
and  begged  for  his  life.  He  pleaded  Lis  innocence  and  for- 
mer friendship  for  the  English  ;  but  all  in  vain.  Bowcn 
knew  there  would  be  no  safety  for  him  while  the  companion 
and  friend  of  Sabatis  was  living.  To  secure  himself,  he  bu- 
ried the  same  tomahawk  in  the  skuli  of  Plausawa.  This  was 
done  in  the  road  on  the  bank  of  Merrimack  river,  near  ih- 
northerly  line  of  Contoocook,  now  Boscawen.  Bowen  hid 
the  dead  bodies  under  a  small  bridge  in  Salisburv.  The 
next  spring  the  bodies  were  discovered  and  buried.  That 
Bridg'^  has  ever  since  to  this  day  been  called  Indian  Bridge. 
Nov.  28,  1823.  N. 


Edward  Randolph  was  called  the  "  evil  genius"  of  New- 
England,  and  was  the  most  inveterate  and  indefatigable  of 
those  intriguing  men  Avho  found  access  to  the  royal  ear  of 
Charles  II.  with  complaints  against  the  colonies.  On  this 
mischievous  business,  he  made  no  less  than  eight  voyages  in 
nine  years  across  the  Atlantic.  In  1G76,  he  was  sent  over 
by  royal  authority  to  inquire  into  the  state  of  the  colonie.s. 
He  brought  with  him  copies  of  the  petitions  of  Mason  and 
Gorges  relative  to  their  patent  of  New-P[ampshire,  the  limits 
of  which  interfered  v;ith  the  grants  to  Massachusetts. 

While  he  was  in  Boston,  he  represented  that  the  province 
was  refractory,  and  disobedient  to  the  requisitions  of  the 
crown.  He  vvas  zealous  to  promote  the  cause  of  episcopacy, 
and  to  destroy  the  New-England  churches  ;  and  he  was  the 
principal  instrument  of  depriving  the  inhabitants  of  Massa- 
chusetts of  their  charter  privileges,  the  people  against  whom 
he  had  conceived  a  most  violent  antipathy.  When  the  char- 
ter was  taken  nway,  and  James  II.  succeeded  to  the  crown, 
the  king  appointed  a  council  to  govern  the  province,  of  which 
Dudley  was  president,  and  Randolph  was  one,  named  in  the 
commission.  The  next  year.  Sir  Edmund  Andros  arrived 
with  a  commission  to  be  governor  of  New-England.  Ran- 
dolph was  a  conspicuous  character  during  his  short  adminis- 
tration, and  involved  in  his  fate.  How  much  the  people 
were  exasperated  against  him,  appears  by  their  refusing  him 
bail  when  he  applied,  and  when  it  was  granted  to  others. 
The  house   of  representatives,  June  25,  1G89,  voted  "that 

30  ^^  Randolph's  Wekomty 

Mr.  E.  Randolph  is  not  bailable,  he  having  broken  a  capital 
law  of  the  colony  in  endeavouring  and  accomplishing  the 
subversion  of  our  government,  and  having  been  an  evil  coun- 

Mr.  Randolph  died  in  the  West-Indies.  It  was  said,  that 
he  always  retained  his  prejudices  against  the  churches  and 
people  of  Massachusetts.  On  the  other  hand,  the  inhabi- 
tants of  that  province,  who  once  held  him  in  abhorrence,  re- 
garded him  and  his  reproaches  wirh  the  utmost  contempt. 

From  a  letter  of  Randolph  to  Gov.  Winslow,  written  Jan- 
uary 29,  1679,*  published  in  the  Collections  of  the  Mass. 
Hist.  Soc.  vol.  VI,  p.  92,it  appears  that  he  had  just  returned 
from  New-Hampshire, where  he  remained  from  the  27th  De- 
cember to  the  22d  of  January.  In  this  letter,  he  gives  some 
account  of  the  establishment  of  the  royal  government  in  this 
province  under  President  Cutts,  and  also  alludes  to  his  recep- 
tion at  Boston.  He  says,  "  I  am  received  at  Boston  more 
like  a  spy,  than  one  of  his  majesty's  servants.  They  kept 
a  day  of  thanks  for  the  return  of  their  agents  ;  but  have  pre- 
pared a  welcome  for  me,  by  a  paper  of  scandalous  verses,  all 
persons  taking  liberty  to  abuge  me  in  their  discourses,  of 
which  I  take  the  more  notice,  because  it  so  much  reflects  up- 
on my  master,who  will  not  forget  it."  A  copy  of  these  verses 
the  editors  have  obtained,  and  now  present  to  their  readers 
as  a  curiosity. 

"Randolph's  welcome  back  again." 

Welcome,  Sr.  welcome  from  y-  easterne  shore 

With  a  commission  stronger  than  before 

To  play  the  horse-leach  ;  robb  us  of  our  ffleeces, 

To  rend  our  land,  and  teare  it  all  to  pieces : 

Welcome  now  back  againe  ;  as  is  the  whip. 

To  a  ffoole's  back  ;  as  water  in  a  ship. 

Boston  make  roome,  Randolph's  returned,  that  hector. 

Confirm'd  at  home  to  b«  y«  sharp  Collector ; 

Whoe  shortly  will  present  unto  yr  viewes  ^ 

The  greate  broad  scale,  *hat  will  you  all  amuse,  >  ' 

Unwelcome  tidings,  and  unhappy  newes.  J 

New-England  is  a  very  loyall  shrubb 

That  loues  her  Soveraigne,  hates  a  Belzebub : 

That's  willing  (let  it  to  her  praise  be  spoake) 

To  doe  obedience  to  the  Royall  Oake, 

To  pay  the  Tribute  that  to  it  belongs. 

For  shielding  her,  from  injuries  and  wrongs  : 

But  you  the  Agent,  S^.  she  cannot  brook, 

She  likes  the  meate,  but  can't  abide  the  cook. 

Alas,  shee  would  haue  Caesar  haue  his  due, 

*  The  date  ought  undoubtedly  to  be  1680. 

^' Randolph's  Welcome.''  81 

But  not  by  such  a  wicked  hand  as  you : 

For  an  acknowledgement  of  Right,  wee  scorne 

(To  pay  to  our  greate  Lord  a  pepper-corne) 

To  baulke  the  tearmes  of  our  most  gratious  deed, 

But  would  ten  thousand  times  the  same  exceed. 

Some  call  you  Randall — Rend-all  I  you  name, 
Soe  you'l  appear  before  youVe  played  y  game. 
Me  that  keeps  a  Plantacon,  Custorae-house, 
One  year,  may  bee  a  man,  the  next  a  mouse. 
Y'  brother  Dyer  hath  the  Divell  played. 
Made  the  New-Yorkers  at  the  ffirst  affraide. 
He  vapoured,  swagerM,  hector'd,  (whoe  but  he  ?) 
But  soon  destroyed  himself  by  eillianie. 
Well  might  his  cursed  name  w*i»  D  begin, 
Whoe  was  a  Divell  in  his  hart  fFor  sin. 
And  currantly  did  pass,  by  common  vogue, 
Ffor  the  deceitfulPst  wretch  and  greatest  rogue. 
By  him  you'r  ffurnish't  w"i  a  sad  example — 
Take  heed  that  those  you  crush  don't  on  you  trample. 
We  verryly  believe  we  are  not  bound 
To  pay  one  mite  to  you,  much  less  a  pound. 
If  there  were  need  New-England  you  must  know, 
Ffiftey  p.  cent  we'ld  on  our  King  bestow, 
And  not  begrutch  the  oSring,  shees  soe  firanck. 
But  hates  to  pay  where  she  will  have  noe  thanke. 

,     We  doe  presume  Secundus  Carrolus  Rex 

Sent  you  not  here  a  countrye's  heart  to  vex. 

Hee  gives  an  Inch  of  power ;  y®u  take  an  ell. 

Should  it  be  knowne,  he  would  not  like  it  well. 

If  you  do  understand  y  occupation, 

'Tis  to  keep  acts  of  trade  ffrom  violation. 

If  merchants  in  their  traffique  will  be  ffaire. 

You  must,  Camelioa-like,  live  on  the  aire. 

Should  they  not  trade  to  Holland,  Spain  and  Ffrance, 

Directly  you  must  seeke  ffor  maintenance. 

The  customs  and  the  ffees  will  scarce  supply 

Belly  acd  back.     What's  left  ffor  's  Majesty  ? 

What  you  collect  won't  make  you  to  look  bigo- 

With  modish  nick-nacks,  dagger,  perriwigg  ; 

A  courtier's  garbe  too  costly  you  will  see 

To  be  maintained  where  is  noe  gift  nor  ffee. 

Full  downe  the  mill,  rente  the  ground,  you'l  findft 

That  very  ffew  will  come  to  you  to  grinde. 

Merchants  their  come  will  alwayes  carry  there, 

Where  the  tole's  easy,  and  the  usage  ffaire. 

Wee'll  kneele  to  the  mill  owner,  as  our  cheife  ; 

But  doe  not  like  the  miller  ;  he's  a  theife 

And  entertaine  him  not  w«ii  ioy,  but  greife. 


32  Miscrllanies. 

When  Heauen  would  Job's  signall  patience  try, 
He  gave  Hell  leave  to  plott  his  misery, 
And  act  it  too,  according  to  ifs  will, 
With  this  exception,  donH  his  body  kill. 
Soe  Royall  Charles  is  now  about  tc  proue 
"Our  Loyalty,    Allegiance,  and  Loue, 
In  giving  Licence  to  a  Publican, 
To  pinch  the  purse,  but  not  to  hurt  the  man. 
Patience  raised  Job  unto  the  height  of  liame, 
Lett  our  obedience  doe  ffor  us  the  same. 

On  the  lOLh  of  AugUbt,  1737,  the  n&semblics  of  the  prov- 
inces of  Massachusetts  and  New-Hampshire  met  at  Hamp- 
ton-Falls, in  this  State,  in  order  to  establish  the  boundary 
line  between  the  two  provinces.  A  cavalcade  was  iormed 
from  Bosl#n  to  Snlisbury,  and  the  governor  [Belcher]  rode 
in  Slate,  attended  by  a  troop  of  horse.  He  was  met  at  Ncvv- 
bui"y  fer.y  by  aiiother  troop,  who,  joined  by  three  more  at 
the  svupposerj  d  vi.-ional  line,  conducted  him  to  the  George 
tavern  in  Hampton  Falls  ;  where  he  held  a  council  and  made 
a  speech  to  the  assembly  of  New-Hampshire.  The  novelty 
of  a  procession  of  the  executive  and  legislative  bodies  for 
such  a  distance,  occasioned  the  following  pasquinade,  in  an 
assumed  Hibernian  style. 

"  Dear  Paddy,  you    ne'er  did  behold  such  a  sight, 
"  As  yesterday  inorniDg:  was  seen  before  nig'ht.' 
"  You  in  all  your  born  days  saw,  Dor  I  didn't  iieither, 
"  So  mauy  fine  horses  and  men  ride  together. 
"  At  the  hend,  the  lower  house  trotted  two  in  a  row, 
~   "  Then  all  th"  higher  house  pranc'd  after  the  low  ; 
"  Then  the  C.nernor'i  coach  gallop'd  on  like  the  wind, 
"  And  the  laif  that  came  foremost  were  troopers  behind; 
"  But  1  fear  it  iiMians  n-  good,  to  your  neck  or  mine  ; 
"  For  they  say  'tis  to  fix  a  right  place  for  the  line." 

The  meeting:  hoi:se  of  the  first  Baptist  church  formed  in 
America  is  ot  Providence,  R.  1.  It  was  furnished  with  an 
excellent  bell,  made  in  London.  Its  weight  was  2515  lbs. 
and  upon  it  was  th*^  following  motto : 

"  F(.  r  freedom  of  conscience,  the  town  was  first  planted ; 

"  PcrsLasion,  noi  fo:c  j,  was  ns''  by  the  ^eop'e  ; 
"  This  chu.  ch  i?  the  eldest  and  Uas  i  or  r/'Coiit'"  J, 
''  Ei»jryia»  and  granting  b?II,  templt.  auJ  steeple." 

This  bell  was  split  by  ringing  in  the  year  1787. 

Miscellanies.  33 

A  gentleman  who  has  the  best  means  of  information  re- 
specting the  affair  alluded  to  in  the  note  on  the  Rev.  Mr. 
M'Gregore  of  Londonderry,  page  331  of  last  year,  gives  the 
following  account  of  that  prosecution. 

"  Some  person  sent  to  Jotham  Odiorqe,  Esq.  of  Ports- 
mouth, an  anonymous  letter,  dated  June  12,  1749,  requiring 
him  to  bring  £500  lawful  money,  and  deposit  it  at  the  wes- 
terly end  of  the  long  bridge  between  Kingston  and  Chester, 
on  the  iSthof  July  then  next,  and  threatening  on  failure 
thereof  to  destroy  his  property.  Mr.  Odiorne  did  not  com- 
ply ;  but  soon  after  received  a  similar  letter  dated  the  14th 
day  of  July,  requiring  him  to  deposit  the  same  sum  at  that 
place  on  the  25th  day  of  July,  and  containing  similar  threats. 
Mr.  Odiorne  sent  a  number  of  persons  to  watch  at  the  place 
described  on  the  day  last  mentioned.  Capt.  John  Mitchell, 
travelling  that  way  in  the  evening,  had  occasion  to  stop,  and 
alighted  from  his  horse  at  the  very  place.  He  Avas  imme- 
diately seized  by  the  watch,  who  carried  him  to  Portsmouth, 
where  he  was  examined  on  the  29th  day  of  July  before 
three  magistrates,  and  ordered  to  recognize  in  the  sum  of 
£2000  with  sureties  for  his  appearance  at  the  next  term  of 
the  Superior  Court,  to  be  holden  at  Portsmouth,  on  the  first 
Tuesday  of  August.  At  which  term  he  was  indicted,  tried, 
and  found  guilty  hy  the  jury  ;  and  was  sentenced  by  the 
court,  to  pay  a  fine  of  £1000  new  tenor,  in  bills  of  credit, 
and  to  recognize  in  the  sum  of  £2000  lawful  money,  with 
two  sureties,  for  his  good  behaviour  towards  all  his  majesty's 
subjects,  and  especially  towards  Jotham  Odiorne  of  Ports- 
mouth, until  the  next  sitting  of  the  court  in  February  :  and 
that  he  should  then  appear  at  said  court  in  February,  and 
abide  the  order  of  said  court,  and  pay  costs  of  prosecution, 
taxed  at  £56  4s.  6d.  lawful  money,  and  stand  committed  till 
sentence  be  performed.  Capt.  Mitchell  entered  into  recog- 
nizance pursuant  to  his  sentence,  and  as  he  was  discharged 
at  the  next  court,  it  is  supposed  the  fine  and  costs  were 

"  William  Blair,  who  was  the  guilty  person,  fled  immedi- 
ately on  hearing  of  Mitchell's  arrest,  and  went  to  Ireland, 
where  he  continued  two  years.  On  his  return  to  this  coun- 
try, he  confessed  his  guilt,  and  exculpated  Capt.  Mitchell 
from  any  participation  in  the  crime.  At  August  term  1752, 
he  entered  a  nolo  contendere  to  the  indictment  found  against 
him,  was  fined  £50  new  tenor  and  costs.  Mr.  M'Gregore 
might  have  assisted  Capt.  Mitchell  in  his  defence,  but  not- 

34  Miscellanies, 

withstanding  his  ability,  eloquence  and  address,  Mitchell  was 
convicted.  The  current  of  popular  opinion  set  strong 
against  him  at  the  time  ;  but  it  is  not  probable  that  any  gen- 
tleman of  the  bar  was  prevented,  on  that  account,  from  be- 
coming his  advocate  at  the  trial.  William  Parker  was  one 
of  the  magistrates,  who  took  his  exr^mination,  and  ordered 
him  to  recognize.  Matthew  Livermore  was  (he  King's  at- 
torney, and  signed  the  indictment.  If  there  were  no  other 
'•  respectable  gentlemen  of  the  law"  then  residing  in  New- 
Hampshire,  there  were  several  of  the  first  respectability  in 
Massachusetts,  who  usually  attended  our  Superior  Court, 
who  were  not  to  be  controlled  by  popular  clamor,  and  who 
would,  on  suitable  application,  have  undertaken  his  de- 

The  following  appeared  io  the  newspapers  soon  after  the  arrival  of  a  Cargo  of  Tea 
at  Boston  in  1774. 

His  Majesty  0KN00K0RTUNK0G0G,King  of  the  Narraganset 
Tribe  of  Indians,  on  receiving  informations  of  the  Arrival  of 
another  Cargo  of  that  cursed  Weed  Tea  ;  immediately  sum- 
moned his  Council  at  the  Great  Swamp  by  the  river  Jordan, 
who  did  advise  and  consent  to  the  immediate  Destruction 
thereof  after  resolving  that  the  Importation  of  this  Herb,  by 
Any  Persons  whatever,  was  attended  with  pernicious  and 
dangerous  Consequences  to  the  Lives  and  Properties  of  all 
his  Subjects  throughout  Amr  rica.  Orders  were  then  issued 
to  the  Seizer  and  Destroyer  General  and  Deputies  to  assrmble 
the  executive  Body  under  their  Command  to  procerd  direct- 
ly to  the  place  where  this  noxious  Herb  was.  They  arri- 
ved last  Monday  Evening  in  town,  and  finding  the  Vessel, 
they  emptied  every  Chest  into  the  great  Pacific  Ocean  and 
effectually  destroyed  the  AVhole. — {Tv^enly  Eight  Chests  and 
an  half.)  They  are  now  returned  to  Narragnnset  to  make 
Report  of  their  doings  to  his  Majesty,  who  we  hear  is  deter- 
mined to  honour  them  with  Commissions  for  the  Peace. 

The  following  story  was  the  subject  of  newspaper  amuse- 
ment during  the  revolution,  and  absurd  as  it  may  appear,  it 
was  a  fact  : 

"  Some  British  officers,  soon  after  Gage's  arrival  in  Bos- 
ton, walking  on  Beacon-hill  after  sunset,  were  affrighted  by 
noises  in  the  air  (supposed  to  be  the  tlying  of  bugs  and 
beetles)  which  they  took  to  be  the  sound  of  bullets.  They 
left  the  hill  with  great  precipitation,  spread  the  alarm  in 

Original  Letters.  36 

their  encampment,  and  wrote  terrible  accounts  to  England 
of  being  shot  at  with  air-guns,  as  appeared  by  their  letters, 
extracts  from  which  were  soon  after  published  in  London 
papers.  Indeed,  for  some  time  they  seriously  believed, 
that  the  Americans  were  possessed  of  a  kind  of  mngic  white 
powder,  which  exploded  and  killed  without  report/'  In  that 
much  celebrated  and  admirable  poem  of  the  day,  McFingal, 
the  circumstance  is  thus  satirized. 

No  more  each  British  colonel  runs, 

From  wbizziog-  beetles,  as  air  gnns  ; 

Thinks  horn-bugs  bullets,  or  thro'  fears,        i 

Muskitoes  takes  for  musketeers  ; 

Nor  scapes  as  if  you'd  gain'd  supplies,  x 

From  Beelzebub's  whole  host  of  flies. 

No  bug  these  warlike  hearts  appals  ,• 

They  better  know  the  sound  of  balls. 

©riflCnal  Setters. 

Copy  of  a  Letter  of  William  Vaughan  to  Richard  Waldro7i,  Esq. 

fThe  following  letter  was  written  by  Col.  William  Vaughan,  the   projector  of  the 
Cape-Breton  expedition  in  i744.     Vide  Oollections,lS22,  p.  161.] 

Boston,  Jan.  1744. 

5zr, — Yours  I  received  and  can  answer  you  only  in  some  few 
short  particulars.  1,  That  there  is  a  projection  at  home  on  the 
tapis  for  the  uniting  Massachusetts  and  New-Hampshire — Mas- 
sachusetts to  give  up  the  lands  east  of  New-Hampshire  according 
to  discourses  here.  2,  That  there  has  been  at  home  uneasiness 
on  account  of  New-Hampshire  not  aiding  Annapolis,  and  garri- 
soning Fort  Dummer.  3,  That  there  is  a  request  to  this  govern- 
ment to  keep  Fort  Dummer  3  months  till  New-Hampshire  pro- 
vides to  do  it,  which  if  they  refuse,  this  place  still  to  continue 
the  keeping  of  it. 

As  to  news  particularly  my  own  knowledge,  I  have  beea  here 
more  than  a  fortnight,  soliciting  for  a  descent  on  Cape-Breton. 
There  has  been  such  a  clog  to  other  business,  that  nothing  could 
be  done  relating  to  it  till  Wednesday  last.  It  was  in  agitation  in 
the  most  secret  manner,  as  I  guess,  from  that  time  till  1  o'clock 
Saturday,  to  no  effect.  There  were  so  many  difficulties  started, 
and  nobody  to  solve  them  ;  I  am  this  day  with  three  Gentlemen, 
endeavouring  to  solve  them,  and  make  the  way  fair  and  clear,  and 
providing  to  make  another  push  by  a  memorial  ;  endeavouring  at 
the  same  time  to  soften  many  Gent.  Should  the  affair  take  effect, 
there  will  be  a  terrible  bustle.  1  have  engaged  for  1000  men. 
When  I  was  in  New-Hampshire,  in  a  ludicrous  manner  talking  of 
these  affairs,  your  son  Thomas  desired  a  Lieut'y  and  if  it  go  and 
i  shall  have  a  great  hand  in  the  nomination  of  the  officers,and  if  it 

36  Original  Letters. 

may  be  that  he  may  go  and  be  thought  equal  to  a  higher  post,  he 
may  have  it  if  he  caa  get  50  men. 

'Tis  proposed  that  the  government  find  vessels,  provisions  and 
ammunition,  &c. — the  men  only  find  themselves  and  arms  without 
pay  from  the  province,  all  to  be  volunteers.  Sir,  I  depend  on  an 
absolute  secrecy  in  these  affairs,  and  am 

Your  kinsman,  friend,  and  humble  servant, 


P.  S.  'Tis  generally  thought  that  the  Indians  will  not  comply 
with  the  treaty,  and  the  times  will  be  bad. 

Hon.  Richard  Waldron,,  Esq.  Portsmouth. 

Letter  from  Sir  fVilliam  Pepperell  to  Hon.  Richard  JValdron. 

Kittery,  ?^ov.  29tb,  1750. 

Dear  Sir, — I  received  your  favour  of  the  31st  of  last 
month,  but  not  till  after  my  return  from  Falmouth.  In 
answer  to  it  I  would  say,  I  am  pleased  with  the  generous 
public  spirit  that  appears  in  yourself  and  Mr.  Sherburne, 
in  your  concern  for  and  consultation  about  the  distressed 
State  of  New-Hampshire. 

I  should  have  been  very  glad,  I  could  have  had  further 
conversation  with  you  about  your  affairs,  if  it  might  have 
been  of  any  advantage  to  you. 

I  hope  your  province  is  not  in  such  imminent  danger  of 
ruin.  The  Lord  1  hope  will  provide,  and  in  order  to  your 
safety,  will  rouse  your  people  from  that  indolent  state  you 
complain  of.  If  there  be  really  any  occasion  for  it,  hope 
the  best. 

You  are  at  a  stand  you  say,  about  the  main  question, 
What  is  to  be  done  ?  and  we  must  stand  and  wait  on  Prov- 
idence, when  we  know  not  what  to  do. 

Your  kind  and  honorable  thoughts  of  the  man  whom  you 
-erm  to  have  ?ome  expectations  from,  he  is  much  obliged  to 
you  for,  and  if  Providence  should  call  him  to  so  great  a 
trust  and  charge,  as  if  ha.-  strangely  let  him  into  every  thing 
of  a  public  nature,  wherein  he  has  been  hitherto  engaged,  I 
would  indulge  no  distrustful  thought,  but  he  shall  be  pre- 
pared for,  introduced  fairly  into,  assisted  in,  and  carried 
through  it. 

But  verily  his  early  entrance  into  public  business,  his 
knowledge  in  some  measure  of  your  constitution  and  circum- 
stances, his  poor  merits  from  the  crown,  his  acquaintance  at 
tourtorany  supposed  interest  he  has,  and  his  worldly  pos- 
sessions, have  1  fear  but  poorly  qualified  him  for  a~gap-man  to 
%tand  in  the  breach  made  in  your  state  affairs  ;  so  that  linully, 

JV.  H.  Declaration  of  Independence  37 

must  leave  mj  good  friends  to  act  as  thej  think  wisest  and 
best,  heartily  wishing  them  Divine  direction,  trusting  that 
when  your  province  is  prepared  for  such  a  mercy,  relief 
will  be  sent  you  from  one  quarter  or  another. 

With  my  own  and  Mrs.  Pcpperell's  compliments   to  your- 
self and  Madam  Waldron, 

I  am,  dear  sir. 
Your  faithful  and 

Most  obedient  humble  servant, 

Hon.  Richard  Waldron,  <^c. 

SHIRE IN   1776. 
In  the  House  of  Representatives^  June  11,  1776. 

"  Voted,  That  Samuel  Curtis,  Timothy  Walker  and  John  Dud- 
ley, Esquires,  be  a  committee  of  this  House  to  join  a  committee  of 
the  honorable  Board,  to  make  a  draft  of  a  Declaration  of  this  Gen- 
eral Assembly  for  Inbependence  of  the  United  Colonies,  on  Great 

June  15,  1776. 

"  The  committee  of  both  houses,  appointed  to  prepare  a  draft 
setting  forth  the  sentiments  and  opinion  of  the  Council  and  As- 
sembly of  this  colony  relative  to  the  United  Colonies  setting  up 
an  Independent  State,  make  report  as  on  file — which  report  be- 
ing read  and  considered.  Voted  unanimously,  That  the  report  of 
said  committee  be  received  and  accepted,  and  that  the  draft  by 
them  brought  in  be  sent  to  our  delegates  at  the  Continental  Con- 
gress forthwith  as  the  sense  of  the  House." 

"The  draft  made  by  the  committee  of  both  Houses,  relating  to 
Independency,  and  voted  as  the  sense  of  this  House,  is  as  follows, 

"  Whereas  it  now  appears  an  undoubted  fact,  that  notwith- 
standing all  the  dutiful  petitions  and  decent  remonstrances  from 
the  American  colonies,  and  the  utmost  exertions  of  their  best 
friends  in  England  on  their  behalf.  The  British  Ministry,  arbi- 
trary and  vindictive,  are  yet  determined  to  reduce  by  fire  and 
sword  our  bleeding  country,  to  their  absolute  obedienco  ;  and  for 
this  purpose,  in  addition  to  their  own  forces,  have  engaged  great 
numbers  of  foreign  mercenaries,  who  may  now  be  on  their  pas- 
sage here  accompanied  by  a  formidable  Fleet  to  ravish  and  plu»- 

38  Liter at'y  Notices^  <J/-c. 

der  the  «!«a-coast ;  from  all  which  we  may  reasonably  expect 
the  most  dismal  scenes  of  distress  the  ensuing  year,  unless  we 
exert  ourselves  by  every  means  and  precaution  possible  ;  and 
whereas  we  of  this  colony  of  New-Hampshire  have  the  example 
of  several  of  the  most  respectable  of  our  sister  colonies  before  us 
for  entering  up^nthat  most  important  step  of  disunion  from  Great 
Britain,  and  declaring  ourselves  FREE  and  INDEPENDENT  of 
the  Crowu  thereof,  being  impelled  thereto  by  the  most  violent 
and  injuries  treatipent ;  and  it  appearing  absolutely  necessary  in 
tjis  m(  =t  Ciitical  juncture  of  our  public  affairs,  that  the  honora- 
b!*^  the  Continental  Congress,  who  have  this  important  object  un- 
der immediate  consideration,  should  be  also  informed  of  our  res- 
olutions thereon  witliout  loss  of  time,  We  do  hereby  declare  that 
it  is  the  opinion  of  this  Assembly  that  o'.r  Delegates  at  the  Con- 
tipc"t"'  Congress  should  l>e  instructed,  and  ihey  are  h«^rehy  in- 
«tr  ;jtcd,  to  join  nith  the  other  colonies  in  deciar'ug  the  Thir- 
teen United  Colonies,  a  Free  and  Independent  State — Solemnly 
pledging  our  faith  and  honor,  that  we  will  on  our  parts  support 
the  Measure  with  cur  Lives  and  Fortunes — and  that  in  conse- 
quence thereof  they,  the  Continental  Congress,  on  whose  wisdom, 
fidelity  and  integritv  we  rely,  may  enter  into  and  form  such  alli- 
ances as  thty  may  judge  most  conducive  to  the  present  safety  and 
future  advantage  oi  these  American  colonies:  Provided,  the  reg- 
ulation of  our  internal  police  be  under  the  direction  of  our  own 

Entered  according  to  the  original, 
Attest,  NOAH  EMERY,  Clr.  D.  Reps. 

actcvavi)  MotictB,  $cc, 

Imcs  of  New-Ilampshirt. — The  second  volume  of  revised 
staiutes  of  this  state  ;s  just  pullishcd  by  Mr.  Hill,  Concord. 
It  contains,  beside  the  laws,  an  appendix  comprising  a  varie- 
ty of  interesting  and  valuable  papers;  among  which  we 
would  mention  the  follov/ing  : 

Form  of  Civil  Government  adopted  at  Ext'trr,  Jan  5,  1776. 

Dcrlaration  of  Independence  by  the  Council  and  Assembly  of  New-Hampshire, 
June    11,  1776. 

Constitution  agreed  upon  by  the  Delegates  of  the  people  of  the  State  of  New-Hamp- 
shire,   June  1783. 

Articles  of  Confederation  and  Perpetual  Union,  between  the  States  of  New-Hamp- 
shire, Massachusetts  Bay,  Rhode-Island  and  Providence  Plantations,  Connecticut, 
New-York,  New-Jersey,  Pennsylvania,  Delaware.  Maryland.Virginia,  North-Caro- 
IJna,  South-Carolina  and  Georgia;  July  8,  1778,  &c.  &c. 

The  volume  will  be  for  sale  at  the  bookstores  within  a 
lew  days. 

Sketches  of  the  Earth  and  its  Inhabitants. — This  new  work 
of  Mr.  Worcester,  sometime  since  announced  as  in  the 
press,  has  just  made  its  appearance.     The  learned  and  indus- 

Literary  Koiices^  i/c^  39 

trious  author,  has  in  this  instance  presented  the  public  with  a 
very  u^ful  and  entertaining  work,  and  one  which  we  have 
no  doubt  will  prove  of  great  utility.  A  more  particular  no- 
tice will  be  given  in  a  future  number  of  this  Journal. 

Trumbull's  History. — In  18lO,the  first  volume  of  a  histo- 
rj^'ofthe  United  States  was  published  by  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Trumbull,  of  Connecticut.  It  was  oiiginally  intended  by 
the  author,  that  the  work  shoula  consist  of  three  volumes,  the 
firft  to  close  with  the  year  1764  ;  the  second  with  the  capture 
ot  Gen.  Burgoyne  and  his  army  Oct  17,  1777;  and  third 
with  the  year  1782  ;  the  wholn  comprising  a  general  history 
of  three  complete  centuries.  The  first  volume  of  tnis  histo- 
ry is  all  that  has  been  published.  In  a  late  number  of  the 
New-Haven  Journal  it  is  announced  that  the  work  of  Dr. 
Trumbull  is  to  be  continued,  by  a  gentleman  who  is  now  en- 
gaged upon  ii. 

A  volume  of  ^Military  and  Naval  Letters  has  been  compil- 
ed and  published  by  John  Brannan  of  the  city  of  Washing- 
ton. It  forms  an  official  record  of  all  the  events  of  the 
war  of  1812.  Letters  complimentary  to  the  compiler,  have 
been  published  from  Mr.  Jefferson,  Mr.  Monroe  and  P»ir. 
Rush,  the  American  minister  at  London. 

John  Foster,  Jr.  Esq.  has  issued  proposals  for  publishing 
a  History  of  the  7'own  and  City  of  Boston,  from  its  early 
settlement  to  the  present  time,  which,  the  prospectus  states, 
will  embraco  a  succinct  account  of  the  discovery  of  New-Eng- 
land; the  emigration  of  our  ancestors ;  progressive  settlement 
of  the  country,  previous  to  the  foundation  of  Boston,  in 
1630;  a  sketch  of  the  character  and  appearance  of  the  na- 
tives, when  first  discovered  by  Columbus,  and  the  aborigines 
of  New-EnglanM  as  found  by  the  Pilgrims ;  together  with  a 
complete  history  of  Boston,  including. observations  and  re- 
marks, embellished  with  elegant  engravings  representing  the 
principal  public  buildings,  with  a  particular  description  of 
each,  &c. 

Messrs.  Smith  &  Shute,  of  Poultney,  Vt.  have  lately  pub- 
lished a  "  View  of  the  Hebrews,"  by  Rev.  Ethan  Smith,  for- 
merly of  Hopkinton  in  this  State.  The  work  is  divided 
into  four  divisions,exhibiting  1.  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem; 
?.  the  certain  restoration  of  Judah  &l  Israel  ;  3.  the  present 
state  of  Judah  &  Israel ;  4.  an  address  of  the  prophet  Isaiah 
relative  to  their  restoration,     12  mo.  pp.  187. 

Messrs.  Wells  &  Lilly,  of  Boston,  will  shortly  publish, 
in  orre  volume,  octavo,  Sermons  and  Tracts,  by  the  late  Rev. 

40  Literary  J^otices,  ^c. 

Samuel  Cooper  Thacher,  pastor  of  the  new  South  Church ; 
with  a  memoir  of  his  hfe  by  the  Rev.  Mr.  Greenwood. 

Samuel  AV'hiting,  of  New- York,  has  published  the  Letters 
of  Adim  Hodgson,  Esq.  of  Liverpool,  England,  written  dur- 
ing a  journey  through  the  United  States,  m  the  years  1819, 
I8i0,  and  1821. 

Cummings,Hilliard&  Co.  of  Boston,  have  issued  proposals 
for  publishing,  by  subscription,  "The  Family  Shakspeare," 
in  which  nothing  is  added  to  the  original  text;  but  those 
words  and  expressions  are  omitted,  which  cannot,  with  pro- 
priety, be  read  aloud  in  a  family.  By  Thomas  Bowdler 
Esq.  F.  R.  S.  and  S.  A. 

Another  new  novel,  by  the  author  of  Waverly,  entitled 
St.  l\nnan''s  IVdl^  has  appeared.  The  scene  lies  in  Scot- 
huui,  and  the  period  of  the  time  chosen  for  the  action  is 
ai)out  40  years  back.     It  is  contained   in  2  volumes. 

A  new  work  from  the  pen  of  Miss  Porter,  author  of 
"Thaddous  of  Warsaw,"  "Scottish  Chiefs"  &c.  will  soon 
aupcar  in  three  volumes,  entitled  D»fce  C/inV/icrn  q/"  Limen- 
kurg^  or  traditions  from  the  Hart:. 

From  the  JVatiotuil   GazeHe. 
The  foHowiug' beautiful  appeal  to  the  charitable,  was  written  by  a 
gentleman  in  Montreal,  when  the  distress  of  the  poor  in  that  place  call- 
eil  loudly  on  the  charity  of  the  opulent,  during  the  hard   winter  of  1817 
and  '18. 

AT  this  chill  time,  while  stormy  winter  reigns, 

And  driven  sn-^w  lies  scattered  on  the  plains  ; 

While  bitter  tempests  howl  with  furious  dread. 

And  search  each  crevice  of  the  peasant's  shed  ; 

At  this  bleak  hour  the  poor  are  doomed  to  knew 

The  cutting  pangs  of  undeserved  woe  ; 

To  feci  the  sorrows  that  from  want  arise, 

While  famine  waits  when  craving  nature  cries. 

Bereft  of  means  to  earn  their  food  each  day, 

They  pine  unknown  their  humble  woes  away. 

Ye  sons  of  fortune  blest  with  happy  lot. 

Go  view  the  misery  of  the  poor  man's  cot ; 

See  how  distress  bows  down  a  father's  head, 

While  hungry  infants  call  aloud  for  bread  ; 

See  the  low  mother,  sickly  and  opprest, 

Waep  o'er  her  child  half  famished  at  her   breast ; 

Go,  view  this  scene,  and  teach  vour  hearts  to  feel 

The  force,  the  claim  of  poverty's  appeal. 

O  charily  '.  sweet  nymph  of  every  s;race, 

Exf<^od  thy  arm  to  cheer  a  drooping  race. 

Raise  up  the  wretched  from  their  pining  state, 

And  yield  thy  aid  where  want  and  death  await- 


22ccle5iastical  ^l^istorg, 


Memoranda  :  rdalin^  to   the  Churches  and  Clergy  of  Ntvs- 

[Continued  from  page  27.] 

In  1765,  the  Rer.  Samuel  Cotton  was  ordained  at  Litch- 
field ;  Rev.  Gyles  Merrill  at  Phistow ;  Rev.  Samuel  Per- 
LET  at  Seabrook;  Rev.  Pkter  Powers!  at  Haverhill ;  Rev. 
Nathan  Ward  at  Plymouih  ;  Ptev.  Abraham  Carpenter  at 
Plaintifcld  ;  Rev.  Seth  Deake  at  Riadgq  ;  and  Rev.  Amos 
Moody  at  Pciham. 

Rev.  Samuel  Cotton  was  son  of  the  Rev.  John  Cotton,  of 
Newton,  Mass.  and  was  a  direct  descend  jnt  from  the  celebra- 
ted John  Cotton,  one  of  th^  first  ministers  of  Boston.*  He 

[•It  is  believed  that  the  Cottox  family  in  its  rarioas  braocheg  hs^  pro- 
doced  more  mfto  of  the  clerical  professi-jn  than  anj  other  id  New-Eng- 
laod.  On  leokini^  over  ihe  Catalogue  of  Harvard  College,  we  p^ceive 
no  less  than  Iwenty-ooe  of  fiic  patroovmick  name  that  ^raJ.iated  at  that 
inslitntion  from  1651  to  1810.  Of  this  number,  fourteen  were  ordained 
miuisters  of  the  gospel.  Rev.  Seaborn  Cotton,  son  of  Rov.  .John  Cotton 
graduated  1651  ;  ord.  at  Hampton,  1(160;  died  16o6,  aged  5.3.  His  broth- 
er, Rev.  John  Cotton,  born  March  15,  1640  ;  grad.  1657  ;  ord.  at  Ply- 
mouth, Jane  30.  IC69  ;  di-mi<!s»d  Oct  5,  169T  ;  went  to  Charleston,  S.C. 
where  he  died,  SepL  ITi,  1699,  a»ed  CO.  Rev.  John  Cottao,  the  oldest 
son  of  Seaborn,  grad.  1678  ;  succeeded  hi*  father  at  Hampton  in  1696  ; 
died  of  3f>oplexy,  March  27,  1710,  aged  52 — seme  Ray  57.  Roland,  the 
second  son  of  Siabom,  was  admitted  a  member  of  Harvard  CrjUege  ia 
1692 ;  left  on  account  of  bis  health,  but  received  a  degrne  in  1696.  Rer. 
John  Cotton,  oldest  son  of  Mr.  Cotton  of  PlymonlL,  was  bcrn  Ao%-  3, 
1661  ;  grad.  at  Harvard  coiic^e  IC?;'.  ;  ordained  at  Yarmoolb,  Ma'w. 
1693;  died  Feb.  21,  1706,  aged  45.  Rev.  Roland  Cotton,  the  second 
son,  bo-n  Dec.  27,  1§67  ;  grad.  at  Harvard  College  16S5  ;  ordained  at 
Sandwich,  Ms-  N.ov.  28,  1694.  Rev.  TLeophilos  Cotton  has  been  alrea- 
dy noticed  in  Coll.  vol.  iL  page  269.  Rev.  JcAto  Cottr»D,  of  Newton,  wis 
son  of  Rev.  Roleod  Cotton  of  Sandwich.  He  grad.  1710;  ordained 
Not.  3,  1714  ;  died  May  1757,  aged  64.  He  was  brother  to  Rev%>'ath- 
aniel  Cotton  of  Bristol,  and  Rev.  Ward  CotLon  of  Hampton,  (<»««  page 
298,  vol.  ii.)  and  father  of  Rev.  -Samud  Cotton  of  I>ilchfleid.  A  num- 
ber of  persons  of  the  clerical  names  of  .Mather,  Williams,  Cashing. 
M>ody,  Thayer  and  Tuftj,  were  descendants  in  the  female  line  from 
Rer.  John  Cotton  of  Boston  — Editors.] 


42  Ecclasiastical  History. 

removed  to  Claremont,  where  he  died,  at  an  advanced  age, 
in  the  fall  of  1819. 

Mr.  Merrill  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1759, 
and  ordained  at  Plaistow  as  successor  of  Mr.  Gushing, 
March  6,  1765,  and  died  April  27,  1801,  aged  62.  "He 
was  a  sound  scholar  and  learned  divine,  and  possessed  that 
simplicity  yet  dignity  of  manners  and  kindness  of  heart, 
which  secured  him  the  love  and  respect  ot  all  who  knew 
him."  James  C.  Merrill,  Esq.  of  Buston,  and  Samuel  Mer* 
rill,  Esq.  of  Andover,  are  his  sons. 

Mr.  Perley  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1763. 
He  w-<s  the  fiibi  minister  of  Seabrook  and  in  1775  was  p- 
pointed  Moderator  of  ihe  Salem  Presbytery.  The  s 'me 
year  he  was  dismissed  from  Seabrook.  In  Oct.  1778  he 
was  installed  the  first  minister  of  Mouitonborough.*  There 
was  a  very  considerable  opposition  to  his  installation,  and 
the  next  year  he  was  dismissed.  Soon  after  and  in  the  same 
year  of  his  dismission  from  Mouitonborough,  he  was  instal- 
led at  Groton,the  first  minister  of  that  town,  where  he  contin- 
ued five  years  and  was  dismissed.  On  the  8th  of  September, 
1784,  he  was  installed  at  Gray,  in  Maine,  and  in  May,  1791, 
by  mutual  agreement  between  him  and  the  people,  he  ceased 

Mr.  Powers  was  a  son  of  Capt.  Peter  Powers,  one  of  the 
first  settlers  of  HoUis,  and  was  the  first  male  child  born  in 
that  town.  He  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1754, 
ordained  over  the  towns  of  Haverhill,  N.  H.  and  Newbury, 
Vt.  in  1765,  and  was  the  first  settled  minister  in  the  county 
of  Grafton.  He  was  dismissed  in  1784,  and  the  next  year 
"was  installed  at  Deer  Isle,  Me.  where  he  continued  to  labour 
with  zeal,  activity  and  success  for  fourteen  years,  when  in 
the  early  part  of  1 799,  he  was  removed  by  death.  "  He 
was  a  faithful  and  discriminating  preacher,  and  was  possess- 
ed of  superior  talents.  A  publication  of  his,  entitled  '  A 
humble  inquiry  into  the  nature  of  covenanting  with  God,' 
was  issued  about  three  years  before  his  death.  Tt  exhibits 
much  strength  of  mind,  and  contains  very  ccmclnsive  reason- 
ing against  the  practice  of  what  has  been  termed  the  '"^Half- 
way Cof  cnani." 

[*Mr.  Perley  was  installed,  says  a  writer  in  the  N.  H.  Gazette  of  Nor. 
17,  1778,  against  ttie  strenuous  ".pposition  of"  at  least  an  equal  number  of 
polls,  which  included  all  the  p  incipal  persons  of  character  and  interest 
in  Mouitonborough  ;  insomuch  that  th  y  paid  3-4  parts  of  (he  tax  and 
were  owners  of  at  least  19-20lhs  of  all  the  real  estate  there.  He  was 
installed  Oct.  8,  1778.] 

Ecclesiastical  History.  43 

Mr.  Ward  had  not  the  advantages  of  a  collegiate  educa- 
tion ;  but  being  brought  to  the  knowledge  and  love  of  the 
truth  through  the  instrumentality  of  that  faithful  evangelist, 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Whitefield,  he  gave  himself  up  to  the  study  of 
divinity,  and  after  being  qualified  for  the  ministry,  he  was 
ordained  at  VVatertown,  Mass.  How  long  he  continued 
there  is  uncertain.  In  1 760,  he  was  preaching  at  Newcastle, 
Mc.  and  in  Jan.  1761,  received  an  invitation  to  settle  there 
in  the  ministry.  This  invitation  he  accepted  ;  but  doubts 
arose  respecting  the  regularity  of  his  dismission  at  Water- 
town,  and  a  committee  was  appointed  to  investigate  the  sub- 
ject. The  affair  was  sometime  in  suspense  ;  and  in  Oct. 
1763,  the  town,  at  Mr.  Ward's  request,  voted  to  withdraw 
the  invitation,  and  he  was  installed  at  Newburyport  for  Ply- 
mouth, July  10,  1 765.  He  continued  in  the  ministry,  till,  on 
account  of  age  and  infirmity,  he  was  dismissed,  a  few  years 
before  his  death,  which  was  in  June,  1804,  at  the  age  of  83. 
It  is  said  of  him,  in  a  brief  sketch  of  his  character,  publish- 
ed shortly  after  his  decease,  that  "  the  important  doctrines 
of  the  gospel  lay  with  peculiar  weight  upon  his  heart ;  he 
felt  the  great  need  of  closely  adheriig  to  them  himself,  and 
was,  of  course,  led  earnestly  to  enforce  them  upon  others. 
His  son,  the  Rev.  Jonathan  Ward,  of  Alna,  in  Maine,  the 
first  native  of  Plymouth  who  received  a  liberal  education, 
was  graduated  at  Dartmouth  College  in  1792. 

Of  Mr.  Carpenter  of  Plninfield,  and  Mr.  Dean  of  Rindge, 
the  writer  has  no  other  knowledge  than  that  they  were  the 
first  ministers  of  their  respective  towns,  and  were  both  dis- 
missed from  their  people.  The  date  of  Mr.  Carpenter's  dis- 
mission is  unknown.     Mr.  Dean's  took  place  in  1 780. 

Mr.  Moody  was  born  in  Newbury,  Mass.  Nov.  20,  1 739, 
graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1739,  and  succeeded  Mr. 
Hobbs  at  Pelham,  Nov.  20,  1765.  He  married  Elizabeth 
Hobbs,  the  widoiv  of  his  predecessor,  and  lived  with  her 
about  fifty  years,  during  which  time  there  was  neither  birth 
nor  death  in  their  dwelling.  In  consequence  of  a  division 
in  the  town  upon  religious  subjects,  the  incorporation  of  a 
poll  parish  and  the  erection  of  another  meeting-house,  Mr. 
Moody  was  regularly  dismissed  in  the  autumn  of  1792.  His 
moral  character  was  not  impeached,  and  he  remained  in  the 
fellowship  of  the  church  till  his  death.  The  next  year  after 
his  dismission,  he  was  the  Representative  from  Pelham  in 
the  General  Court,  and  was  for  several  years  a  member  of 
the  Legislature,  and  a  civil  magistrate.  During  Mr.  Moody's 
ministry,  44  were  added  to  the  church  by  profession,  and  17 

44  Ecclesiastical  History. 

by  letters  of  dismission  and  recommendation  from  other 
churches.  He,  as  did  his  predecessor,  admitted  persons  to 
own  the  covenant,  as  it  was  termed,  and  dedicate  their  child- 
ren to  God  in  baptism  without  communing  at  the  Lord's  ta- 
ble.   But  after  his  dismission,  this  practice  was  discontinued. 

In  1776,  the  Rev.  Ebenezer  Thaver  was  ordained  at 
Hampton ;  Rev.  Avery  Hall  at  Rochester ;  Rev.  John 
Morrison  at  Peterborough ;  and  Rev.  Simon  Williams  at 

Mr.  Tha3'rr  was  a  son  of  Mr.  Nathaniel  Thayer.  His 
mother  was  Ruth  Eliot,  of  Boston,  a  sister  of  Rev.  Andrew 
Eliot,  D.  1).  He  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in 
1753,  and  was  six  yrars  a  tutor  in  that  institution.  His  wife 
was  a  daughter  of  the  Rev.  John  Cotton,  of  Ne\fton.  Ho 
was  ordainp<l  at  Hampton,  as  successor  of  Mr.  Ward  Cot- 
ton, Sept.  17,  176G.  Dr.  Eliot,  of  Boston,  preached  the 
ordination  sermon,  and  Dr.  Applcton,  of  Cambridge,  gave 
the  charge.  Mr.  Thayer  continued  in  the  ministry  at  Hamp- 
ton until  his  death,  Sept.  6,  1792,  at  the  age  of  68.  His 
widow  died  in  Boston  in  1809.  One  of  his  sons,  the  Rev. 
Nathaniel  Thayer,  D.  D.,  is  minister  of  Lancaster,  Mass. 

Mr.  Hall  succeeded  Mr.  Hill  at  Rochester,  Oct.  17,  1766, 
was  dismissed  April  10,  1775,  and  after  his  dismission  re- 
moved to  Wakefield,  engaged  in  agricultural  pursuits,  and 
was  a  magistrate  of  the  county.  He  died  in  1820,  at  the 
age  of  83. 

Mr.  Morrison  was  the  first  settled  minister  of  Peterbo- 
rough, where  he  wag  ordained  Nov.  26, 1776.  He  was  born 
at  Pathfoot  in  Scotland,  May  22,  1743,  graduated  at  Edin- 
burgh, 1 7G5,  arrived  at  Boston  in  May,  the  same  year,  and 
commenced  preaching  at  Peterborough  the  first  Sabbath  in 
January  following.  He  relinciuished  his  connexion  with  the 
town  in  March,  1772,  and  adhering  to  the  royal  cause,  join- 
ed the  British  army  at  Boston  in  1775,  and  died  at  Charles- 
ton,??. C,  Dec.  10,  1782.  He  married  Sarah  Ferguson,  of 
Peterborough,  who  survives,  and  one  of  his  children  is  now 
living  in  the  State  of  Ohio.* 

Mr.  Williams  was  the  successor  of  Mr.  Kinkead  at  Wind- 
ham, where  he  was  ordained  in  Dec.  1766,  and  continued 
there  in  the  ministry  till  his  death,  Nov.  10,  1  793,  in  the 
64th  year  of  his  age.  Two  of  his  sons  were  in  the  ministry, 
one  at  Newbury,  Mass.  and  another  at  Meredith,  in  this 
State.     One  of  his  daughters  was  married  to  the  Rev.  Wil- 

*Rev.  Mr.  Dunbar's  Ecclesiastical  History  ofPeterborougb.Hist.  Coll.  vol  i.  \\  55, 

Ecclesiastical  History.  45 

liam  Gregg,  of  Cape   Elizabeth,  and  another  to  the  Rev. 
William  Miltiniore  of  Nfw-Casco. 

In  1767,  the  Rev.  Thomas  Fessenden  was  ordained  at 
Walpole  ;  Rev.  Joseph  Stacy  Hastings  at  North-Hanopton  ; 
Rev.  Jeremy  Belknap  at  Dover ;  Rev.  Joseph  Kidder  at 
Dunstable;  and  Rev.  Thomas  Niles  at  Rumney. 

Mr.  Fessonden  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1758, 
succeeded  Mr.  Leavitt  at  Waipole,  in  January  17C7.  His 
house  was  burnt,  with  his  library  and  a  considerable  part 
of  his  furniture,  at  noon-day,  Nov.  23.  1771.  He  continued 
in  the  ministrj  till  his  death  in  the  spring  of  1813,  when  he 
died  at  the  age  of  74.  He  was  the  father  of  ThoHias  G. 
Fessenden,  Esq,  now  of  Boston,  w^ell  known  as  the  author 
of  "  Terrible  Tractoration,""  which  was  published  in  Eng- 
land ;  and  of  several  other  publications  in  poetry,  aiid  in 

Mr.  Hastings  was  graduated  at  Harvard,  1762,  and  or- 
dained at  North-Hampton,  Feb.  11,  1767.  After  a  few 
years,  he  embraced  Sandemanianism,  and  resigned  his  min- 
isterial office,  Julys,  1774.  He  went  to  Nova-Scotia,  and 
thence  to  Boston,  where  he  kept  a  grocery  store,  and  died 
on  a  journey  to  Vermont. 

Mr.  Belknap  was  born  in  Boston,  June  4,  1744,  graduated 
at  Harvard  College,1762,  and  was  ordained  at  Dover,  as  col- 
league with  Mr.  Cushing,  Feb.  18,  1767.  His  wife  was  a 
daughter  of  Mr.  Samuel  Eliot,  a  bookseller  of  Boston,  who 
wrote  and  published  several  pieces  against  what  he  consid- 
ered the  fanaticism  of  Whitfield,  Tennant,  Davenport,  and 
their  followers.  Mr.  Belknap  remained  at  Dover  nearly 
twenty  years,  and  was  dismissed  Stpt.  11,  17C6.  During 
his  ministry  there,  43  were  added  to  the  church.  He  Avas 
installed  over  a  church  in  Boston,  April  4,  1787,  and  died  of 
a  paralytic  affection,  June  20,  1798.  He  received  his  de- 
gree of  Doctor  of  Divinity  from  his  Alma  Mater.  He  was 
one  of  the  founders  of  the  Massachust  tts  Hisiorical  Society, 
a  member  of  the  American  Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences, 
of  the  American  Philosophical  Society,  and  of  several  ether 
Literary  and  Humane  Institutions.  His  History  of  New- 
Hampshire  gained  him  a  high  reputation  as  a  historian,  and 
his  subsequent  publications  added  to  his  fame.  He  was  one 
of  the  most  useful  literary  men  v/hom  Nev.'-England  has  pro- 
duced. He  was  beloved  in  life,  lamented  in  death,  and  his 
praise  is  in  all  the  country.  For  a  list  of  his  publications, 
with  an  account  of  his  life  "and  character,  see  Vol,  I,  p.  37, 
of  these  Collections. 

46  Ecclesiastical  History. 

Mr.  Kidder  was  born  in  Billerica,  Massachusetts,  Nov. 
1741,  graduated  at  Yale  College  in  1764,  and  was  ordained 
at  Dunstable  as  successor  to  Rev.  Samuel  Bird  on  the  18th 
March.  He  was  a  man  of  an  amiable  character.  His  civil 
contract  with  his  people  was  dissolved  many  years  before  his 
death,  but  his  pastoral  relation  to  the  church  continued  till 
he  died,  Sept.  6,  1818,  at  the  age  of  77. 

Mr.  Niles  was  settled  at  Rumney  by  the  proprietors  of 
that  township,  Oct.  21, 1767.  How  long  he  continued  there 
is  uncertain.  He  was  graduated  at  Yale  College  in  1758. 
Mr.  Niles  was  the  only  congregationalist  who  has  been  set- 
tled there  in  the  ministry.  The  inhabitants  are  supposed  td 
be  principally  of  the  Baptist  persuasion. 

In  1 768,  the  Rev.  James  Welman  was  ordained  at  Cornish ; 
Rev.  Jacob  Emery  at  Pembroke  ;  Rev.  Solomon  Moor  at 
New-Boston;  Rev.  Sewall  Goodridge  at  Lyndeborough ; 
and  Rev.  Nathaniel  Merrill  at  Boscawen. 

Mr.  Welman  was  the  first  minister  of  Cornish,  and  was 
settled  there  in  about  three  years  after  the  settlement  of  the 
town  commenced.  He  continued  there  in  the  ministry  till 
1785,  when  he  was  dismissed. 

Mr.  Emery  was  a  native  of  Andover,  Mass.,  graduated  at 
Harvard  College  in  1761,  succeeded  Mr.  Whittemore  as  pas- 
tor of  the  congregational  church  in  Pembroke,  Aug.  3,  1768, 
and  was  dismissed  in  the  7th  year  of  his  ministry,  March 

Mr.  Goodridge  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1 764, 
was  ordained  at  Lyndeborough,  Sept.  7,  1768,  and  continu- 
ed there  till  his  death,  March  14,  1809.  His  predecessor, 
Mr.  Rand,  died  a  few  years  before  him  at  Bedford. 

Mr.  Moor  was  a  native  of  Ireland,  and  was  a  graduate  of 
Glasgow  in  1758.  He  studied  divinity  with  Professor 
Leechman,  of  Glasgow,  and  was  licensed  to  preach  by  the 
Londonderry  Presbytery,  July  26,  1762.  He  first  visited 
New-Boston  in  Feb.  1767,  and  was  ordained  there  in  Sep- 
tember of  the  following  year.  He  continued  in  the  ministry 
until  May  28,  1803,  when  he  died,  aged  67.  See  Vol.  H. 
p.  168,  Historical  Collections. 

Mr.  Merrill  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1767, 
and,  towards  the  close  of  the  same  year,  was  employed  as  a 
school-master  and  candidate  preacher  in  Boscawen.  His  la- 
bors proved  satisfactory  to  the  church  and  people,  and  he 
was  ordained  as  successor  of  Mr.  Morrill,  Oct.  19,  1768. 
His  settlement  was  80  acres  of  land,  purchased  for  ^100; 
aiid  his  annual  salary  £42  lawful  money,  20  cords  of  wood, 

Ecclesiastical  History,  4T 

and  the  use  of  the  parsonage.  Mr.  Merrill  was  inclined  to 
presbyterianism,  induced  the  church  to  adopt,  in  some  meas- 
ure, that  form  of  government,  and  joined  himself  to  the 
Grafton  Presbytery.  This  change  was  not  however  accept- 
able to  the  people,  and  the  town,  at  a  legal  meeting,  appoint- 
ed a  committee  "  to  confer  with  the  Church  in  Boscawen 
about  the  government  and  discipline  thereof."  The  wisdom 
of  the  Serpent  and  harmlessness  of  the  Dove  were  not  very 
happily  blended  in  Mr.  M.,  and  the  popularity  which  he 
rapidly  acquired,  was  not  of  a  kind  that  wore  well.  He  was 
removed,  at  his  request,  by  the  Presbytery  of  which  he  was 
a  member,  without  the  intervention  of  either  the  church  or 

In  1769,  the  Rev.  Jacob  Rice  was  ordained  at  Henniker; 
and  Rev.  Edward  GoDOARoat  Swanzey. 

Mr.  Rice  was  a  native  of  Westborough,  Mass.  graduated 
at  Harvard  College  in  1765,  and  ordained  the  first  minister 
of  Henniker,  June  7,  1769.  On  acconnt  of  ill  health,  he 
was  dismissed  Feb.  21,  1782.  He  afterwards  preached  oc- 
casionally,and  early  in  1806,  received  an  invitation  to  settle 
at  Andover  in  Maine,  but  declined  it,  and  the  same  year  was 
installed  at  Brownfield  in  that  State,  where  he  still  continues 
in  the  ministry. 

Mr.  Goddard  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1764, 
and  was  ordained  at  Swanzey  as  successor  of  Mr.  Carpen- 
ter, Sept.  27,  1769  ;  at  which  time  there  was  but  one  dfcnom- 
ination  of  christians  known  in  the  place.  From  its  first  set- 
tlement, till  some  years  after  Mr.  Goddard's  ordina'ion,  the 
town  of  Swanzey  was  noted  for  the  remarkable  unanimity 
and  correct  deportment  of  its  inhabitants.  Mr.  Goddard 
continued  there  till  July  5,  1798,  when  he  was  honorably 
dismissed  by  an  ecclesiastical  council.  He  afterwards 
preached  in  various  places,  but  declined  being  considered  a 
candidate  for  settlement  in  the  vacant  churches  and  societies 
which  he  supplied,  and  died  Oct.  13,  1811. 

[To  be  continued.] 

A  Jewish  youth  applied  to  a  Rabbi  for  instruction  in  the 
Law.  When  he  came,  he  was  asked  how  old  he  was?  The 
boy  replied,  eight  years.  The  Rabbi  thought  it  would  be 
more  ?idvisable  for  him  to  desist  until  he  was  eight  years  old- 
er. The  youth  significantly  answered — "I  have  frequently 
been  in  the  church-yard ;  and  there  observed  as  many  graves 
shorter  than  myself  as  there  were  longer." 

(  48  ) 

— — f^j — — 


[Extracted  principally  from  Hon.  Samnel  C.  Allen's  Eulogy.] 

Tke  hie  President  Wheelock  was  descended  from  a  line 
of  respectable  ancestors.  His  most  remote  progenitor  of 
whom  we  have  any  account  was  Mr.  Ralph  Wheelock,  who 
was  born  in  Shropshire,  in  England,  in  the  year  1600,  and 
was  educated  at  Clare  Hall,  in  Cambridge  University,  and 
became  an  eminent  preacher  of  the  gospel.  At  the  age  of 
thirty  seven,  he  determined  on  a  removal  to  New-England, 
and  on  his  arrival  here,sett]ed  at  Dedham,  in  Massachusetts, 
from  whence  he  removed  to  Medficld,  where  he  died  Nov. 
1633,  in  the  84th  year  of  his  age.  His  son,  Eleazar  Whee- 
lock lived  in  Mendon,  and  he  was  the  father  of  Mr.  Ralph 
Wheelock,  an  officer  of  the  church  in  Windham,  Conn,  who 
was  the  grandfather  of  the  subject  of  this  sketch.  Rev.  Ele- 
azar Wheelock,  the  father  of  the  President,  was  born  in 
Windham,  Connecticut,  in  April,  1711,  and  died  at  Dart- 
mouth College,  x\pril  24,  1 779,  aged  68  years.  John  Whee- 
lock, his  second  son,was  born  in  Lebanon,  in  the  same  state, 
in  the  year  1 754.  In  his  childhood,  he  exhibited  indications 
of  talent  and  afforded  to  his  father  the  delightful  promise 
of  future  eminent  usefulness.  He  was  entered  a  student  of 
Yale  College  at  an  early  age  ;  but  upon  the  organization  of 
Dartmouth  College,  he  transferred  his  relation  to  this  semina- 
ry, and  was  graduated  in  the  first  class  in  1771.  The  next 
year,  he  was  appointed  a  tutor  in  the  college,  where  he  con- 
tinued discharging  the  duties  of  his  office  with  great  reputation 
and  pursuing  his  studies  with  characteristic  ardour  and  suc- 

W^hile  he  was  devoting  himself  to  his  favourite  pursuits,  the 
affairs  of  his  country  were  hastening  to  a  great  and  perilous 
crisis.  The  commencement  of  hostilities  arrested  his  literary 
course,  and  called  him  to  new  scenes  of  difficulty  and  danger. 
Such  was  the  confidence  of  the  people  in  his  wisdom  and  pat- 
riotism, that  in  1 775,  when  he  was  scarcely  twenty-one  years 
of  age,  they  elected  him  a  member  of  the  Provincial  Congress 
at  Exeter.  In  the  spring  of  1777,  he  received  the  commis- 
sion of  major  in  the  service  of  New-York,  and  was  directed  to 

Hon.  John  Wheelock,  LL.  D.  ^  49 

raise  three  companies,  being  entrusted  with  blank  commis- 
sions for  the  officers  from  the  council  of  safety.  A  part  of 
this  corps  was  raised  under  his  auspices.  In  November  fol- 
lov.'ing,  he  was  appointed  a  lieutenant-colonel  in  the  service 
of  the  United  States,  and  was  attached  to  the  regiment  of  Col. 
Bedel.  In  the  summer  of  1 778,  he  marched  a  detachment  of 
the  regiment  from  Coos  to  Albany,  and  soon  afterwards,  by 
command  of  Brigadier-General  Stark,  he  penetrated  into  the 
Indian  country,  at  the  head  of  a  large  scouting  party,  and  for 
the  martial  manner  in  which  he  executed  this  necessary  and 
hazardous  enterprise,  he  was  honoured  with  the  distinguished 
commendation  of  that  veteran  and  intrepid  commander. 

He  participated  in  the  events  connected  with  the  defeat  and 
capture  of  Burgoyne  ;  and  there  was  no  enterprise  of  difficul- 
ty or  hazard,  which  his  active  spirit  did  not  prompt  him  to  de- 
sire. At  this  time,  he  attracted  the  notice  of  Major-General 
Gates,  and  early  in  the  next  year,  at  his  request,  entered  his 
family,  and  continued  in  his  service,  till,  by  the  death  of  his 
venerable  father  in  1779,  he  was  called  from  military  life  to 
enter  on  a  course  of  distinguished  usefulness  in  this  Institu- 

What  would  have  been  the  destination  of  his  character,  if 
he  had  been  permitted  to  follow  the  fortunes  of  the  war,  or 
the  pursuits  of  civil  life,  we  are  left  to  conjecture.  But  with 
his  abilities,  his  activity  and  ardour  of  mind,  and  his  discern- 
ment of  character, —  with  his  indefatigable  industry  in  busi- 
ness, and  skill  in  the  conduct  of  affairs,  and  with  his  master- 
ly eloquence,  there  can  be  no  doubt  but  he  would  have  risen 
to  the  first  officers  in  the  government,  and  have  filled  a  wide 
space  in  the  history  of  his  country.  But  whatever  objects 
of  ambition  had  presented  themselves  to  his  youthful  mind, 
bold  and  ardent  as  it  was,  he  regarded  his  appointment  to 
the  Presidency  as  a  call  of  Providence,  and  cheerfully  quitted 
the  bright  path  pf  military  glory  for  the  silence  and  shade  of 
the  academic  grove. 

In  obedience  to  the  will  of  his  venerable  father,  he  repair- 
ed to  Hanover,  and  at  the  age  of  twenty-five  years,  entered 
on  the  duties  of  his  office.  How  joyful  must  it  have  been  for 
him  to  meet  again  in  those  consecrated  groves,  his  early 
friends,  the  companions  of  his  youthful  amusements  and 
studies  !  How  happy  to  be  associated  in  the  instruction  and 
government  of  the  college,  with  the  learned  and  communica- 
tive Woodward  ;  with  the  eloquent  and  popular  Ripley  i 
with  the  assiduous  and  critical  Smith. 

His  acceptance  of  the  presidency  was  regarded  as  a  most 
auspicious  event  by  the  friends  of  Dartmouth,  and  their 

50  Hon.  John  WheelocJc,  LL.  D, 

brightest  hopes  at  his  outset  were  more  than  equalled  by 
the  splendour  of  his  progress.  The  unexampled  prosperity 
of  the  College,  under  his  care,  so  long  as  it  was  permitted 
to  enjoy  the  full  benefit  of  his  entire  influence,  affords  the 
best  evidence  of  his  distinguished  merits.  But  to  form  a  just 
estimate  of  his  talents  and  character  in  the  office  he  sustain- 
ed, it  is  necessary  to  present  a  brief  view  of  the  state  of  the 
institution  when  he  acceded  to  the  presidency. 

The  charity  and  faith  of  the  excellent  founder  had  led  him 
to  rely  for  its  support  on  the  special  interpositions  of  Provi- 
dence, rather  than  on  any  definite  calculations  of  its  actual 
means.  The  contributions  of  its  friends-  in  this  country  had 
been  greatly  diminished  by  the  pressure  of  the  times,  and  its 
foreign  aids,  for  some  time,  had  been  wholly  interrupted  by 
the  war.  Unwilling  to  suspend  or  abridge  his  charitable  es- 
tablishment, he  incurred  such  heavy  debts  for  its  mainten- 
ance, that  the  whole  property  of  the  college  at  the  lime  of 
his  decease,  was  scarcely  adequate  to  discharge  them.  Add 
to  this  distressed  state  of  its  finances,  the  diminished  number 
of  its  students,  and  its  situation  in  a  wilderness,  exposed  to 
savages  in  a  time  of  war.  In  these  circumstances  was  the  late 
president  called,  at  an  early  age,  not  only  to  discharge  the 
arduous  duties  of  the  first  office  in  the  college,  but  to  provide 
by  his  address  and  exertions  the  means  for  its  preservation 
and  support. 

For  the  double  purpose  of  imi|)rovement  and  of  negotiating 
with  its  old  friends  in  Europe,  he  crossed  the  Atlantic  in  1 782, 
and  travelled  into  France,  Holland,  and  Great  Britain.  His 
respectable  recommendations  introduced  him  in  Europe  to 
many  men  of  the  first  eminence  in  the  walks  of  science  and 
public  life.  His  pcrsotial  address,  and  the  chc  acter  of  his 
enterprise,  attracted  their  notice,  and  secured  their  interest 
in  favour  of  its  object.  The  institution  derived  essential 
benefits  in  its  fiscal  concerns  from  his  able  negotiations.  And 
it  is  to  be  presumed  that  he  was  indebted  to  his  travels,  not 
only  for  some  of  his  most  valuable  attainments  in  sci- 
ence, but  in  pan  for  those  enlarged  views  and  liberal  concep- 
tions which  distinguished  his  character. 

Early  in  1784,  he  returned  to  Hanover,  to  the  great  joy  of 
his  friends,  and  entered  on  his  favourite  pursuits  and  official 
duties  with  the  spirit  which  belonged  to  his  nature,  and  the 
hopes  which  his  success  had  inspired.  He  pursued  his  pri- 
vate studies  with  unexampled  industry  and  zeal.  With  a 
strength  of  constitution  and  vigour  of  intellect,  which  defied 
fatigue,  he  was  able  to  sustain  the  most  laborious  researches, 

Hon.  John  Wheelock,  LL.  D,  51 

and  to  pursue  without  intermission  the  most  dilBicult  investi- 

In  the  college  he  performed  multiplied  laborious  duties.  In 
addition  to  the  cares  of  the  government,  and  the  stated  reli- 
gious duties  of  the  chapel,  morning  and  evening,  he  attended 
the  daily  recitations  and  exercises  allotted  to  the  senior  class. 
To  the  labours  of  president,  he  added  those  of  professor,  and 
for  many  years  delivered  two  public  lectures  in  a  week,  on 
theology,  history,  and  the  prophecies.  These  evinced  at 
once  the  extent  of  his  le&rning,  the  diversified  powers  of  his 
intellect,  and  the  irresistible  force  and  pathos  of  his  elo- 

These  unusual  labours  did  not  withdraw  his  attention  from 
the  external  interests  of  the  college,  and  he  employed  all  the 
means  in  his  power  to  increase  its  funds,  and  extend  its  pat- 
ronage. Its  most  valuable  public  grants  and  private  dona- 
tions were  the  fruits  of  his  personal  address  and  exertions. 
To  his  immense  labours  for  the  advancement  of  the  college, 
he  added  large  contributions  of  his  substance.  When  he  first 
came  into  office,  he  generously  relinquished,  for  three  years, 
his  annual  stipend,  and  afterwards  deposited  in  the  treasury 
four  years'  salary,  as  an  accumulating  fund,  intended  for  the 
support  of  a  professor. 

President  Wheelock  was  honoured  with  the  degree  of  Doc- 
tor of  Laws  by  the  college  over  which  he  presided.  He  was 
was  a  member  of  several  literary  institutions.  Of  the  Mas- 
sachusetts Historical  Society,  he  was  elected  a  member,  Au- 
gust 25,  1 807,  and  was  subsequently  chosen  a  member  of 
that  in  New- York. 

President  Wheelock  was  distinguished  for  the  extent  and 
variety  of  his  learning.  With  a  lively  curiosity,  he  pushed 
his  inquiries  into  every  department  of  knowledge,  and  made 
himself  conversant  with  the  various  branches  of  science. 
But  of  all  the  subjects  which  presented  themselves  to  his  in- 
quisitive mind,  those  which  related  to  man  in  his  intellectual 
constitution  and  social  relations,  engaged  and  fixed  his  atten- 
tion. His  favourite  branches  were  intellectual  philosophy, 
ethics  and  politics.  He  considered  history  as  an  immense 
store-house,  containing  the  materials  of  knowledge, — the 
facts  from  which  he  was  to  deduce  his  principles.  And  while 
he  extended  his  inquiries  into  the  facts  of  history,  and  made 
himself  familiarly  acquainted  with  the  ancient  and  modern 
historians  and  travellers,  he  attempted  to  apply  to  this  de- 
partment the  method,  which  Bacon  introduced  into  physics, 
and  to  deduce  from  recorded  facts  the  principles  of  an  useful 
science, — the  philosophy  of  history.     Though  to  him  these 

52  Attorneys  in  the  County  of  Cheshire* 

were  subjects  of  interesting  and  delightful  speculation,  be 
did  not  rest  contented  with  barren  principles,  but  sought  for 
the  methods  af  their  application  to  practical  results.  We  are 
happy  to  learn,  that  the  fruits  of  his  extensive  research  and 
deep  reflection  have  been  preserved  in  a  work,  which  we 
trust  will  at  no  distant  day  be  given  to  the  public. 


^ttovnt^H  in  the  (Kountg  of  Chcsfiire. 

J^ames  of  Attorneys  at  Law,  who  have  resided  in  the  County  of 
Cheshire,  and  have  deceased,  with  some  notices, 

Daniel  Jones,  graduated  at  Harvard  College,  1759;  set- 
tled at  Hinsdale.  When  the  county  was  organized  in  1  771, 
he  was  appointed  Chief  Justice  of  the  Court  of  Common 

John  Sprague,  graduated  at  Harvard  College ;  settled  at 
Kcene  for  a  short  lime  ;  removed  to  Lancaster,  Mass. ;  was 
an  eminent  lawyer  and  civilian. 

Simeon  Olcott,  graduated  at  Yale  College,  1761  ;  settled 
in  Charlcstown ;  was  appointed  Chief  Justice  of  the 
Court  of  Common  Pleas,  Dec.  26,  1784;  Associate 
Justice  of  the  Superior  Court,  January  25,  1790  ;  Chief  Jus- 
tice March  28,  1795;  and  Senator  in  Congress  in  1801. 
Died  1815. 

Elijah  Williams,  graduated  at  Harvard  College,  1 764  ; 
settled  in  Keene ;  left  the  practice  at  the  beginning  of  the 
revolutionary  war. 

Asa  Dunbar,  graduated  at  Harvard,  1767  ;  was  a  settled 
Minister  in  Salem,  Mass. ;  practised  law  in  Keene  in  1783, 
and  afterwards  till  his  decease. 

Benjamin  West,  graduated  at  Harvard,  1768;  settled  in 
Charlestown  ;  was  a  member  of  the  convention  for  accepting 
the  U.  S.  Constitution ;  was  elected  member  of  Congress, 
but  declined  serving ;  an  Elector  of  President  and  Vice  Pres- 
ident ;  a  member  of  the  Hartfoi*d  Convention.  He  was  em- 
inent for  his  talents  and  virtues.  Died  July,  1817,  aged  71. 
Daniel  Newcomb,  graduated  at  Harvard,  1768  ;  settled  in 
Keene ;  was  a  member  of  the  Legislature,  Chief  Justice  of 
the  Court  of  Common  Pleas,  and  a  Judge  of  the  Superior 
Court.    Died  1818. 

Attorneys  in  the  County  of  Cheshire,  53 

Ezra  Stiles,  Jun.  graduated  at  Harvard,  1783;  settled 
in  Keene. 

Peleg  Sprague,  was  admitted  to  the  Superior  Court,  1 787 ; 
settled  in  Keene ;  was  a  member  of  the  Legislature,  and  of 
Congress.     Died  1800. 

Alpheus  Mooee,  graduated  at  Harvard,  1783;  settled 
first  in  Keene,  and  removed  to  Westmoreland  ;  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Legislature ;  left  the  practice. 

Jabez  Upham,  graduated  at  Harvard,  1 785 ;  settled  in 
Claremont,  and  removed  to  Brookfield,  Mass. ;  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Legislature,  and  of  Congress. 

Samuel  West,  graduated  at  Harvard,  1788;  settled  in 
Walpole,  and  removed  to  Charlestown. 

Samuel  Hunt,  admitted  to  practice,  1  790  ;  settled  in  Al- 
stead,  and  removed  to  Keene;  left  the  practice  1795;  was  a 
member  of  the  Legislature  and  of  Congress.  Died  in  Ohio, 

David  Forbes,  graduated  at  Dartmouth,  1790;  settled  in 
Chesterfield,  1793;  removed  to  Keene;  was  a  member  of 
the  Legislature.     Died  1815. 

Joseph  Dennie,  born  at  Lexington,  Massachusetts,  Au- 
gust 30,  1768;  graduated  at  Harvard,  1790;  settled  in 
Charlestown,  and  removed  to  Walpole ;  left  the  practice  in 
1798.  He  was  for  many  years  the  able  editor  of  the  fort 
Folio;  and  died  January  7,  1812. 

Caleb  Ellis,  graduated  at  Harvard,  1793;  settled  in 
Newport,  and  removed  to  Claremont ;  was  a  member  of  each 
branch  in  the  Legislature,  and  of  Congress,  elector  of  Pres- 
ident and  Vice  President,  and  Judge  of  the  Superior  Court, 
Died  1816. — See  Collections  vol.  fl,  page  225 — 232. 

John  L.  Tuttle,  graduated  at  Harvard,  1796;  settled 
at  Walpole  ;  removed  to  Concord,  Mass. ;  was  a  member  of 
the  Legislature,  and  an  ofiicer  of  distinction  in  the  last  war. 
Died  in  the  army. 

Jabez  Kimball,  graduated  at  Harvard,  1791  ;  settled  in 
Chesterfield  ;  removed  to  Haverhill,  Mass. 

Samuel  Prescott,  graduated  at  Harvard,  1 799  ;  settled  in 
Chesterfield,  and  removed  to  Keene.     Died  1813. 

Seth  Newcomb,  graduated  at  Harvard,  1804;  settled  in 
Keene.     Died  1811. 

John  M.  Foster,  admitted  to  practice,  1807;  settled  in 

David  Hale,  admitted  to  practice,  1811  ;  settled  at  New- 
port.    Died  1822. 

54  "  77ie  Pilot. ^^— Paul  Jones, 

Stephen  Tyler,   admitted  to   practice   1820;  settled  at 
Drewsville.     Died  at  New-Orleans,  1823. 

[():^We  should  be  much  obliged  to  any  gentleman,  who  will  furnish 
additional  biographical  notices  of  the  persons  mentioned  in  the  preced- 
ing communication.  It  would  be  graiif5ring  also  to  receive  similar  no- 
tices of  the  Attorneys  who  have  been  settled  in  the  other  counties  of 
this  State.  A  very  considerable  number  have  been  and  are  ornaments 
to  their  profession  and  to  society,  and  deserve  respectful  notice.  We 
thank  the  individual  who  has  corameneed  the  work,  and  hope  his  exam- 
ple will  be  followed  by  gentlemen  in  other  par'.s  of  the  State. — Ed.] 



The  reading  public  have  ere  this  time  been  made  ac- 
quainted with  Mr.  Cooper's  last  novel.*  And  many  a 
grej'  head  has  pored  over  its  pages,  pleased  with  its  simple 
details ;  many  a  fair  hand  has  lightly  turned  over  its  leaves, 
uncertain  whether  to  censure  or  applaud  ;  many  an  honest 
tar  has  sealed  his  oath  of  approbation,  and  done  homage  to 
the  character  of  Katy  Plowden ;  and  many  a  rustic  (we 
among  the  rest)  have  shaken  hands  with  brawny  Long 
Tom  Coffin,  whose  portrait  is  the  richest  in  the  novel.  Of 
the  Pilot,  the  hero  of  the  story,  we  can  learn  but  little — so 
mysterious  are  all  his  movements  ;  and  yet  enough,  to  feel 
assured  that  no  human  mind  could  excel  his  in  coolness 
amidst  the  greatest  danger,  or  bravery  in  the  hour  of 

Paul  Jones  is  the  real  hero  of  the  novel  ;  and  its  prin- 
cipal design  is  to  delineate  his  skill  and  courage  in  the  most 
desperate  enterprizes.  The  scene  is  laid  upon  the  eastern 
coast  of  England,  near  the  residence  of  a  Col.  Howard,  an 
American  refugee  ;  the  period  is  the  revolution.  The  open- 
ing is  fine.  Two  strange  vessels  are  seen  nearing  the  dan- 
gerous coast,  to  the  wonder  of  the  rustic  beholders  on  shore. 

*The  Pilot ;  a  tale  of  the  Sea,  2  vols. 

\  Memoir  of  Paul  Jones.  6S 

The  Pilot  embarks;  and  after  sundry  acts  of  nautical  skill 
and  enterprize,  prepares  for  a  descent  upon  the  island,  for 
the  purpose  of  securing  hostages  for  the  release  of  American 
prisoners.  The  descent  is  made,  but  without  the  desired 
success.  The  under-plot  is  not  deficient  in  interest,  by  which 
two  lieutenants,  while  aiding  the  main  design,  contrive  to 
secure  the  family  of  Col.  Howard,  particularly  his  two 
prett}^  wards,  Cecilia  and  Katharine.  But  we  are  not  about 
to  analyze  the  story,  when  the  book  itself  is  within  tne 
reach  of  every  one.  Our  design  was  merely  to  note  our 
satisfaction  on  reading  the  tale  ;  which,  though  inferior  as  a 
whole  to  the  Spy  and  Pioneers^  has  yet  many  beautiful  pas- 
sages, not  excelled  in  either — nor  indeed  in  any  modern 
novel.  We  would  instance  the  escape  of  the  frigate  in  the 
opening  of  the  first  volume — the  fight  between  the  Ariel  and 
Alacrity — the  shipwreck  of  the  former — and  the  running 
fight  in  the  last  volume,  where  the  frigate  again  escapes,  by 
the  skill  of  the  Pilots  from  a  host  of  enemies.  The  novel 
will  undortbtedly  be  popular  with  the  American  public,  par- 
ticularly that  portion  for  which  it  was  designed — the  navy. 
And  we  hope,  now  that  the  youthful  author  has  convinced 
his  countrymen  and  the  world  that  he  possesses  every  re- 
quisite qualification,  he  will  continue  to  write  for /ame,  rath- 
er than  reward — that  he  will  not  so  rapidly  weave  his  tales 
as  to  mar  their  strength  and  beauty. 

Believing  that  some  notice  of  the  character  and  public 
services  of  the  celebrated  Jones  may  be  interesting  to  our 
readers,  we  have  collected  the  following  particulars. 


Wai5  a  native  of  Scotland.  He  was  born  in  the  year  1747,  in  the 
county  of  Galway,  distant  about  sixty  miles  from  the  mansion 
residence  of  the  Earl  of  Selkirk.  His  father  had  been  a  garden- 
er to  the  Earl.  His  original  name  was  John  Paul^  and  the  event 
which  induced  him  to  add  thereto  his  mother's  maiden  name, 
Jones,  will  be  noticed  hereafter. 

The  partiality,  which  the  Earl  of  Selkirk  entertained  for  old 
Mr.  Paul,induced  him  to  cause  his  son  John  to  receive  from  a  pri- 
vate tutor  the  same  education  as  his  own  boys.  John  Paul  early 
evinced  an  aptitude  for  learning,  and  made  considerable  progress 

$S  Memoir  of  Paul  Jonu. 

in  obtaining  a  knowledge  of  the  Latin  language,  and  a  slender  ac- 
quaintance with  the  Greek.  Circumstances,  at  present  unknown, 
led  him  to  embrace  a  sea-faring  life  at  the  age  of  fifteen.  After 
he  had  served  a  regular  apprenticeship,  he  commanded  a  mer- 
chant vessel,  which  was  for  many  years  engaged  in  the  West  In- 
dia trade  in  the  employ  of  Ferguson  and  Clinch,  Cork,  Ireland. 
During  a  voyage  to  Tobago,  the  crew  of  his  vessel  mutinied. 
He,  in  the  incipiency  of  the  insurrection,  resorted  to  conciliato- 
ry measures  with  a  view  to  restore  order  .•  but  his  moderation 
being  supposed  to  be  the  effects  of  fear,  the  mutineers  grew  bold- 
er, and  renewed  their  threats.  On  this,  Capt.  Paul  armed  him- 
self with  a  small  sword,  posted  himself  on  the  quarter-deck,  and 
informed  the  mutineers,  that  the  most  serious  consequences  would 
result,  if  they  should  pass  the  after  hatchway,  and  that  an  attempt' 
to  get  on  the  quarter-deck  would  induce  him  and  his  officers  to 
risk  their  own  lives,  in  endeavoring  to  effect  their  destruction. 
They  were,  some  time,  appalled  by  his  decision,  but  some  more 
desperate  than  the  rest,  determined  to  seize  him,  and  armed 
with  handspikes,  crowbars,  and  axes,  moved  along  the  waisl;  to 
the  quarter  deck.  The  leader,  on  approaching  Captain  Paul, 
raised  a  handspike  to  strike  him,  and  made  the  blow,  but  it  was 
evaded,  and  he  missed  his  object  ;  but  was  about  to  renew  it, 
and  when  lifted  a  second  time.  Captain  Paul  pierced  the  ruffian, 
who  fell  dead  upon  the  deck.  The  rest  (led  to  the  forecastle, 
and  some  below  deck  ;  those  who  remained  above  were  seized 
and  put  in  irons,  and  those,  who  had  resisted  the  mutiny,  being 
encouraged  by  the  resolution  of  the  Captain,  secured  the  others 

The  voyage  was  prosecuted,  and  they  arrived  at  Tobago, 
where  Captain  Paul  surrendered  himself  to  the  proper  authori- 
ty, with  a  demand  that  he  should  be  tried  for  the  death  of  the 
mutineer.  The  transaction  excited  considerable  interest,  but  at 
lea^-th  he  obtained  a  formal  trial,  wherein  he  was  fairly  ac- 

Captain  Paul  had  despatched  his  ship,  under  another  officer, 
to  Europe,  while  he  awaited  trial  ;  and  after  his  acquittal,  re- 
turned to  Europe.  He  landed  in  England,  where  the  story  had 
preceded  him,  with  great  exaggeration,  and  he  was  menaced 
with  imprisonment  and  a  new  trial.  In  this  dilemma,  he  ad- 
dressed his  friends  of  the  Scots  house  in  Cork,  described  the 
prosecution  he  had  experienced,  and  the  injustice  of  bringing 
him  a  second  time  to  trial,  contrary  to  the  laws  of  England,  In 
his  friends,  he  found  advice  and  protection ;  and  to  escape  in- 
justice, he  determined  to  proceed  to  the  American  continent, 
where  he  added  to  his  paternal  name,  nomme  de  guerre^  Jones. 

He  arrived  here  at  a  most  important  period.  The  colonies 
were  on  the  eve  of  separation  from  the  parent  state.  The  con- 
flict had  begun,  and  Jones,  under  his  assumed  name,  having  re- 
ceived a  lieutenant's  commission,  embarked  on  the  expedition 
against  New  Providence,  under  Commodore  Hoplcins.     Here  he 

Memoir  of  Paul  Jones,  57 

became  acquainted  with  Captain  Nicholas  Biddle,  who  subse- 
quently lost  his  life  in  a  gallant  attack  on  the  enemy's  line  of  bat- 
tle ship  the  Yarmouth. 

On  his  return  from  Xew  Providence,  against  which  the  ex- 
pedition had  fully  succeeded,  he  was  appointed  to  the  command 
of  a  sloop  carrying  twelve  guns,  on  a  cruise,  in  which  he  cap- 
tured several  prizes,  which  arrived  safely  into  port.  His  next 
command  was  a  new  ship  of  war,  called  the  Ranger,  of  eighteen 
carriage  guns,  six  pounders,  and  a  crew  of  one  hundred  and  fifty 
men,  including  officers.  This  vessel  had  a  privateer's  commis- 
sion, and  belonged  to  New-Hampshire.  Having  sailed  in  the 
beginning  of  1778  from  Portsmouth,  the  capitaj  sea  port  of  this 
State,  he  bent  his  course  for  the  British  coast.  In  April  of  that 
year,  towards  the  close  of  the  month,  he  landed  with  about 
thirty  men  at  Whitehaven,  in  Cumberlandshire,  and  succeeded  in 
firing  one  of  the  ships  in  the  harbor,  which  the  inhabitants  ex- 
tinguished belore  the  flames  had  communicated  to  the  rigging. 
Having  effected  this,  he  caused  a  descent  on  the  coast  of  Scot- 
land to  be  made  by  a  party  commanded  by  his  firs*;  lieutenant, 
for  the  object,  as  he  avowed  in  a  letter  to  the  Countess  of  Sel- 
kirk, of  making  the  Earl  a  prisoner,  and  carrying  him  to  France. 
The  Earl  being  absent,  attending  Parliament,  of  which  he  was 
a  member,  frustrated  the  intentions  of  Jones.  The  party,  nev- 
ertheless, carried  off  the  family  plate,  and  many  other  valuable 
articles,  and  made  good  their  retreat  to  the  vessel.  For  this 
act,  Jones  has  been  highly  censured  ;  but  probably  without  just 
cause.  The  vessel  being  a  privateer,  the  fruits  of  all  enterprize 
against  the  enemy  were  not  under  his  control.  Jones  sailed  for 
France,  and  landed  his  plunder  at  Brest.  The  property,  upon 
representation  to  Dr.  Franklin,  the  American  Minister,  was  re- 
shipped  OH  board  a  cartel,  and  returned  to  its  original  owner. 
He  again  put  to  sea  with  the  Ranger,  and  appeared  cruising  off 
the  Irish  coast.  Upon  learning,  that  a  British  king's  vessel, 
called  the  Drake,  mounting  twenty-two  guns,  was  in  the  har- 
bor of  Waterford,  Jones  sent  the  Captain  of  that  ship  a  challenge 
for  combat,  mentioning  at  the  same  time,  his  force  of  men  and 
metal.  The  challenge  was  accepted — the  complement  of  the 
Drake  was  immediately  made  up  of  volunteers — she  put  to  sea 
— the  ships  met,  fought,  and  Jones  conquered,  after  an  hour  and 
a  quarter's  combat.  The  guns  of  the  English  ship,  which  was  of 
superior  force  in  men  and  metal,  were  said  to  have  badly  worked, 
while  those  of  the  Ranger  gave  proof  of  the  superior  skill  of  the 
American  commander,  officers  and  men.  In  the  contest,  the 
British  lost  one  hundred  and  five  killed,  and  seventy-two  wound- 
ed— Jones'  loss  was  about  twelve  killed,  and  nine  wounded. 

In  consequence  of  some  causes,  Jones  left  the  Ranger,  and  oh- 
tained  the  command  of  the  Bonne  Homme  Richard  (Good  man 
Richard.)  It  was  while  he  commanded  this  ship,  that  Jones 
wrote  a  letter  to  the  Countess  ol' Selkirk,  disavowing  his  knowl- 
edge of  the  plunder  of  her  house,  until  his  arrival  in  France. 

58  Memoir  of  Paul  Jones. 

declaring  his  early  assent  for  its  restitution,  and  hoping  that  she 
would  not  inculpate  him  in  the  business. 

A  squadron  was  fitted  out  in  the  summer  of  1779,  to  cruise  off 
the  British  coast,  and  if  possible,  to  intercept  the  British  Baltic 
fleet.  It  consisted  of  Bonne  Homme  Richard,  of  40  guns,  and 
415  men  ;  Alliance,  36,  and  290  men  ;  Monsieur,  32  ;  Pallas,  28  ; 
La  Vengeance,  12;  and  Cutter  Cerf,  10.  Jones  hoisted  a  Com- 
modore's flag  on  board  the  Bonne  Homme  Richard,  and  set  sail 
with  his  squadron  from  L'^Orient  on  the  1 4th  of  August.  On  the 
16th,  at  night,  he  captured  a  large  and  valuable  English  ship, 
laden  with  silks  in  bale,  and  other  rich  merchandise.  This 
prize  was  manned  and  ordered  for  France. 

On  the  17th,  the  Commodore's  ship  narrowly  escaped  being 
driven  against  some  rocks  on  the  Irish  shore,  in  a  calm  Having 
sent  out  boats  to  tow  her  off,  and  this  was  happily  effected,  the 
crew  of  one  of  the  boats,  consisting  of  an  ofhcer  and  eleven  men, 
instead  of  returning  to  the  ship,  made  off  for  the  land,  and  were 
pursued  by  one  lieutenant  and  twelve  men  in  another  boat.  Both 
crews  made  good  their  landing,  and  the  latter  continued  to  pur- 
sue the  former  on  shore,  when  the  two  parties  were  taken 
prisoners  by  the  inhabitants.  This  occurrence  deprived  him  of 
the  services  of  twenty-two  of  his  best  seamen  and  two  experien- 
ced officers.  In  a  succeeding  gale,  his  ship  had  nearly  been  lost 
by  the  loosening  of  one  of  the  lower  deck  guns.  He  was  now 
separated  from  the  rest  of  his  squadron,  in  consequence  of  which 
he  made  for  Lewis  Island,  one  of  the  Hebrides,  the  place  of  ren- 
dezvous, off  which  he  arrived  the  3dih  of  August,  and  on  the 
next  day  captured  eleven  sail,  one  of  which  being  valuable,  was 
manned  and  ordered  for  L'Orient,  the  rest  were  sunk.  A  few 
days  after,  he  gave  chase  and  captured  an  English  letter  of 
marque,  mounting  twenty-two  guns,  from  Leith  bound  for  Que- 
bec, and  laden  with  naval  and  military  stores,  wliich  surrender- 
ed without  resistance.  In  the  moi'ning  of  the  same  day,  Jones 
had  descried  three  vessels  at  a  distance,  which  he  deemed  to  be 
ships  of  war,  and  supposing  them  to  belong  to  the  enemy, 
preparations  were  forthwith  made  for  action.  But  this  precau- 
tion was  unnecessary,  as  about  mid-day,  two  of  them  came  up, 
proving  to  be  the  Alliance  frigate.  Captain  Landais,  with  his 
prize,  a  letter  of  marque,  of  twenty-four  guns,  laden  with  naval 
and  military  stores,  also  on  the  same  destination  with  her  con- 
sort, the  one  which  Jones  had  just  captured.  A  few  hours  after 
the  Pallas,  and  the  next  morning,  the  Vengeance  came  up  :  thus 
were  the  squadron  united  once  more,  with  the  exception  of  the 
Cerf  Cutter;  of  which  no  information  was  received.  These  two 
prizes  were  ordered  for  France,  and  Jones  stood  for  the  Ork- 
neys, off  which  Islands  he  cruised  for  some  days,  and  succeeded 
in  capturing  and  destroying  sixteen  sail.  He  then  made  for  the 
N.  E.  of  the  Scotch  coast,  where  he  took  and  destroyed  seven 
vessels,  engaged  in  the  coal  trade.  He  next  conceived  the  idea 
©f  putting  the  town  of  Leith  under   contribution,  and   called  a 

Memoir  of  Paul  Jones.  59 

council  of  officers,  to  whom  he  submitted  the  plan.  A  majority, 
at  first,  were  opposed  to  it  ;  but  upon  hearing  his  observations 
in  regard  to  its  practicability,  they  assented  to  make  the  attempt. 
His  plan  was  to  move  the  whole  squadron  up  the  Frith  of  Forth, 
off  Leith,  under  English  colors,  his  officers  wearing  the  uniform 
ef  the  British  navy  ;  by  which  means  they  could  get  up  without 
exciting  any  suspicion.  When  they  should  arrive  off  the  towa 
they  were  to  anchor,  with  springs  on  their  cables,  and  present- 
ing their  broadsides,  to  prepare  for  cannonading.  After  this,  an 
officer  was  to  be  despatched  with  a  flag,  to  demand  the  ransom 
of  the  town  for  £100,000  sterling.  One  half  hour  wa«  only  to 
have  been  allowed  the  inhabitants  for  deliberation,  and  in  case 
of  non  compliance,  Leith  was  to  be  laid  in  ashes,  with  red  hot 
shot,  with  which  the  squadron  was  prepared.  The  squadron  en- 
tered the  Frith,  with  a  favorable  wind,  hove  to  within  sight  of 
Edinburgh,  and  threw  out  the  signal  for  a  pilot.  Each  vessel  having 
received  one,  they  were  compelled  to  wait  for  the  turn  of  tide. 
The  deception  was  complete  ;  the  officer,  commanding  at  Leith, 
sent  his  compliments  to  the  Commodore,  and  requested  to  know, 
what  squadron  it  was,  and  the  nanae  of  the  Commander,  what 
assistance  he  required,  and  whether  his  intention  was  to  come 
up  to  Leith.  He  also  asked  the  favor  of  a  barrel  or  two  of  pow- 
der, for  the  fort,  and  informed  him  that  there  were  several 
American  privateers  on  the  coast  ;  that  the  inhabitants  were 
greatly  alarmed,  lest  these  cruisers  should  ascend  the  Frith,  and 
attempt  the  destruction  of  the  town.  Jones  gave  him  the  names 
of  the  vessels  and  commanders,  corresponding  with  some  of  the 
British  navy  of  the  same  size  and  metal,  and  sent  the  powder  as 
requested.  At  this  juncture,  a  prize  brig,  which  had  been  re- 
cently captured  and  manned  with  Englishmen,  was  run  on  shore, 
supposed  designedly,  and  the  crew  effected  their  escape,  not- 
withstanding all  the  boats  of  the  squadron  had  been  manned  and 
sent  after  them.  Signal  was  immediately  made  for  the  bo^ts  to 
return,  when  all  put  to  sea  as  expeditiously  as  possible.  Al- 
though he  had  remained  in  this  situation  for  several  hours,  until 
this  incident  occurred,  nothing  of  a  hostile  nature  was  suspected, 
and  Jones  found  himself  once  more  in  open  sea,  without  having 
received,  during  this  daring  excursion,  a  single  shot. 

When  cruising  off  Flamborough  head,  about  two  leagues  from 
the  shore,  on  the  22d  September,  at  2  o'clock,  P.  M.,  he  descried 
the  Baltic  fleet,  for  which  he  had  been  so  long  on  the  look-out, 
under  convoy.  The  fleet  was  convoyed  by  a  frigate  and  a  sloop 
of  war.     Preparations  were  immediately  made  for  action. 

When  the  hostile  ships  had  sufficiently  neared,  their  respec- 
tive Captains  hailed  each  other,  and  commenced  the  scene  of 
carnage,  at  moon-rise,  about  a  quarter  before  eight,  at  pistol  shot 
distance.  The  English  siiip  gave  the  first  fire  from  her  upper 
and  quarter  deck,  which  Jones  returned  with  alacrity.  Three 
of  his  lower  deck  guns  on  the  starboard  side,  burst  in  the  gun- 
room, and  killed  the  men  stationed  at  them,  in  consequence  of 

60  Memoir  of  Paul  Jones, 

which,  order?  were  given   no^  to   fire  the  other  three  eighteen 
pounders  mounted  on  that  deck,  lest  a  similar  misfortune   should 
occur.     TMs  prevented  him  from  the  advantage  he  expected  to 
have  derived  from   them  in  the  th'in  existing  calm.     Having  to 
contend    alone   with    both   the    enemy's   ships,  atid  the    Bonne 
Homme  Richard  having  received  several  shot,  between  wind  and 
water,  he  grappled  with  the  larger  vessel,  to  render  her  force 
useless,  and  to  prevent  firing  from  the  smaller  one.     In  elTectiug 
this  object,  the  superior  manoeuvring  of  the  larger  ship  embar- 
rassed him  greatly.     He  succeeded,  however,  in  laying  his  ship 
ath^^'art  the  hawse  of  his  opponent's.     His  mizzen  shrouds  struck 
the  jJb-bo9m  of  the    enemy,  and  hung  for  some  time  ;  but  they 
soon  gave  vva}',  when  both  fell  along  side  of  each  other,  head  to 
stern.     The  Huke  of  the  enemy's  spare  anchor,  hooked  the  Bonne 
Homme  Richard's  quarter,  both  ships  being  so  closely  grappled 
fore  and  aft,   that  the  muzzles  of  ihelr   respective  guns  touched 
each  other's  sides.     The   Captain   of  the    enemy's  smaller  ship 
judiciously  ceased   firing,  as   soon  as  Jones  had  effected  his  de- 
sign, lest  he  should  assist  to  injure  his  consort.    In  this  situation, 
the    crews  of  both  ships  coniinued  the  engagement  most  despe- 
rately for  several  hours.     Many    of  the  guns  of  the    American 
ships  were  rendered  useless,  while  those  of  the   English  remain- 
ed manageable.     Some  time  after,  a  brave  fellow,    posted  in  the 
Bonne  Homme  Richard's    main    top,  succeeded  in    silencing    a 
number  of  the  enemy's  guns.     This  man,  with  a  lighted  match 
and  a  basket  filled  with  hand  grenades,  advanced  along  the   main 
yard,  until  he  was  over  the  enemy's  deck.     Being  enabled  to  dis- 
tinguish objects  by  the  light  of  the  moon,  wherever  he  discover- 
ed a  number  of  persons  together,  he  dropped  a  hand  grenade 
among  them.     He  succeeded  in    dropping  several    through    the 
scuttles  of  the  ship — these  set  fire  to  the  cartridge  of  an  eighteen 
poi'.nder,  which  communicated  successively  to  other  cartridges, 
disabled  all    the   officers  and  men,  and  rendered   useless  all  the 
guns  abaft  the  main  mast.     The   enemy's  ship  was,  many  times, 
set  on   fire,  by  the  great    quantity  of  combustible  matter  thrown 
on    board,  and  with   much    difficulty  and  toil  the  flames  were  as 
often  extinguished.     Towards    the  close  of  the    action,  all    the 
guns  of  the  Bonne  Homme  Richard    were    silenced,   except  four 
on  the   fore-castle,  which    were  commanded  by  the  purser,  who 
was  dangerously  wounded.     Jones  immediately  took  their  com- 
mand on  himself     The   two  guns  next  the    enemy   were    well 
served.     The   seamen  succeeded  in  removing  another  from  the 
opposite   side.     Hence  only  three  guns  were   used   towards  the 
close  of  the  action  on  board  of  Jones'  ship.     The  musketry  and 
swivels,  however,  did  great  execution,  as  did  also   the  incessant 
fire  fVom  the    round  tops,  in  consequence  of  which  the  enemy 
were  several  times  driven  from  their  quarters. 

About  10  o'clock,  a  report  was  in  circulation  between  decks, 
that  Jones  and  the  chief  officers  were  killed  ;  that  the  ship  had 
four  or  five  feet  water  in  her  hold,  and  was  sinking.     The  crew 

Memoir   of  Paul  Jones.  61 

became  alarmed,  and  the  gunner,  the  carpenter,  and  the  master 
at  arms  were  deputed  to  go  on  deck,  and  beg  quarters  of  the  ene- 
my. They  ascended  the  quarter  deck,  and  whilst  in  the  act  of 
fulfilling  their  mission,  were  discovered  by  the  Commodore,  cry- 
ing for  quarters.  Hearing  the  voice  of  Jones,  calling,  "  what 
rascals  are  these — shoot  them — kill  them,"  the  carpenter  and 
master  at  arms  succeeded  in  getting  below.  The  Commodore 
threw  both  his  pistols  at  the  gunner,  who  had  descended  to  the 
foot  of  the  gang-way  ladder,  and  his  skull  was  thereby  fractur- 
ed. The  man  lay  there  until  the  action  was  over,  after  which 
his  skull  was  trepanned,  and  he  recovered.  While  the  action 
continued  to  rage  with  relentless  fury,  both  ships  took  fire,  in 
consequence  of  which  the  crews  were  obliged  to  cease  from 
firing,  and  exert  themselves  in  extinguishing  the  flames,  in  which 
their  respective  vessels  were  enveloped,  and  thus  prevent  the 
certain  destruction  of  all  the  combatants.  The  fire  being  ex- 
tinguished, the  Captain  of  the  hostile  ships  asked,  if  Jones  had 
struck,  as  he  had  heard  a  cry  for  quarters.  Jones  replied,  that 
his  colors  would  never  descend,  till  he  was  fairly  beaten.  The 
action  re-commenced  with  renewed  vigor.  Shortly  after,  the 
Alliance,  Captain  Landais,  came  up  within  pistol  shot,  and  began 
a  heavy  tiring,  injuring  both  friend  and  foe  ;  nor  did  the  firing 
cease  from  her,  notwithstanding  repeated  hailing,  until  the  sig- 
nal of  recognition  was  fully  displayed  on  board  the  Bonne  Homme 
Richard.  Nearly  one  hundred  of  the  prisoners,  previously 
captured,  had  been  suffered  to  ascend  the  deck  by  Jones'  master 
at  arms,  during  the  confusion  occasioned  by  the  cry  for  quarters, 
owing  to  a  belief  that  the  vessel  was  sinking.  To  prevent  dan- 
ger from  this  circumstance,  they  were  stationed  at  the  pumps, 
where  they  remained  in  active  employ,  during  the  remainder  of 
the  battle. 

The  sides  of  the  Bonne  Homme  Richard  were  nearly  stove 
in,  her  helm  had  become  unmanageable  :  a  splintered  piece  of 
timber  alone  supported  the  poop.  A  brisk  firing,  however,  was 
kept  up  from  her  three  guns  on  the  quarter  deck.  Their  shot 
raked  the  enemy  fore  and  aft,  cuttiog  up  his  rigging  and  spars, 
so  that  his  mainmaist  had  only  the  yard-arm  of  the  Bonne  Homme 
Richard  for  support.  The  enemy's  fire  subsided  by  de- 
grees, and  when  his  guns  could  no  longer  be  brought  to  bear,  he 
struck  his  colors. 

At  this  juncture,  his  mainmaist  went  by  the  board.  Lieut. 
Dale  was  left  below,  where  being  no  longer  able  to  rally  his 
men,  he,  although  severely  wounded,  superintended  the  work- 
ing of  the  pumps.  Notwithstanding  every  effort,  the  hold  of 
the  Bonne  Homme  Richard  was  half  full  of  water,  when  the 
enemy  surrendered.  After  the  action,  the  wind  blew  fresh,  and 
the  flames  on  board  the  Richard  spread  anew,  nor  were  they 
extinguished  until  day-light  appeared.  In  the  meantime  all  the 
ammunition  was  brought  on  deck  to  be  thrown  overboard,  in 
case  of  necessity.     The  enemy  had  nailed  his  flag  to  the  mast, 

62  Memoir  of  Paul  Jones. 

at  the  beginning  of  the  action,  and  after  the  Captain  had  called 
for  quarters,  he  could  not  prevail  upDn  his  men  to  bring  down 
his  colors,  as  they  expressed  their  dread  of  the  American  rifles. 
He  was,  therefore,  obliged  to  do  that  service  himself.  In  tak- 
ing possession  of  the  enemy,  three  of  Jones'  men  were  killed 
after  the  surrender,  for  which  an  apology  was  afterwards  made. 
The  captured  vessel  proved  to  be  his  Britannic  Majesty's  ship 
Serapis,  Captain  Pearson,  rating  forty-four,  but  mounting  fifty 
carriage  guns.  The  Bonne  Homme  Richard  had  one  hundred 
and  sixty-five  killed,  and  one  hundred  and  thirty-seven  wound- 
ed and  missing".  The  Serapis  one  hundred  and  thirty-seven 
killed,  and  seventy-six  Avounded.  All  hands  were  removed  on 
board  the  prize,  together  with  such  articles  as  could  be  saved, 
and  at  about  10  o'clock,  A.  M.  the  next  day,  the  Bonne  Homme 
Richard  sunk. 

Shortly  after  this  contest  had  terminated.  Captain  Cotineau,  in 
the  Pallas,  engaged  the  enemy's  lesser  ship,  which  struck  after 
a  severe  engagement  of  two  hours  and  an  half.  She  proved  to 
be  the  Countess  of  Scarborough.  Her  braces  wei'e  all  cut  away, 
as  well  as  her  running  rigging  and  top-sail  sheets.  Seven  of  her 
guns  were  dismounted  ;  four  men  killed,  and  twenty  w^ounded. 
More  than  fifteen  hundred  persons  witnessed  the  sanguinary  con- 
flict from  Flamborough  head. 

For  these  daring  exploits,  Jones  received  public  tcstimoniaU 
from  his  country,  and  from  the  King  of  France.  After  several 
adventures  oi  luinor  consequence,  compared  with  his  previous 
actions,  he  sailed  from  L'Orient,  about  the  last  of  September,  in 
the  U.  S.  frigaio  Ariel.  Off  Bermuda,  he  fell  in  with  an  Eng- 
lish frigate  of  superior  force,  at  night.  On  being  hailed,  Jones, 
with  a  view  to  deceive,  gave  the  name  of  a  ship  belonging  to 
the  British  navy,  with  that  of  her  Commander,  instead  of  his 
own.  The  deception  took  effect.  The  roughness  of  the  weath- 
er prevented  sending  aboard  during  the  night.  The  English 
Captain  directed,  that  both  ships  should  keep  company  until  day- 
light, when  Jonee  was  to  have  sent  his  boat  and  an  officer  on 
board  the  frigate  with  his  papers.  Jones  promised  compliance. 
In  the  mean  time,  the  utmost  silence  was  preserved,  and  every 
thing  got  ready  on  board  the  Ariel,  for  an  engagement.  No  one 
was  suffered  to  quit  his  quarters  on  any  pretext  whatever.  The 
American  being  thus  fully  prepared  lor  action,  and  the  English 
in  unsuspecting  security,  a  few  minutes  after  eleven  at  night, 
Jones  poured  a  broadside  into  his  vessel  at  pistol  shot  distance. 
Before  the  English  could  get  to  quarters,  he  wore  ship  and  gave 
the  other  broadside,  and  the  enemy  sunk  without  firing  a  gun. 

After  his  arrival  in  the  United  States,  Jones  was  appointed  to 
command  the  America.  His  commission  was  dated  June  26th, 
1781.  The  loss  of  the  Magnifique  of  74  guns,  induced  Congress 
to  present  this  ship  to  his  most  Christian  Majesty,  in  consequence 
of  which  Jones  remained  without  command  during^  the  remaia- 
der  of  the  war. 

Memoir  of  Paul  Jones.  63 

After  the  peace,  Jones  returned  to  Europe.  Having  repaired 
to  St.  Petersliurg,  the  Empress  Catherine  gave  him  a  commission 
in  the  Russian  fleet  in  the  Baltic.  But  the  English  officers  in 
her  employ,  in  that  sea,  refused  to  serve  under  him.  She  then 
transferred  him  to  a  command  in  the  Black  sea,  to  serve  under 
the  Prince  of  Nassau,  in  the  war  against  the  Turks. 

The  Russian  fleet  being  inferior  to  the  enemy  both  in  size  of 
ships  and  metal,  Jones,  ever  fruitful  in  expedients,  proposed  a 
plan  to  the  Prince  of  Nassau,  for  the  capture  or  destruction  of 
the  entire  Turkish  fleet.  The  plan  was  approved  of  As  soon 
as  the  enemy  appeared,  according  to  pre-concert,  the  Russians 
threw  a  part  of  their  ballast  and  some  guns  overboard.  Thus 
lightening  their  vessels,  they  ran  them  into  a  bay  in  shoal  wa- 
ter. The  Turks  pursued  them  with  their  heavy  shipping,  being 
perfectly  certain,  as  they  thought,  that  they  would  effect  their 
capture  ;  but  too  late,  they  found  themselves  agroucd  and  un- 
manageable. A  fleet  of  Russian  light  vessels  prepared  for  the 
purpose,  then  attacked  them,  while  they  were  incapable  of  de- 
fence.— Jones  held  forth  to  the  Prince  of  Nassau  the  great  ac- 
quisition, which  the  capture  of  the  Turkish  fleet  would  be  to 
the  Russian  navy,  in  that  sea,  and  that  the  prisoners  would  be 
an  object  of  great  importance  to  the  state,  as  exchanges  could 
thereby  be  greatly  facilitated  ;  but  his  advice  was  of  no  avail. 
The  Prince  attacked  the  Turkish  fleet,  set  them  on  fire,  and  in- 
volved them  and  their  crews  in  one  general  conflagration.  Hu- 
manity shudders  at  the  sanguinary  act.  Yet  he  was  applauded 
for  his  barbarity.  Jones  retired  from  the  service,  and  went  to 
France.  He  resided  in  Paris  in  the  first  stages  of  the  revolution, 
and  died  in  that  city  in  1792,  w'  ere  he  was  buried  with  every 
honorable  distinction,  at  the  expense  of  the  French  Nationtd 

[If  we  mistake  not,  the  venerable  Elijah  Hall,  now  Jiving  at 
Portsmouth,  accompanied  Commodore  Jones  in  the  Ranger, 
which  sailed  from  that  port  in  1778.  Perhaps  he  can  furnish 
some  anecdotes  of  this  darmg  commander,  which  would  be  in- 
teresting to  the  public  ;  and  we  should  be  happy  to  open  our 
pages  to  any  communication  from  him  on  the  subject. — Edits.] 

The  rarest  of  sublunary  comforts  are  no  other  than  smoke  dur- 
ing life  ;  and  after  death,  nothing  at  all.  Galba,  though  he  met 
with  fortune  at  his  very  door,  c^.ald  invent  no  stratagem  to  stay 
h&r  wheel. 

We  are  too  prone  to  take  notice  of  those  that  are  above  -us  ; 
and  never  look  down  upon  those  that  are  below  us. 

Silence  discovers  wisdom,  and  concealeth  ignorance.  Man}"" 
men's  religion  is  discovered  from  their  own  mouths. 

(  64  ) 

[TliG  following  Song  was  written  about  one  hundred  years 
since,  to  commemorate  one  of  the  most  fierce  and  obstinate  bat- 
ties  which  had  been  fought  with  tlie  Indians.  For  many  years,  it 
was  sung  throughout  a  considerable  portion  of  New-Hampshire 
and  Massachusetts,  and  probably  served  more  than  any  thing  else 
to  keep  in  remembrance  the  circumstances  of  this  desperate  en- 
gagement. In  the  first  volume  of  these  Collections,  we  gave  some 
account  of  Capt.  Lovewell,  with  the  whole  of  Rev.  Mr.  Symmes' 
memoirs  of  the  fight.  Through  the  kindness  of  a  friend,  to 
whom  we  are  also  indebted  for  a  copy  of  the  song,  we  are  fa- 
vored with  some  notices  of  Captain  Lovewell's  family.  He  was 
son  of  Zaccheus  Lovewell,  an  ensign  in  the  army  of  Oliver 
Cromwell,  who  came  to  this  country  and  settled  at  Dunstable, 
where  he  died  at  the  great  age  of  120  years,  the  oldest  white 
man  who  ever  died  in  the  state  of  New-Hampshire.  He  left 
three  sons,  who  were  all  men  of  distinction,  viz.  Zaccheus,  a  Co- 
lonel in  the  French  war  in  1759,  mentioned  by  Dr.  Belknap, 
(Hist.  N.  H.  Vol.  11.  page  302*)  Jonathan,  a  preacher,  represen- 
tative and  judge ;  and  John,  the  hero  of  Pequawkett.  Captain 
Lovewell  had  two  sons,  John  and  Nehemiah,  and  one  daughter  ; 
John,  the  eldest  son,  died  in  Dimstable.  Nehemiah  attained  to  the 
rankof  Colonel ;  removed  to  Corinth,  in  V^ermont,  where  he  died. 
The  daughter  married  Captain  Joseph  Baker,  from  Roxbury,  who 
lived  in  Lovewell's-Town,  now  Pembroke,  which  was  granted  t© 
LoyewelPs  company  in  1728. — Edits.] 


1.  Of  worthy  Captain  Lovewell,  I  purpose  now  to  sing-, 
How  valiantly  lie  served  his  country  and  his  King  ; 

He  and  his  valiant  soldiers,  did  rang'e  the  woods  full  wide, 
And  hardships  they  endured  to  quell  the  Indian's  pride. 

2.  'Twas  nig-h  unto  Pigwacket,  on  the  eighth  day  of  Mny, 
They  spied  a  rebel  Indian  soon  after  break  of  day  ; 
He  on  a  bank  was  walking,  upon  a  neck  of  land, 

'     Which  leads  into  a  pond  as  weVe  made  to  understand. 

3.  Our  men  resolv'd  to  have  him,  and  travell'd  two  miles  round, 
Until  they  met  the  Indian,  who  t)oldly  stood  his  ground  ; 

Then  speaks  up  Captain  Lovewell,  "take  you  good  heed,"  says  he, 
"  This  rogue  is  to  decoy  us,  I  very  plainly  see. 

*It  is  a  mistake  in  Dr.  Belknap,  that  Colonel  Lovewell  was  a  "  son  of 
the  famous  partisan,  who  lost  his  life  at  Pigwackef.''  He  was  a  brother 
to  him. 

LovewelVs  Fight.  65 

4.  "  The  lodians  lie  in  ambush,  in  some  place  nigh  at  hand, 
"  1 1  Older  to  surrouod  us  'ipon  tbis  neck  of  land  ; 

*'  TUerefore  we'll  march  in  order,  and  each  man  leave  his  pack, 
"  That  we  may  briskly  fight  them  wlien  they  make  "iheir  attack." 

5.  They  came  unto  this  Indian,  who  did  them  thus  defy. 
As  soon  as  they  came  uigh  him,  two  guns  Le  did  let  fly, 

Which  wounded  Captain  Lovewell,  and  likewise  one  man  more, 
But  when  this  rogue  was  running,  they  laid  him  in  his  gore. 

6.  Then  having  scaip'd  the  Indian,  they  went  back  to  the  spot,     [  not. 
Where  they  had  laid  their  packs  down,  but  there  they  found  them 
For  the  Indians  having  spv'd  them,  when  they  them  down  did  lay, 
Did  seize  them  lor  their  plunder,  and  carry  them  away. 

7.  These  rebels  lay  in  ambush,  this  very  place  hard  by. 
So  that  an  English  soldier  did  one  of  thein  espy. 

And  cried  out,  "  here's  an  Indian,"  with  that  they  started  out, 
As  fiercely  as  old  lions,  and  hideously  did  shout. 

8.  Wi*h  that  our  valiant  English,  all  gaye  a  loud  huzza, 
To  shew  the  rebel  Indians  they  fear'd  them  not  a  straw  : 
St)  now  the  fight  began,  and  as  fiercely  as  could  be, 

The  Indians  ran  up  to  them,  but  soon  were  forced  to  flee. 

9.  Then  spake  up  Captain  Lovewell,  when  first  the  fight  begao 
"  Fight  ou  my  valiant  keroes  !  you  see  they  fall  like  rain." 
For  as  we  are  inform'd,  the  Indians  were  so  thick, 

A  man  could  scarcly  fire  a  gun  and  not  some  of  them  hit. 

10.  Then  did  the  rebels  try  their  best  our  soldiers  to  surround, 
But  they  could  not  accomplish  it,  because  there  was  a  pond, 
To  which  our  men  retreated  and  covered  all  the  rear, 

The  rogues  were  forc'd  to  flee  them,  aitho'  they  skulked  for  fear. 

11.  Two  logs  there  were  behind  them  that  close  together  lay, 
Without  being  discovered,  they  could  not  get  away  ; 
Therefore  our  valiant  English,  they  travell'd  la  a  row. 
And  at  a  haadsome  distance  as  they  were  wont  to  go. 

12.  'Twas  ten  o'clock  in  the  morning,  when  first  the  fight  be.'^un. 
And  fiercely  did  continue  until  the  setting  sun  ; 
Excepting  that  the  Indians  some  hours  before  'twas  night, 
Drew  off  into  the  bushes  and  ceas'd  a  while  to  fight, 

13.  But  soon  again  returned,  in  fierce  and  furious  mood. 
Shouting  as  in  the  morning,  but  yet  not  half  so  loud ; 
For  as  we  are  informed,  so  thick  and  fast  they  fell. 
Scarce  twenty  of  their  number,  at  night  did  get  home  well. 

14.  And  that  our  valiant  English,  till  midnight  there  did  stay. 
To  see  whether  the  rebels  would  have  asother  fray  ; 

But  they  no  more  returning,  they  made  off  towards  theirhome, 
And  brought  away  their  wounded  as  far  as  they  couid  come. 

35.  Of  all  our  valiant  English,  there  were  but  thirty-four, 
And  of  the  rebel  Indians,  there  were  about  fourscore. 
And  sixteen  of  our  English  did  safelv  home  return. 
The  rest  were  kill'd  and  wounded,  for  which  we  all  must  mourn. 

16.  Our  worthy  Captain  Lovewell,  among  them  there  did  die, 
They  killed  Lieut.  Robbins,  and  wounded  good  young  Frye, 
Who  was  our  English  Chaplain  ;   he  many  Indians  slew, 
And  sonse  of  them  he  scaip'd  when  bullets  round  him  flew. 


66  LoveweWs  Fight. 

17.  Young  FutLAM  too  I'lrmention,  because  he  foufht  so  well, 
Kodearouring  to  save  a  man,  a  sacrifice  he  tell  ;  , 
But  yet  onr  Taltant  EDgliebmen  in  fight  were  ne'er  dismay 'd» 
But  still  they  kept  Iheir  motioQ,  and  Wyman's  Captain  made, 

18.  Who  shot  the  old  chief  Paugtts,  which  did  the  foe  defeat, 
Then  set  his  men  in  orde»".  and  brougtjt  off  the  retreat  ; 
And  braring^  many  dangers  aad  hardships  in  the  way. 
They  safe  arriv'd  at  Dunstable,  the  thirteenth  day  of  May. 


TERSE  16. 

"  They  killed  Iteut.   RoBBlNB." 
Lieut.  Robbins  was  a   native   of  Chelmsford.     He  desired   his  companions  ttt 
charge  his  gun  and  leave  it  with  him,  which  they  did  ;  he  saying,  that,  "  As  the 
Indians  will  come  in  the  morning  to  3calp  me,  I  will  kill  one  more  of  them  if  I  can.' 

VKRSE  16. 

■'  Jlnd  wounded  good  young'  Frte, 
''  IfHio  wttis  our  English  Chjtplain  ;  he  many  Indians  slew." 
Jonathan  Frye,  the  chaplain  of  the  company,  was  the  only  son  of  Capt.  Jamec 
Frye,  of  Andover,  and  graduated  at  Harvard  college  in  1723.  He  was  greatl/  be- 
loved by  the  company.  He  fought  with  undaunted  bravery,  until  he  was  mortally 
wounded.  When  he  could  fight  no  longer,  he  was  heard  to  pray  audibly  several 
times  for  the  preservation  and  success  of  the  surviving  part  of  his  companions. 
He  had  th«  journal  of  the  march  with  him,  which  by  bis  death  was  lost. 

VERSE    17. 

"  Fown^  FcLLAM  too  I'll  mention  becau4e  ht  fought  so  well." 
Jacob  FuHam  was  sergeant  to  the  company.     He  was  the  only  son  of  Majoi; 
Fullam  of  Weston.    He  was  killed  at  the  commencement  of  the  engagement. 

VERSE  18. 
"  Wymaw's  aiplain  made." 
Ensign  Seth  Wyman  belonged  to  Woburn.     He  distinguished  himself  in  such  a 
signal  manner,  that  after  his  return,  he  was  presented  with  a  silver  hiked  swortl,  and 
captain's  commission.     He  died  within  a  short  time  after,  very  much  lamented. 

VERSE   18. 

"  The  thirteenth  day  of  May." 
'Rsv.  Mr.  Symmes  in  his  Memoirs,  says  they  arrived  at  Dunstable  on  the  15th 
day  of  May. 

In  1699,  the  Legislature  of  Carolina  passed  a  law,  en- 
titled, "  an  act  concerning  MARRrAOF,,"  which  declared,  that 
"  as  people  might  wish  to  marry,  ?in<l  there  being  no  minis- 
ters, in  order  that  none  might  he  hindred  from  so  necessary 
a  work  for  the  preservation  of  mankind,  any  two  persons 
carrying  before  the  Governor  and  Council,  a  few  of  their 
neighbors,  and  declaring  their  mutual  assent,  shall  be  deem- 
ed man  and  wife."  Chalmers  observes,  that,  "  during  al- 
most 20  years,  we  can  trace  nothing  of  clergymen  in  the 
history  or  laws  of  Carolina." 

(  67  ) 

Anecdotes  of  the  Revolution. 

A  writer  in  the  Old  Colony  Memorial^  alluding^  to  the  interposition 
of  Providence  in  favor  of  the  liberties  of  America,  instances  the  foilcrw- 
ing  confirmatory  facts : 

After  the  defeat  of  our  army  on  Long  Island,  in  1776,  the 
residue  of  our  troops  were  reduced  to  a  sitaation  of  extreme 
hazard,  and  by  many  it  was   supposed  that   a   few    hours 
would  seal  their  fate.     They  were  fatigued  and  discourag- 
ed by  defeat,  a  superior  enemy  in  their  front,  and  a  power- 
ful fleet  about  to  enter  the  East  river,  with  the  view  of  effec- 
tually cutting  off  their  retreat,  and  leaving  them  no  alterna- 
tive but  to  surrender.     The  commander  in  chief  resolved  to 
attempt  to  extricate  his  army  from  the  impending  catastro- 
phe, by  evacuating  the  post,  and  crossing  the  river  to  New- 
York.     The  passage  was  found  at  first  to  be  impracticable 
by  reason  of  a  violent  wind  from  the  northeast,  and  a  strong 
ebbing  tide.     But  providentially  the  wind  grew  more  mod- 
erate and  veered  to  the  northwest,  which  rendered  the  pas- 
sage perfectly  safe.     But  a  circumstance  still  more  remark- 
able was,  that  about  two  o'clock  in  the  morning  a  thick  fog 
enveloped  the  whole  of  Long  Island  in  obscurity,  conceal- 
ing the  retreat  of  the  Americans,  while  on  the  side  of  New- 
York  the  atmosphere   was  perfectly  clear.     Thus,  by  the 
favor  of  an  unusual  fog,  our  army,  consisting  of  nine  thou- 
sand men,  in  one  night,  under  great  disadvantages,  embark- 
ed, with  their  baggage,  provisions,  stores,  horses,  and  the 
munitions  of  war,  crossed  a  rapid  river,  a  mile  or  more  wide, 
and  landed  at  New- York  undiscovered,  and   without  mate- 
rial loss.     The  enemy  were  so  near  that  they  were  heard  at 
work  with  their  pick-axes,  and  in  about  half  an  hour  after 
the   fog  cleared  off,  and  the  enemy  were  seen   taking  pos- 
session of  the  American  lines,  and  they  were  astonished  that 
our  troops  had  got  beyond   the  reach  of  pursuit.     Garden, 
in   his   anecdotes,  says,  that  a  clerical  friend  on  this  occa- 
sion, observed,  that,  "  But  for  the  interposition  of  a  cloud 
of  darkness   the   Egyptians  would  have   overwhelmed  the 
Israelites  upon  the  sea-shore.     And  but  for  the  providential 
intervention  of  the  fog  upon  Long  lsl?nd,  which  was  a  cloud 
resting  on  the  earth,  the  American  army  would  have  been 
destroyed,  and   the    hopes  of  every   patriot   bosom  extin- 
guished, perhaps  forever."      On  the  retreat  of  our  army 
from  New- York,  Major-Gejteral  Putnam,  at  the  head  af  three 

68  Miscellanies.  ' 

thousand  five  hundred  continental  troops,  was  in  the  rear, 
and  tlie  last  that  left  the  city.  In  order  to  avoid  any  of  the 
enemy,  that  might  be  advancing  in  the  direct  road  to  the 
City,ht:  made  choice  nf  a  difF?rent  road  till  he  could  arrive  at 
a  certain  angle,  whence  a  cioss  road  would  conduct  him  in 
such  a  direction  as  that  he  might  lorm  a  junction  with  our 
main  army.  It  so  happened  that  a  bouy  of  about  eight 
thousand  British  and  Hessians  were  at  the  srrae  moment  ad- 
vancing on  the  road  which  would  have  brought  thrm  in  im- 
mediate contact  with  Putnam,  before  he  could  have  reached 
the  cross  road.  Most  fortunately  the  British  Generals  halt- 
ed their  troops,  and  repaired  to  ihe  house  of  Mr.  R.  Murray, 
a  qu^iker  am'  friend  to  our  cause  ;  Mrs.  M.  treated  the  Brit- 
ish oHicers  with  cake  and  wine,  and  they  were  induced  to 
tarry  two  hours  or  more.  By  this  happy  incident,  Putnam, 
by  conLinuing  his  march,  escaped  a  rencounter  with  a  great- 
ly superior  force,  which  must  have  proved  fatal  to  his  whole 
party.  I  have  recently  been  inibrmed  by  the  son  and  aid- 
de-camp  of  Gen.  Pumam,  that  had  the  enfmy,  instead  of  a 
halt,  marched  ten  minutes  longer,  ihey  would  have  reach- 
ed the  cross  road,  and  entirely  cut  off  the  retreat  of  our 
troops,  and  they  must  inevitably  have  been  captured  or 
destroyed.  It  was  a  common  saying  among  our  officers, 
that  under  Providpnce,  Mrs.  Murray  saved  this  part  of  our 
army.  When  in  the  year  1777,  Gen.  Burgoyne's  army  was 
reduced  to  a  condition  of  extreme  embarrassment  and  dan- 
ger. Gen.  Gates  received  whrit  he  suj^posed  certain  intf^lli- 
gence  that  the  main  body  of  the  British  army  had  marched 
off  for  Fort  Edward,  and  that  a  rear  guard  only  was  left  in 
the  camp  situated  on  the  opposite  side  of  SLratoga  creek. 
He  dettrmined  therefore,  to  advance  with  his  entire  force  to 
attack  the  enemy  in  their  encampment  in  half  an  hour.  For 
this  purpose,  Gf'n.  Nixon  with  his  brigade  crossed  the  creek 
in  advance.  Gon.  Glover  was  on  the  point  of  following,  but, 
just  as  be  entered  the  water  ho  perceived  a  British  soldier 
crossing  near  him,  whom  he  called  and  examined.  By  this 
British  deserter,  the  fact  was  ascertai/ird,  that  the  detach- 
ment for  Fort  Edward  had  returned,  and  that  the  whole 
British  army  was  now  encamped  behind  a  thick  brush  wood, 
which  concealed  them  from  our  view.  This  information  be- 
ing instantly  communicated  to  Gen.  Gates,  the  order  for  at- 
tack was  immediately  countermanded,  and  the  troops  were 
ordered  to  retreat  ;  but  before  they  could  rccross  the  creek, 
the  enemy's  artillery  opened  on  their  rear,  and  some  loss 
was  sustained.      This  was  a  most  critical  moment,  and  a 

Miscellanies,  69 

quarter  of  an  hour  longer  might  have  caused  the  ruin  of  the 
two  brigades,  and  t  ffected  such  favorable  turn  of  affairs  as 
to  have  enabled  Burgoyne  to  progress  in  his  route  to  Albany, 
or  a  sale  retreat  into  Canada.  In  his  narrative  of  the  ex- 
pedition under  his  command,  Burgoyne  laments  the  acci- 
dent which  occasioned  the  failure  of  his  stratagem,  as  one 
of  ihe  most  adverse  strokes  of  fortune  during  the  campaign. 
But  Americans  ought  never  to  forget  the  remarkable  provi- 
dential escape. 

The  British  General,  Prescott,  w  ho  was  captured  at  his 
quarters  on  Rhode  Inland  by  Col.  Barton,  being  on  his  route 
through  the  State  of  Connecticut,  called  at  a  tavern  to  dine, 
the  landlady  furnished  the  table  with  a  dish  of  suckatash, 
boiled  corn  and  beans.  The  General  being  unaccustomed 
to  such  kind  of  food,  with  much  warmth  exclaimed,  "  What, 
do  you  treat  us  with  the  food  of  hogs  ?"  and  taking  the  dish 
from  the  table,  strewed  the  contents  over  the  floor.  The 
landlord  being  informed  of  this,  soon  entered,  and  with  his 
horse  whip,  gave  the  General  a  severe  chastisement.  The 
sequel  of  this  story  has  recently  been  communicated  by  a 
gentleman  at  Nantucket,  who  retains  a  perfect  recollection 
of  all  the  circumstances.  After  Gen.  Prescott  was  exchanged 
and  restored  to  his  command  on  the  Island,  the  inhabitants 
of  Nantucket  deputed  Wm.  Rotch,  Dr.Tupper,  and  Timothy 
Folger  to  negotiate  some  concerns  with  him  in  behalf  of  the 
town.  They  were  for  some  time  refused  admittance  to  his 
presence,  but  the  Dr.  and  Folger  overcame  the  opposition 
and  ushered  themselves  into  the  room.  Prescott  ragfd  and 
stornied  with  great  vehemence,  until  Folger  was  compelled 
to  withdraw.  After  the  Dr.  annouarcd  his  business,  and 
the  General  had  become  a  little  calm,  he  said,  "Was  not 
m}""  treatment  to  Folger  very  uncivil  ?"  The  Dr.  said  yes. 
Then  said  Prescott,  "  I  will  tell  you  the  reason  :  He  looked 

Fo  much  like  a  d d  Connecticut  man,  that  horse  whipped 

me,  that  I  could  not  endure  his  prchcnce." 

Hugh  Peters,  the  Regicide, 
Hugh  Peters  was  executed  after  the  Restoration  for  the 
prominent  part  he  took  in  the  rebellion,  especially  in  the 
murder  of  the  King.  He  appears,  from  the  State  Trials,  to 
have  been  particularly  active  in  his  pulpit  "  exercises"  with- 
in the  last  few  weeks  prior  to  that  trasical  event.  On  the 
20th  December,  a  fortnight  after  Col.  Pride  had  "  purged" 
the  house,  Peters  was  appointed    to  preach  at  the  solemn 

70  Miscellanies. 

fast  which  was  to  take  place  on  the  ensuing  Friday  ;  and 
so  well  did  he  acquit  himself  to  the  satisfaction  of  his  em- 
ployers, that  he  was  retained  again,  especially  on  two 
memoralile  occasions,  21st  January,  ihe  day  after  the  King 
was  brought  to  trial,  and  on  the  28th,  the  day  after  the  sen- 
tence was  pronounced.  We  shall  give  a  specimen  of  his 
oratory  from  the  evidence  adduced  against  him  on  his  trial, 
and  which,  though  evidently  given  in  a  spirit  of  party,  is 
confirmed  by  too  many  witnesses,  to  admit  of  its  being  sub- 
stantially false.  The  part  which  Cromwell  plays  in  the 
following  scene  is  perfectly  in  character  : 

"  Witness.  1  heard  the  prisoner  at  the  bar,  preaching 
before  Oliver  Cromwell  and  Bradshaw,  who  was  called 
lord  president  of  the  high  court  of  justice  :  and  he  took  his 
text  out  of  the  Psalms,  in  these  words,  '  bind  your  kings 
with  chains,  and  your  nobles  with  fetters  of  iron.' — Says  he, 
in  his  sermon, '  beloved,  it  is  the  last  Psalm  but  one,  and  the 
next  Psalm  hath  six  verses,  and  twelve  hallelujahs,  '  praise 
ye  the  Lord,  praise  God  in  his  sanctuary,  and  so  on,'  for 
what  ?  says  he  :  look  into  my  text ;  there's  the  reason  of  it, 
that  kings  were  bound  in  chains,'  &c.  Here  is,  saith  he,  a 
great  discourse  and  talk  in  the  world;  what?  will  ye. cut  off 
the  king's  head,  the  head  of  a  protestant  prince  and  king  ? 
Turn  to  your  bibles,  and  you  shall  find  it  there,  '  whosoever 
sheds  man's  blood,  by  man  shall  his  blood  be  shed.'  Here 
is  an  act  of  God,  and  I  see  neither  king  Charles,  nor  prince 
Charles,  nor  prince  Rupert,  nor  prince  Maurice,  nor  any  of 
that  rabble  excepted  out  of  it. — This  is  the  day,  that  I  and 
many  saints  of  God  have  been  praying  for  these  many  years. 
/  observed  that  Oliver  Cromwell  did  laugh  at  that  time. 

A  second  witness.  Upon  21st  January,  1648,  I  was  at 
Whitehall. — He  (Mr.  Peters)  preached  upon  this  text. 
Psalm  cxlix.  8.  To  bind  their  kings  in  chains,  and  their 
nobles  in  links  of  iron.  In  which  text,  Mr.  Peters  did  much 
applaud  the  soldi(-rs  there.  He  said,  he  hoped  to  see  such 
another  day  following,  as  the  day  before  ;  and  that,  bless- 
ed be  God.  (says  parson  Peters)  the  house,  the  lower  house 
is  purged,  and  the  house  of  lords  themselves,  they  will 
down  suddenly. 

TicoNDEROGA  AND  Crown-Point. — In  1731,  the  French 
took  possession  of  Crown-Point  ;  and  in  1755,  they  threw 
up  an  advanced  work  on  Ticonderoga.  Nature  and  art 
joined  to  make  this  a  very  strong  and  important  fortress. 
In  the  year  1756  and  1757,  large  armies  were  kept  up  by 


'  Miscellanies.  71 

the  British  colonies  at  the  south  end  of  lake  George.  In 
1758,  A bercrombie  passed  lake  George  with  an  , army  of 
twenty  thousand  men,  to  attack  Ticondcroga.  On  July  8lh, 
he  attempted  to  carry  the  works  by  storm.  The  attack 
proved  unfortunate,  and  his  army  was  defeated  with  great 
slaughter.  The  next  day  they  repassed  lake  George,  and 
were  glad  to  recover  their  former  situation.  In  1759,  Gen- 
eral Amherst  commanded  the  army  that  was  designed  to 
force  a  passage  over  the  lakes.  The  French  abandoned 
Ticonderoga  and  Crown-Point,  and  they  were  taken  pos- 
session of  by  General  Amherst,  July  5th,  1759.  In  the  be- 
ginning of  the  American  war,  Col.  Ethan  Allen  undertook  to 
reduce  these  posts ;  and  after  guarding  all  the  passes,  ar- 
rived on  the  evening  of  the  9th  of  May,  1775,  at  the  eastern 
side  of  the  lake,  opposite  Ticonderoga.  The  next  morning, 
with  great  difficulty,  he  passed  the  lake  with  83  men,  and  at 
the  dawn  of  the  day,  entered  the  fort,  and  surprised  the 
commander  in  bed.  He  was  asked  by  what  authority  he 
claimed  the  surrender  of  the  fort  ?  Allen  replied,  "  I  demand 
it  in  the  name  of  the  great  Jehovah,  and  the  Continental 
Congress  ?"  The  commander  and  48  men  were  made  pris- 
oners of  war  ;  very  valuable  stores,  with  100  pieces  of  can- 
non, fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Americans.  Col.  Seth 
Warner,  with  100  men,  was  dispatched  the  same  day  to  take 
Crown-Point.  He  effected  it  without  opposition  ;  and  thus 
the  command  of  Lake  Champlain  was  acquired  in  one  day, 
by  a  small  body  of  resolute  men.  On  July  6,  1777,  Ticon- 
deroga was  abandoned  to  the  British  under  General  Bur- 
goyne  ;  and  again  given  up  to  the  Americans  the  same 

It  has  been  observed  by  intelligent  foreigners,  that  our 
mountains  are  remarkable  for  the  continuity  of  their  ridges, 
and  the  gentle  undulations  of  their  outline.  This  peculiar- 
ity of  structure  i;^  visible  in  the  White  Hills.  As  seen  from 
Conway  they  exhibit  a  line  regularly  surpe<ntine,  not  bjok- 
en,  jagged,  or  shooting  up  into  precipitous  elevations.  Com- 
mencing from  the  left,  or  west,  there  is  a  regular  gradation 
of  summits,  each  successive  eminence  generally  surpassing 
that  which  precedes,  to  the  highest  peak,  from  whence  the 
ridge  in  like  manner,  but  more  abruptly,  sinks  to  the  level 
of  the  surrounding  country.    • 


mitrrarg  Sotfces. 

Proposals  have  been  issued  for  publishing  the  Physiolo- 
gical Essays  of  T.  R.  Park,  M.  D.,  F.  L.  S.,  with  notes  and 
practical  remarks,  by  John  P.  Batchelder,  M.  D.,  Professor 
of  Surgery  and  Physiology  in  the  Berkshire  Medical  Insti- 
tution, Williams  College.  Dr.  Batchelder  is  a  native  of  this 
State,  and  has  long  been  known  to  the  public  as  a  success- 
ful teacher  of  his  profession,  who  has  united  in  his  character, 
great  industry  as  well  as  originalit}*.  Much,  therelore,  may 
be  expected  from  his  editorial  labors  bestowed  on  this  work. 

A  new  tale  is  just  published  by  the  author  of  Logan, 
Seventy-Six,  Randolph,  &c.  called  Erralu,  or  the  Works  of 
Will  Adams. 

A  new  series  of  tales  is  in  press  in  New-York,  called  Le- 
gends of  the  Thirteen  Republics  ;  the  first  is  to  be  Lionel^  or 
Boston  Beleaguered. 

Mr.  H.  Marshall  has  written  and  offered  for  publication, 
by  subscription,  a  History  of  the  State  of  Kentucky.  He 
oroposes  to  print  it  in  two  volumes,  8vo.  It  contains  an  ac- 
count of  the  discovery  of  the  country,  and  its  first  settle- 
ment, with  a  history  ot  all  public  events  to  the  end  of  the 
past  year. 

A  new  work  has  just  been  put  to  press  in  New- York, 
called  A  C(m/sc  of  Study,  preparatory  to  the  Bar  or  Senate  : 
to  which  is  annexed  a  memoir  of  the  private  or  domestic  lives  of 
the  Romans  ;  by  George  Watterson,  Esq.  Librarian  to  Con- 

Mr.  Wood,  of  Baltimore,  has  in  his  possession  an  ancient 
illuminated  manuscript  work.  This  book  is  composed  of  vel- 
lum, and  is  supposed  to  have  been  written  about  the  year 
nine  hundred  ;  consequently  it  is  nearly  one  thousand  years 
old.  It  is  said  to  be  in  excellent  preservation,  and  that  the 
coloring  is  truly  brilliant. 

The  first  number  of  the  new  American  Monthly  Magazine, 
edited  by  Dr.  M'Henry,  author  of  Braddock'^s  Times,  and 
the  Spectre  of  the  Forest,  has  made  its  appearance  at  Phi- 

0:^  The  esteemed  favors  of'-''  Cincinnatus^'^  and  other  corres- 
pondents, are  necessarily  deferred. 

MARCH,  1824. 

iSssags  of  CCtnctwnatttS. 




Having  considered,  in  the  preceding  number,  the  authority  of 
the  president  of  the  United  States  to  recommend  measures  to  con- 
gress, his  right  to  exercise  a  qualified  negative  on  their  proceed- 
ings, and  his  duty  to  take  care  that  the  laws  are  faithfully  execu- 
ted, I  now  proceed  to  other  powers  which  are  conferred  on  him. 
and  other  duties  which  he  is  bound  to  perform. 

He  is  not  only  authorized  and  required  to  receive  ambassadors 
and  ministers  from  other  nations,  but  with  the  consent  of  the 
senate  to  appoint  ministers  and  consuls  to  such  powers  as  he  may 
consider  necessary  and  useful.  To  him  is  entrusted  the  authori- 
ty of  detertaining  to  what  nations,  public  ministers  shall  be  sent 
from  the  United  States.  Neither  the  senate  or  house  of  repre- 
sentatives, nor  both  of  them  united,  can  appoint  a  minister,  or 
commence  negociation  with  any  nation  on  any  subject  whatever. 
To  check  the  abuse  of  this  high  authority,  the  president  cannot 
appoint  a  minister  without  the  consent  ©f  two  thirds  of  the  sena- 
tors present,  except  in  their  recess ;  nor  can  the  minister  receive 
any  money  from  the  treasury  for  his  services  or  expenditure 
without  an  express  law  for  that  purpose,  which  law  must  origin- 
ate in  the  house  of  representatives,  and  receive  the  concurrence 
of  the  senate. 

It  has  been  considered  as  a  general  rule  with  the  senate,  wheu 
the  president  has  nominated  a  man  as  minister  to  a  particular  na- 
tion, not  to  consider  whether  such  a  mission  is  necessary,  but 
whether  the  person  nominated  is  duly  qualified  for  the  trUst.  This 
as  a  geaeral  rule  is  correct :  for  as  the  constitution  has  entrusted 
the  president  with  the  management  of  our  foreign  relations,  and 
made  him  responsible  for  that  trust,  it  seems  proper  he  should 
decide  when  and  to  whom  it  is  necessary  to  send  ministers.  But 
t»staaces  may  occur  in  which  a  president  may  nominate  a  miniB- 

74  Essays  of  Cincmnatus. 

ter  whece  none  is  wanted ;  and  indeed,  one  or  two  cases  may  be 
•ited,  in  which  senators  have  withheld  their  consent  from  the 
persons  nominated,  upon  the  principle  that  a  minister  at  that 
time  was  not  necessary  ;  and  in  consequeace  of  that  opinion  no 
appointment  was  made. 

The  ministers  of  the  Unitei> States  hold  their  office  during  the 
pleasure  of  the  president.  He  can  remove  them  from  office 
whenever  he  thinks  proper,  and  that  without  consulting  the  sen- 
ators Avho  had  a  voice  in  the  appointment. 

No  treaty  can  be  made  with  any  nation  but  such  as  the  presi- 
dent approves,  and  such  as  two  thirds  of  the  senatoi-s  advise  him 
to  ratify.  But  when  the  president,  with  consent  of  the  senate, 
has  appointed  a  minister,  and  that  minister  has  formed  a  treaty 
with  the  nation  to  whom  he  was  sent,  after  it  is  returned  and  du- 
ly examined  by  the  president,  if  he  is  of  the  opinion  it  ought  not 
to  be  ratified,he  is  under  no  obligation  to  submit  the  treaty  to  the 
consideration  of  the  senate.  Indeed,  it  would  seem  improper  for 
him  to  request  their  advice  to  ratify  an  instrument,  which  upon 
mature  consideration  he  had  rejected.  I  know  of  but  two  cases 
in  which  it  is  proper  for  the  president  to  communicate  a  treaty 
to  the  senate  for  their  advice  •,  the  one,  in  which  he  is  clearly  of 
the  opinion  that  the  treaty  ought  to  be  ratified,  and  the  other 
where  he  is  doubtful  whether  to  ratify  or  reject  it.  In  the 
last  case,  the,  discussion  and  arguments  of  the  senators  for  a  ad 
against  it,  which  are  usually  informally  though  not  officially  com- 
municated to  him,  may,  and  ought  to  have,  an  influence  upon  his 

In  forming  and  ratifying  a  treaty,the  assent  of  only  two  branch- 
es of  the  government,  the  president  and  senate,  are  necessary, 
yet  when  made,  it  immediately  becomes  the  law  of  the  land,  and 
is  obligatory  upon  every  individual,  and  in  fact  vacates  and  re- 
peals all  laws  that  are  contrary  to  its  provisions,  whether  enac- 
ted by  congress  or  the  state  legislatures.  The  constitution  has 
established  not  only  this  course  of  proceeding,  but  explicitly  de- 
clared their  eflfect  and  operation.  These  principles  appear  to  be 
founded  in  the  reason  and  titness  of  things.  The  tew  are  more 
capable  of  making  contracts  with  propriety  and  dispatch  than  the 

Though  the  house  of  representatives  of  the  United  States  pos- 
sess no  portion  of  the  power  to  make  treaties,  yet  they  have  an 
important  duty  to  perform  in  relation  to  their  execution,  most 
treaties  require  legislative  acts  and  money  to  carry  them  into  ef- 
fect, but  no  money  can  be  raised  or  appropriated  without  the 
consent  of  that  house.  It  has  indeed  become  a  question,  and  ably 
debated,  whether  the  house  is  bound  in  all  cases  to  raise  and 
make  the  appropi'iations  that  treaties  require.  When  the  public 
faith  is  pledged  by  its  constitutional  organs  to  another  nation,  out" 
interest,  as  well  as  that  of  the  civilized  world,  requires  it  should 
be  scrupulously  and  laithfuUy  performed.  Because  a  better  treaty 
ffiis;ht  have  been  made,  is  no  reason  why  one  that  is  made  should 

Essays  of  Cincinnatus,  7S 

he  violated  or  why  the  house  should  hesitate  to  provide  the  means 
necessary  to  carry  it  into  effect.  If  the  minister  who  formed  the 
treaty,  and  the  president  who  ratified  it,have  sacrificed  the  inter- 
est of  the  country,  let  them  be  punished,  and  the  senators  who 
advised  it,  meet  the  reproach  and  execration  of  the  public,  but 
let  not  the  faith  of  the  nation  suffer.  It  is  indeed  possible^" but 
very  improbable,  that  the  president  and  tw9  thirds  of  the  senate 
may  ratify  a  treaty  which  violates  the  rights  and  honour  of  their 
country,  in  such  a  case  the  house  of  re})resentatives  oug'ht  not  to 
appropriate  money  for  the  destruction  of  their  country.  Indeed 
the  appropriation,  if  made,would  be  useless  :  a  nation  of  freemen, 
devoted  to  their  country,  would  never  sufTeV  their  vital  rights  to 
be  destroyed  by  any  men,  much  le'ss  by  their  own  agents  and  ser- 
vants. But  such  extreme  cases,instead  of  destroying,confirm  the 
general  rule,  that  the  house  is  bound  in  good  conscience  to  carr}' 
treaties  into  effect,  though  some  of  their  provisions  may  be  hard 
and  unequal.  A  nation,  as  well  as  an  individual,  when  it  promis- 
es, though  to  its  loss  ought  to  fulfil  its  promises.  And  it  reflects 
much  honour  upon  the  United  States,  that  their  representatives 
have  uniformly  made  the  necessary  provision  to  execute  every 
treaty  which  the  president  and  senate  have  ratified. 

The  president  has  power  "  to  grant  jeprieves  and  pardons  for 
offences  against  the  United  States,  except  in  cases  of  impeach- 
ment." In  the  exercise  of  this  power,  the  constitution  and  laws 
associate  no  one  with  him ;  he  has  no  council  to  advise  with,  but 
must  himself  decide  upon  all  applications  for  pardon,  and  he  only 
is  responsible  for  those  he  grants.  This  is  an  important  trust ; 
and  the  manner  in  which  it  is  exercised,has  much  influence  upon 
the  administration  of  jutitice,  and  the  state  of  society. 

A  pardon  is  a  sus^pension  of  justice  ;  it  disarms  the  law  of  its 
power,and  annihilates  that  punishment  which  it  intended  to  inflict 
upon  the  offender.  The  mercy  which  a  pardon  confers  on  the  crim- 
inal is,in  most  cases,  an  act  of  cruelty  to  the  community  ;  for  par 
dons  necessarily  render  punishment  uncertain — they  destroy  that 
certainty  of  punishment^  which  is  one  of  the  most  effectual  modes 
of  preventing  crimes  that  the  wisdom  of  man  has  invented. 
Whoe^^  duly  considers  the  subject,  must  be  convinced  that  the 
certainty  of  punishment  has  a  great,  if  not  the  most  powerful  in- 
fluence, upon  the  wicked,  in  restraining  them  from  the  commis* 
sion  of  crimes.  A  hardened,  subtile  offender,  insensible  of  mor- 
al feelings,  calculates  with  great  confidence  upon  the  many  chan- 
ces he  has  to  escape  punishment.  He  has  strong  hopes  that  he 
shall  not  be  suspected — that  if  he  is  suspected,  he  will  be  able  to 
avoid  arrest — that  if  arrested,  proof  will  nut  be  obtained  to  con- 
vict him — but  if  convicted,  that  he  will  be  pardoned.  It  was 
not  less  true  in  ancient  than  in  modern  times,  that  "  because," 
as  Solomon  said,  "  sentence  against  an  evil  work  is  not  speedily 
executed,  therefore  the  heart  of  the  son  of  men  is  fully  set  in 
them  to  do  evil."  It  was  an  observation  of  Sir  Samuel  Romilly, 
who  wa-s  alike  eminent  ai>>  i   statesman  and  a  lawyer,  that  could 

76  Essays  of  Cincinnatiis . 

punishment  be  reduced  to  absolute  certainty^  a  very  slight  penaky 
would  be  sufficient  to  every  crime  that  Teas  the  result  of  premeditation. 
The  president  ought  therefore  studiously  to  avoid  a  course  that 
has  a  tendency  to  impair  that  certainty,  and  seldom  exercise  his 
authority  in  pardoning  convicts,  and  then  only  in  extreme  cases. 

Though  this  simple  view  of  the  subject  exhibits  strong  objec- 
tions to  the  general  use  of  the  power  vested  in  the  president  to 
grant  pardons,  there  are  others  which  shew  he  ought  to  exercise 
it  but  seldom  and  with  great  caution.  The  authority  to  decide 
the  question  whether  the  accused  is  guilt}',  is  by  the  principles 
of  our  government,  as  well  as  by  the  explicit  declarations  of  our 
laws,  solely  intrusted  to  the  judiciary.  They, and  they  only,  can 
determine  that  question  :  but  even  the  judges  themselves,  with- 
out the  aid  of  a  jury,  are  incompetent  ;  but  when  the  court,upon 
the  verdict  of  a  jur}',  has  rendered  judgment  aganst  the  accused, 
his  guilt  is  ascertained.  The  president  has  no  authority  to  ques- 
tion the  propriety  or  reverse  that  judgment — it  is  final  and  con- 
clusive, and  he  is  bound  to  consider  the  convict  guilty.  The  jury 
has  found  the  facts,  and  what  right  has  the  president  to  question 
their  verity  ?  Are  the  witnesses  to  be  again  examined  by  him, 
and  the  attorney  general  and  council  for  the  prisoner  to  argue 
the  law  and  the  facts  to  the  president?  The  principles  of  our 
government  render  him  altogether  incompetent  to  such  an  en- 
quiry, nor  is  it  to  be  supposed,  that  he  is  better  qualified  to  judge 
the  law  arising  from  the  facts,  than  the  judges  who  heard  the 
witnesses,  and  whose  duty  and  business  it  is  to  pronounce  the 
judgment  of  the  law.  And  to  this  I  may  add,  that  both  judge* 
and  jurors,  where  they  have  doubts^  are  bound  to  acquit. 

If  the  president  has  neither  power  or  means  to  revise  the  judg- 
ment rendered  by  a  judicial  tribunal,  but  is  obliged  to  consider 
the  convict  guilty,  why  should  he  by  granting  a  pardon  reprieve 
him  from  the  penalty  of  the  law  ?  Of  what  avail  are  laws  with- 
out penalties,  or  with  penalties  if  they  are  dispensed  with  ?  Pe- 
titions for  pardons,  and  for  the  most  notorious  offenders,  may  be 
obtained  with  great  facility.  Humane  motives  often  induce  re- 
spectable men,  from  pity  and  compassion  to  the  unfortunate  cul- 
prit to  solicit  his  pardon,  regardless  of  the  enormity  of  the  of- 
fence, and  the  dangers  of  the  community.  This  spirit  displays 
the  goodness  of  the  heart,more  than  the  wisdom  of  the  head  ;  but 
it  insensibly  impairs  the  security  of  every  individual  in  society. 
Too  many  know  the  fact,  that  petitions  were  signed  by  many  re- 
spectable characters  for  the  pardon  of  the  wretch,  who  to  the 
guilt  of  robbing  the  mail,added  that  of  murdering  an  innocent  and 
useful  man.  These  petitions  are  not  sufficient  to  justify  the  par- 
don of  the  guilty  ;  and  the  executive  who  trusts  to  them  is  sure 
to  meet  with  misrepresentation  and  imposition. 

But  there  may  be  cases,  though  they  very  seldom  occur,where 
pardons  may  be  granted  with  propriety — and  would  not  only  be 
an  act  of  mercy,  but  of  justice.  The  convict  may  be  insane,  or 
an  idiot — or  he  may  be  sentenced  to  imprisonment  for  a  term  of 

Ecclesiastical  History-  77 

years,but  before  that  period  expires,he  may  be  visited  with  sick- 
ness, which,  irom  the  want  of  free  air  and  better  accommodations, 
would  certainly  destroy  his  life.  In  the  last  case,  if  he  is  not 
pardoned,  the  law  would  inflict  a  punishment  more  severe  than  it 

I  am,  however,  convinced  that  the  pardons  which  have  been 
granted  in  this  country  have  done  much  more  evil  than  good — 
that  they  have  contributed  to  the  increase  of  crimes.  It  is  to  be 
regretted  that  the  president  of  the  United  States  has  recently 
granted  pardons  to  pirates,  and  robbers  of  the  mail :  for  it  is  in 
vain  to  expect  protection,  by  prosecutions,  and  judgments  ot  the 
law,  against  robbers  and  pirates,  if  they  are  to  be  pardoned,  and 
from  the  mild  punishment  of  imprisonment,  let  loose  again,  to 
rob,  murder,  and  destroy.  One  pardon  does  more  to  encourage 
offenders  than  two  executions  to  restrain  them.  Our  laws  should 
be  mild,  their  penalties  reasonable,  and  inflicted  on  those  who 
are  convicted  of  their  violation.  But  when  the  judiciary  do 
their  duty  in  awarding  judgment  against  the  guilty,  the  execu- 
tive ought  not  unnecessarily  to  annul  their  execution. 


December  24,  1823. 

Ecclestastfcal  fl^istorfi. 

Memoranda  :  relating   to  the  Churches   and  Clergy  of  Jsfew- 

[Continued  from  page  47.] 

In  1771,  the  Rev.  Benjamin  Brigham  was  ordained  al 
Fitzwilliam  ;  Rev.  David  Jewett  at  Candia  ;  Rev.  David 
Tenney  at  Barrington  ;  Rev.  Samuel  Webster  at  Temple  ; 
Rev.  Joseph  Currier  at  Goflstown  ;  Bev.  Oliver  Noble  at 
Orford  ;  and  Rev.  Joseph  Woodman  at  Sanbotnton. 

A  church  was  gathered  at  Fitzwilliam  on  the  day  of  Mr. 
Brigham's  ordination,  March  27.  Mr.  Smith  of  Marlbo- 
rough, preached  the  ordination  sermon  ;  Mr.  Parkman,  of 
Westborough,  gave  the  charge  ;  and  Mr.  Brown,  of  Win- 
chendon,  the  right  hand  of  fellowship.  Mr.  Brigham  con- 
tinued in  the  ministry  till  his  death,  June  11,  1799,  and  was 
much  respected  and  beloved  as  a  minister  ;md  peace-maker. 

Mr.  Jcwott  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1769, 
and  was  ordained  the  first  minister  of  Candia.  He  was  dis- 
missed in  1780,  and  installed  January  2,  1782,  at  Winihrop, 
Me.  where  his  ministry  was  of  short  duration,as  he  was  re- 
moved by  death  in  Feb.  1783. 

78  ^Ecclesiastical  History. 

Mr.  Tenney  was  gaduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1768  ; 
succeeded  Mr.  Prince  in  the  ministry  at  Barrington, Septem- 
ber 18,  1771;  was  dismissed  in  1778,  and  died  soon  after 
his  dismissiun. 

Mr.  ^Vebstcr  was  a  son  of  the  Rqv.  Samuel  Webster, 
D.  D.  of  Salisbury,  Mass;  was  graduated  at  Harvard  Col- 
lege in  1762,  and  was  ordained  at  Temple,  Oct.  2, 1771,  on 
the  day  the  church  in  that  town  was  organized.  At  the 
commencement  of  the  revoluiionary  struggle,  he  took  a  de- 
cided and  active  part  in  behalf  of  his  country,  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  committee  of  safety  in  1775,  and  the  same  year, 
was  appointed  -i  Chaplain  to  one  of  the  New-Hampshire 
Regiments.  But  ins  useful  life  was  early  closed.  He  died 
.  August^  4,  1777,  at  the  age  of  34.  His  last  sermon  was 
from  these  words.  Here  have  we  no  continuing  city,  but  zee 
seek  one  to  come  ;  and  "the  truths  with  which  he  had  com- 
forted others  were  his  own  comfort,  living  and  dying.'' 

Mr.  Currier  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1765; 
was  ordained  at  Goft'stown  Oct.  30,  1771  ;  dismissed  in 
1774  ;  and  is  believed  to  be  still  living. 

Mr.  Noble  was  a  graduate  of  Princeton  College,  and  was 
ordained  the  first  minister  of  Orford,  Nov.  5,1771.  Mr. 
Haven  of  Portsmouth  preached  the  ordination  sermon  from 
1  Thess.  iii,  8,  and  gave  the  charge  ;  and  Mr.  Powers  of 
Haverhill  gave  the  i-it^ht  hand  of  fellowship.  Mr.  Noble 
was  dismissed  the  last  day  of  the  year,  1777.  ^ 

Mr.  Woodman  was  a  graduate  of  New-Jersey  college. 
He  was  ordained  at  Sanbornton,  Dec.  13,  1771.  Mr. 
Hale  of  Newbury  preached  the  ordination  sermon,  from 
1  Cor.  i.  21  ;  Mr.  Walker  of  Concord  gave  the  charge; 
and  Mr.  Stearns  of  Epping  the  I'ight  hand  of  fellowship. 
3Ir.  Woodman  married  the  widov/  Esther  Hall,  of  Con- 
cord,who  was  a  daughter  of  the  Rev.Aaron  Whiitemore,the 
first  minister  of  Pembroke.  She  died  July  12,  1803,  and 
he  survived  her  about  two  years.  He  published  the  Elec- 
lion  Sermon,  1802,  and  several  other  occasional  discourses. 
— Two  of  his  sons,  Jeremiah  H.  Woodman,  Esq.  of  Roch- 
ester, and  the  late  Charles  W^oodman,  Esq.  of  Dover,  were 
educated  at  Dartmouth  college. 

Tn  1772,  the  Rev.  William  Kelly  was  ordained  at 
Warner;  Rev.  George  Wheaton  at  Claremont  ;  Rev. 
Joseph  Farrar  at  Dublin  ;  Rev.  Isaiah  Potter  at  Lebanon  ; 
Rev.  Eden  Burroughs  at  Hanover ;  Rev.  Jacob  Burnap 
^t  Merrimack ;  Rev.  Jonathan  Searle  at  Mason  ;  Rev. 
Stephen  Peabody  at  Atkinson ;  Rev.  Jonathan  Barnes  at 
Hillsborougli  ;  Rev.  Timothy  Upham  at  Dcerfield  ;  and 
Rev,  Abraham  Wood  at  Chesterfield. 

Ecclesiastical  Iliatory.  7d 

Mr.  Kelly  was  a  son  of  John  Kelly,  of  Newbury,  Massa- 
chusetts, and  born  Oct.  30,  1744.  He  was  graduated  at 
Harvard  college  in  1767,  and  ordained  at  Warner  (then 
called  New-Almsbury)  Feb.  5,  1772.  The  Rev.  Mr.  True, 
of  Hanipstead, preached  llie  ordination  sei-moii,  from  2  Tim. 
iii.  17;  and  Mr.  Bayley,  of  Salem,  gave  the  charge.  War- 
ner was  at  ihat.time  but  thinly  inhabited ;  and  it  is  reported, 
that  after  the  ordaining  council  had  convened,  it  was  rumor- 
ed among  the  people  that  thei  e  were  not  enough  professors 
of  religion  in  town  to  constitute  a  church,  and  of  course  the 
candidate  could  not  be  ordained.  An  old  Dutchman  who 
had  latel}'  moved  iato  the  town  from  New-York,  and  who 
was  much  better  acquainted  with  hunting  than  with  ecclesi- 
astical aiiairs,  sent  word  to  the  Council,  that  rather  than  they 
should  not  proceed,  he  would  join  the  church  himself :  but  if 
they  could  get  along  without  him,  he  would  much  rather  not. 
Mr.  Kelly  received,  by  way  of  settlement,  about  $100,  and 
an  annual  salary  of  £40,  to  increase  £1  IO5.  per  annum,  till 
it  amounted  to  £60,  and  20  cords  of  wood.  He  married 
Lavinia  Bayley,  a  daughter  of  the  Rev.  Abner  Bayley,  of 
Salem.  Of  their  fourteen  children,  three  only  are  now  liv- 
ing. After  being  about  twenty  years  in  the  miiiisuy  at 
Warner,  Mr.  Kelly  found  sectarianism  making  such  i;;roads 
upon  his  society,  as  to  leave  his  support  burdensome  upon 
his  friends,  and  he  gave  up  his  contract;  bat  still  coRf  ucd 
in  the  ministry,  and  relied  upon  the  voluntary  contribi,  ions 
of  his  people  for  support.  This  proved  a  dry  fountairt,  and 
he  repeatedly  asked  a  dismission  which  was  refused.  At 
length  a  set  of  selectmen,  not  very  frit  ndly  \o  him,  and  not 
v"ry  well  understanding  their  duty,  taxed  his  property,  and 
the  tax  was  collected  by  distraint.  He  commenced  an  ac- 
tion against  them,  which  the  town  defended  ;  and  in  this  suit 
it  was  first  decided  in  this  State  that  the  property  of  a  set- 
tled minister  of  the  gospel,  under  his  own  management,  was 
not  liable  to  taxation.  The  Legislature  have,  within  a  few- 
years,  made  a  different  provision  by  a  special  act.  After 
the  settlement  of  this  suit,  Mr.  Kelly  was,  at  his  renewed 
request,  dismissed  by  iin  ecclesiastical  council,  March  11^ 
1801.  He  afterwards  preached  occasionally  in  the  town, 
when  there  was  no  candidate  to  supply  the  desk,  and  died 
suddenly  May  18,  1813. 

Mr.  Wheaton  was  the  first  minister  of  Claremont,  where 
he  was  ordained  February  19,  1772.  The  Rev.  Abiel 
Leonard  of  Woodstock,  Conn,  preached  the  ordination  ser- 

80  Ecclesiastical  History, 

mon.     Mr.  Wheaton  was  graduated  at  Harvard   college  in 
1769,  and  died  June  24,  1773,  aged  22.* 

Mr.  Farrar  was  a  graduate  of  Harvard  college  in  1767  ; 
was  ordained  at  Dublin,  June  10,  1772,  on  the  day  the 
church  was  gathered  in  that  town  ;  continued  thpre  but  3 
short  lime,  and  was  dismissed  January  7,  1776. 

Mr.  Potter  was  graduated  at  Yale  college,  and  ordained 
at  Lebanon,  August  25,  1772.  Mr.  Olcott  preached  the  or- 
dination sermon,  Mr.  Wellman,  gave  the  chargo,  and  Mr, 
Avery  the  right  hand  of  fellowship.  Mr.  Potter  was  a  man 
of  respectable  talents,  and  sustained  the  reputation  of  an 
able,  pious,  and  faithful  minister.  He  «vas  in  easy  circum- 
stances, and  had  an  amiable  family,  but  was  subject  to  pain- 
ful fits  of  mental  depression,  in  one  of  which,  his  life  was 
terminated  in  the  summer  of  1817.  One  of  his  sons,  Hon. 
Barret  Potter  of  Portland,  Maine,  was  graduated  at  Dart- 

Mr.  Burroughs  was  graduated  at  Yale  college,  and  was 
installed  at  Hanover,  the  first  settled  minister  of  that  town, 
in  September,  1772.  He  was  the  next  year,  appointed  a 
trustee  of  Dartmouth  college,  and  continued  in  that  office 
till  his  death.  In  1806,  his  brethren  of  the  board,  conferred 
on  him  the  honorary  degree  of  Doctor  in  Divinity.  la 
1809,  his  pastoral  relation  to  the  people  of  Hanover  was 
dissolved,  and  he  took  upon  himself  the  charge  of  the  wes- 
tern or  Vermont  branch  of  the  church  at  Dartmouth  college, 
and  died  at  Hartford,  Vt.  May  22,  1813,  four  days  after  the 
decease  of  his  wife.  Stephen  Burroughs,  of  "  bad  celeb- 
rity," was  a  son  of  these  pious  parents.  He  is  believed  to 
be  still  living  in  Canada,  professes  to  have  become  a  Roman 
Catholic  ;  and  one  of  his  daughters,  not  many  years  since, 
is  said  to  have  entered  a  nunnery  in  that  Province  and  taken 
the  veil. 

Mr.  Burnap  was  born  at  Reading,  Mass.  Nov.  2, 1748,  and 
graduated  at  Harvard  college,  1770.  The  church  in  Merri- 
mack was  organized  Sept.  5,  1772,  and  Mr.  Burnap  ordain- 
ed its  pastor  the  14th  of  the  following  month.     The  Rev. 

[*Rev.  George  Wheaton  was  son  of  Dr.  George  Wheaton,  of  Mans- 
field,  Mass.  He  possessed  a  social  and  benevolent  disposition,  joined 
wilh  an  uaafTecteJ  deportment,  which  gained  Lim  the  esteem  and  affec- 
tion of  aU  who  had  the  happiness  of  his  acquaintance.  In  his  last  will 
and  testameatv  he  gave  to  the  town  of  Claremont,  all  bis  real  estate  in 
town,  and  all  that  was  doe  to  him  from  particular  persons,  for  the  use 
an-i  s'lpoort  of  the  congregational  minister  in  that  town  forever. — 
JV*.  H.  Gazette. 

Mr.  Wheaton  was  probably  the  youngest  clergyman  who  ever  died  ip 

Ecclesiastical  History,  §1 

Thomas  Haven  of  Reading,  preached  the  ordination  ser- 
in m,  which  was  publisht-d.  Mr.  B.'s  first  wife  was  Miss 
Hopkins  of  Reading,  who  lived  hut  a  few  months  alter  her 
marriage.  His  second  wife  was  Elizabeth  Brooks  of  Med- 
ford,  a  sister  to  Gov.  Brooks.  She  died  in  1810,  Two  of 
their  13  children  have  received  a  collegiate  education  at 
Harvard.  Mr.  Burnap  received  from  his  Alma  Mater  the  de- 
gree of  Doctor  in  Divinity  in  1813,  an  honor  which  had 
never  been  conferred  on  any  other  clergyman  in  the  County 
of  Hillsborough.  He  died  December  26,  1821,  aged  75, 
having  been  in  the  m.inistry  nearly  half  a  century.  For  a 
more  particular  account  ot  his  life,  character,  and  publica- 
tions, see  Colleclion'6,  Vol.  II,  p.  76. 

Mr.  Se^rle  was  a  graduate  of  Harvard  college,  w^as  or- 
dained the  first  minister  of  iViason,  October  14,  1772,  and 
was  dismissed  in  about  ten  years  from  the  time  of  his  ordi- 

Mr.  Peabody  of  Atkinson,  was  graduated  at  Harvard 
college,  in  1769,  and  was  ordained  Nov.  25,  1772.  Mr. 
Searle,  of  Stoneham,  preached  the  ordination  sermon,  which 
was  published.  Mr.  Peabody's  second  wife  was  the  widow 
of  the  Rev.  John  Shaw,  of  Haverhill,  Mass.  She  was  the 
youngest  daughter  of  the  Rev.  William  Smith,  of  Wey- 
mouth, and  a  sister  of  President  Adams'  late  wife.  He 
continued  in  the  ministry  at  Atkinson  till  May  23,  1819, 
when  he  died  at  the  age  of  77,  leaving  one  son,  and  a 
daughter  who  married  Stephen  P.  Webster,  Esq.  of  If  aver- 
hill  in  this  State.  * 

Mr.  Barnes  was  graduated  at  Harvard  college  in  1770. 
His  wife  was  Abigail  Curtis.  He  was  ordained  at  Hills- 
borough the  first  minister  of  that  town,  Nov.  25,  1772.  He 
continued  in  the  ministry  about  thirty  years,  when  the  pow- 
ers of  his  mind  were  impaired  by  a  flash  of  lightning  which 
struck  him  from  his  horse,  and  he  resigned  the  ministerial 
office  m  1803,  and  died  August  13,  1805. 

Mr.  Upham  was  born  February  20,  1748,  and  graduated 
at  Harvard  college  in  1768.  He  was  the  first  minister  of 
Deerfield,  where  a  church  was  gathered,  and  he  ordained  in 
December,  1772.  His  first  wife,  and  the  mother  of  his 
children,  was  Hannah  Gookin,  a  daughter  of  the  Rev. 
Nathaniel  Gookin,  of  North- Hampton.  She  died  August  4, 
1797,  aged  44.  Mr.  Upham  continued  in  the  ministry  till 
his  death,  February  21,  1811.  His  second  wife  survived 
him  a  few  months,  and  died  May  15,  of  the  same  year.  He 
left  three  children,  Hon.  Nathaniel  Upham,  of  Rochester. 

82  Robert  Cushman, 

Gen.  Timothy  Upham  of  Tortsmoulh,  nnd  a  daughter. 
One  of  his  grandsons,  Rev.  Thomas  C.  Upham,  is  the  min- 
ister of  Rochester,  where  he  was  ordain*  d  July  16,  1823. 
Mr.  Wood  was  a  native  of  Sudhury,  Mass.  was  graduated 
at  Harvard  college  in  1767,  and  was  ordained  the  first  min- 
ister of  Chesterfield,  on  the  last  day  of  the  year  1772.  He, 
died  after  a  ministry  of  more  than  fifty  years,  October  18, 
1823,  aged  75. 

[To  be  continued.] 

iStosrapIitcal  i^ottces. 


RoBKRT  Cushman  was  a  distinguished  character  among 
that  collection  of  worthies,  who  quitted  England  on  account 
of  their  religious  ditiiculties,  and  settled  with  Mr.  John  Rob- 
inson, their  pastor,  in  the  city  of  Leydcn.  Proposing  after- 
wards a  removal  to  America,  in  the  year  1617,  Mr.  Cushman 
and  Mr.  John  Carver,  (afterwards  the  first  Governor  of  New- 
Plymouth)  were  sent  over  to  England,  as  th  ir  agents,  to 
agree  with  the  Virginia  Company  for  a  settlement,  and  to 
obtain,  if  possible,  a  grant  of  libt-rty  of  conscience  in  their 
intended  plantation,  irom  King  James. 

From  this  negoclation,  though  conducted  on  theu'  part  with 
great  discretion  and  ability,  they  returned  unsuccessful  to 
Leyden,  in  May,  1618.  They  met  with  no  difficulty  indeed 
from  the  Virginia  Company,  who  were  willing  to  grant  them 
sufficient  territory,  with  as  a?T»plf"  privileges  as  they  could  be- 
stow :  But  the  pragmatical  James,  the  pretended  vicegerent 
of  the  Deity,  refused  to  grant  them  that  liberty  in  religious 
'inatters,  which  was  their  principal  object.  This  persever- 
ing people  determined  to  transport  thomselves  to  this  coun- 
try, relying  upon  James'  promise  that  he  would  connive  at, 
though  not  expressly  tolerate  them  ;  and  Mr.  Cushman  was 
again  dispatched  to  England  in  Februar3^  1619,  with  Mr. 
William  Bradford,  to  agree  with  the  Virginia  Company  on 
the  terms  of  their  removal  and  settlement. 

After  much  difficulty  and  delay,  they  obtained  a  patent  in 
the  September  following;  upon  which,  part  of  the  Church 
at  Leyden,  M'ith  their  Elder,  Mr.  Brewster,  determined  to 
transport  themselves  as  soon  as  possible.  Mr.  Cushman 
was  one  of  the  agents  in  England  to  procure  money,  shipping 
and  other  necessaries  for  the  voyage,   and  embarked  with 

Robert  Cushman.  83 

them  at  South-Hampton,  Aug.  6th,  1620.  But  the  ship,  in 
which  he  sailed,  proving  leaky,  and  after  twice  putting  into 
port  to  repair,  being  condemned  as  unfit  to  perform  the  voy- 
age, Mr.  Cushman,with  his  family,  and  a  number  of  others, 
were  obliged,  though  reluctantly,  to  relinquish  the  voyage 
for  that  time,  and  return  to  London.  Those  in  the  other 
ship  proceeded  and  made  their  settlement  at  Plymouth  in 
December,  1620,  where  Mr.  Cushman  also  arrived  in  the 
ship  Fortune  from  London,  on  the  10th  of  November,  1621, 
but  took  passage  in  the  same  ship  back  again,  pursuant  to  the 
directions  of  the  merchant  adventurers  in  l^ondon,  (who  fit- 
ted out  the  ship,  and  by  whose  assistance  the  first  settlers 
were  transported)  to  give  ihem  an  account  of  the  plantation. 
He  sailed  from  Plymouth,  December  13th,  1621  ;  and  ar- 
riving on  the  coast  of  England,  the  ship,  with  a  cargo  valu- 
ed at  £500  sterling,  was  taken  by  the  French.  Mr.  Cush- 
man, with  the  crew,  was  carried  into  France  ;  but  arrived  in 
London  in  the  February  following.  During  his  short  resi- 
dence at  Plymouth,  though  a  mere  lay  character,  he  dfdivei- 
ed  a  discourse  on  the  sin  and  danger  of  self-love,  which  was 
printed  in  London,  (1622)  and  afterwards,re-printed  in  Bos- 
ton, (1724)  and  again  at  Plymouth,  (1785.)  And  though  his 
name  is  not  prefixed  to  either  of  the  two  former  editions, 
yet  unquestionable  tradition  renders  it  certain  that  he  was 
the  author,  and  even  transmits  to  us  a  knowledge  of  the  spot 
Avhere  it  was  delivered.  Mr.  Cushman,  though  he  constant- 
ly corresponded  with  his  friends  here,  and  was  \cry  service- 
able to  their  interest  in  London,  never  returned  to  the  coun- 
try again  ;  but  whilst  preparing  for  it,  was  removed  to  a  bet- 
ter, in  the  year  1626.  The  news  of  his  death,  and  Mr. 
Robinson's,  arrived  at  the  same  time,  at  Plymouth,  by  Cap- 
tain Standish,  and  they  seem  to  have  been  equally  lamented 
by  their  bereaved  and  suffering  friends  there.  He  was  zeal- 
ously engaged  in  the  prosperity  of  the  plantation,  a  man  of 
activity  and  enterprize,  well  versed  in  business,  respectable 
in  point  of  intellectual  abilities,  well  accomplished  in  scrip- 
tural knowledge,  an  unaffected  professor,  and  a  steady,  sin- 
cere practiser  of  religion. 

After  the  death  of  Mr.  Cushman,  his  family  crime  over  to 
New-England.  His  son,  Thomas  Cushman,  succeeded  l\lr. 
Brewster,  as  ruling  elder  of  the  Church  of  Plymouth,  being 
ordained  to  that  office  in  1649.  He  was  a  man  of  good  gifts, 
and  frequently  assisted  in  carrying  on  the  public  worship, 
preaching,  and  catechising.  For  it  was  one  professed  prin- 
ciple of  that  Church,  in  its  first  formation,  "  to  choose  none 
for  governing  Elders,  but  such  as  were  able  to  teach."     He 

84  The,  Family  of  Cutis. 

continued  in  this  office  till  he  died,  in  169*,  in  the  eighty- 
fourth  year  of  his  age. 

The  descendants  of  Thomas,  settled  in  Plymouth  and  the 
adjacent  towns,  and  were  distinguished  in  the  religious  walks 
of  life.  The  sixth  and  seventh  generations  are  very  numer- 
ous. Several  have  entered  the  learned  professions,  and 
have  raised  themselves  to  honorable  distinction.  John  P, 
Cushman^  of  New-York,  has  been,  aiid  Joshua  Cushman,  of 
Maine,  now  is  a  member  of  Congress.  'These  are  of  the 
fifth  generation  frum  Thomis.  Others  have  been  called  to 
the  performance  of  public  duties,  and  have  faithfully  dis- 
charged the  trust  reposed  in  them. 


Robert,  Richard,  anrj  John  Cutt,  brothers  and  niitives 
of  Wales,  emigrated  to  this  country  previous  to  the\car 
1646.  Hobeit  setiled  at  Great-Island.  Kichaid  seltled 
flrat  at  fh''  Isles  of  Shoals,  and  afterwards  removed  to  Ports- 
mouth. John  settled  at  Portsmouth,  where  he  became  a  re- 
spectable merchant,  and  in  1G80,  was  appointed  President  of 
the  first  Council  of  New-Hamp>hire.  His  first  wife  was 
Hannah  Starr,  by  whom  he  had  several  children. t  In  the 
life  time  of  President  Cuit,  the  town  of  Portsmouth  occupied 
but  a  small  tract  of  ground,  at  the  place  called  Point  of 
Graves.  The  upper  part,  which  was  the  'Bank,'  was  })ririci- 
pally  owned  by  him,  his  brother  Richard,  Major  William 
Vaughan  and  Richard  Waldron,  jr.  Ei^q.  who  were  the  first 
persons  in  the  province,  both  in  point  of  wealth  and  family 
connections.  This  large  space  of  ground,  Avhich  is  now  so 
thickly  inhabited,  contained  then  but  10  or  12  dwelling 
houses,  and  about  the  same  number  of  ware-houses,  which 
belonged  to  the  above  gentlemen.  President  Cutt  died 
March  27,  1681.  In  his  last  will,  made  a  short  time  before 
his  decease,  he  says,  "  I  commit  my  body  unto  a  decent 
burial  in  my  orchard,  where  I  buried  my  wife,  and  children 
that  are  deceased."  This  spot  has  been  inclosed  by  some 
of  his  descendants,  and  is  now  thickly  surrounded  by  build- 

*  When  Major  Cult,  a  descendant,  was  at  the  sieg-e  of  Louisbourg-,  he 
met  with  an  E'lglish  oflttcer  by  the  nance  of  Cutts  ;  upon  becoming  ac- 
quainted th«>v  fiind  themselves  i  elated,  having  sprung-  from  the  same 
family  originalij.  After  this,  Mtjor  Cutt  added  an  s  to  his  name, 
which  was  also  done  by  all  his  relatives  in  Portsniouth. 

•j-PrPS'dent  John  Cutt  was  married  by  Mr.  Danforth  to  Hannah  Starr, 
July  30,  1662.  His  children  were,  John,  born  Jnne  30,  1663 ;  Elizabeth, 
born  November  30,  1664;  Haanah,  born  July    29,    1666;  Mary,   born 

Nov.  1*,  1669;  and  Samuel,  born .  Elizabeth,  died  September 

28,  1665. 

Sir  William  Pepperell.  85  ' 

ings.  The  following  inscription  on  the  tombstone  is  so  defac- 
ed by  the  ravages  of  time,  as  to  be  read  at  this  remote 
period  with  difficulty. 

Here  lyes  interred  the  body 
OF  Hannah  Cvtt  late  wife 
OF  Mr.  John  Cvtt  aged  42. 
departed  this 



Robert  C'utt  died  in  the  West  Indies,  several  years  before 
his  brothers,  leaving  a  wife  and  a  number  of  children  at 
Great-Island.  Richard  had  but  two  daughters — Margaret, 
who  married  Major  Vaughan  ;  and  Bridgctt,  who  married 
Capt.  Thomas  Daniel.  From  these  persons,  Vaughan  and 
Daniel  Streets  took  their  names.     Richard  died  in  1676. 


When  Capt.  John  Smith,  who  discovered  the  harbour  of 
Pascataqua,  returned  to  England,  he  published  an  account  of 
his  adventures  and  discoveries.  His  work  concludes  with 
a  memoir  on  the  New-England  fisheries,  the  importance  of 
which  he  eloquently  sets  forth.  "  Therefore,  honorable 
and  worthy  conntrymen,  let  not  the  meanesse  of  the  word 
^s/i  distaste  you,  for  it  will  afford  as  good  gold  as  the  mines 
of  Polassie  or  Guiana  with  less  hazard  and  charge,  and  more 
certainty  and  facility."  Many  of  the  first  settlers  of  New- 
Hampshire,  who  were  fishermen,  found  out  the  truth  of  this 
remark.  Thus  Richard  Cutt,  in  1647,  is  a  fisherman  at  the 
Isle  of  Shoals;  several  years  afterv.ards,  we  find  him  a 
"wealthy  and  respectable  merchant,  at  the  "  Bank^''  owning 
vessels,  mills  and  ware-houses.* 

William  Pepperell,  the  father  of  the  first  Sir  William, 
was  a  native  of  Cornwall,  Eng.  and  emigrated  to  this  coun- 
try about  the  year  1676,  and  settled  at  the  Isles  of  Shoals,as 
a  fisherman.  It  is  said,  he  was  so  poor  for  some  time  after 
his  arrival,  that  the  lady  to  whom  he  paid  his  addresses  at 
the  Shoals,  would  not  hearken  to  him.  However,  in  a  few 
years,  by  his  industry  and  frugality,  he  got  enough  to  send 

*An  old  deed,  dated  1671,  runs  thus  :  "  I  Richard  Cutt,  for  y*  love  I 
bear  unto  Wm.  Vaughan,  Esq.  and  whereas  he  hath  married  my  daugh- 
ter Margaret,  I  do  give  unto  him,  his  heirs  and  assigns  forever,  my  stone 
Warehouse,  situate  at  Strawberry-Bank,  and  frooting  upon  the  Greate 
River  Pascataqua." 

86  Sir    William  Pepperell. 

out  a  brig,  which  he  loaded  to  Hull.  The  lady  now  came 
forward  and  i^ave  her  consent.  After  his  marriage,  he  re- 
moved to  Kittery  Point,  where  he  became  a  very  wealthy 
merchant,  and  died  in  1734. 

Sir  William  PEPPERELL,his  only  son,  was  born  in  the  district 
of  Maine,  in  1697,  and  was  bred  a  merchant.  About  the 
year  1727,  he  was  chosen  one  of  his  majesty's  council,  and 
was  annually  re-elected  thirty-lwo  years  till  his  death.  Liv- 
ing in  a  country  exposed  to  a  ferocious  enemy,  he  was  well 
fitted  for  the  situation,  in  which  he  was  placed,  for  it  pleased 
God  to  give  him  a  vigorous  frame,  and  a  mind  of  a  firm  tex- 
ture, and  of  great  calmness  in  danger.  He  rose  to  the  high- 
est military  honors,  which  his  counlry  could  bestow  upon 
him.  When  the  expedition  against  Louisbourg  was  contem- 
plated, he  was  commissioned  by  the  governors  of  New-Eng- 
land to  command  the  troops.  He  invested  the  city  in  the  be- 
ginning of  May,  1745.  Articles  of  capitulation  were  soon 
afterwards  signed.  There  was  a  remarkable  series  of  prov- 
idences in  the  whole  afl'air,  anrl  Mr.  Pepperell  ascribed  his 
unparalleled  success  to  the  God  of  armies.  The  king  in  re- 
ward of  his  services  conferred  upon  him  the  dignity 
of  a  baronet  of  Great  Britain,  an  honor  never  before 
conferred  on  a  native  of  New-England.  He  died  at  his  seat 
in  Kittery,  in  the  district  of  Maine,  July  6,  1759,  aged  63 
years.  Leaving  but  one  daughter,the  wife  of  Col.  Nathaniel 
Sparhawk,  his  name  and  title  are  extinct.  The  last  Sir 
William  (son  of  Col.  Sparhawk,)  died  in  London  in  1817, 
leaving  no  male  children. 

Lady  Mary  Pepperell,  relict  of  Sir  William  Pepperell, 
died  at  her  seat  in  Kittery,  Nov.  25,  1  789.  She  was  daugh- 
ter of  Grove  ii/jV*/,  Esq.  and  grand-daughter  of  Hon.  Judge 
Sewall.  Her  natural  and  acquired  powers  were  said  to  be 
very  respectable,  and  she  was  much  admired  for  her  wit  and 
sweetness  of  manners. 



Col.  Moulton  lived  at  York.  He  w^g  colonM  of  a  rcf^iment  at  the  re- 
duction of  L  jiiisbourg- in  1745  ;  was  afterwards  sheriff  of  the  county  <»f 
York  ;  fir^t  justice  of  C.  C  P.  and  judg-e  of  ProTjate.  He  died  in  176S. 
His  son  and  g^rand  son  were  sheriffs  of  the  county,  and  another  of  hi« 
sons  was  judge  of  the  court  and  register  of  deeds. 

A  yulgir  man  is  captious  and  jealous  ;  easfer  and  impetuous  about 
trifles.  He  suspects  himself  to  be  slighted,  thinks  every  thing  that  i? 
said  meant  for  him  ;  if  the  company  happens  to  laugh,  he  is  persuaded 
they  laugh  at  him  ;  he  grows  angry  and  testy,  say?  something  very  im- 
pertinent, and  draws  himself  into  a  scrape,  by  shewing  what  he  calU  a 
proper  spirit,  and  asserting  himself. 

(  87  ) 


William  Moore,  of  Stratham,  was  one  of  Rogers'  Ran- 
gers.. He,  with  ton  others,  was  sent  out  on  a  scouting  par- 
ty ;  and  vvhilo  partaking  of  soldier's  fare,  at  a  table  spread 
in  th,^,  wilderness,  they  were  surrounded  by  a  party  of  sav- 
ages. A  desperate  fight  ensued^  seventeen  of  the  Indians 
were  killed,  and  eight  of  the  Rangers.  Col.  Hatkett,  one  of 
the  survivors,  made  his  escape.  Moore  was  taken,  but  not 
till  he  had  wrenched  the  tomahawk  from  the  Indian  who 
first  seized  him.  and  buried  it  in  his  brains.  The  other  sur- 
vivor was  murdered  in  cold  blood  on  the  battle  field  ;  his 
heart  was  taken  from  his  body  and  forced  warm  into  the 
mouth  of  the  prisoner,  who  had  been  his  companion  and 
friend.  The  Indians  were  of  a  tribe  residing  far  to  the 
west  ;  and  returning  to  their  homes,  they  carried  Moore 
with  -them  for  torture.  At  Montreal,  the  French  under- 
standing for  what  fate  he  was  reserved,  endeavored  to  re- 
deem him,  but  in  vain.  His  captors  resolved  to  exercise 
on  him  their  cruelty,  and  revenge  the  death  of  the  warrior 
whom  he  slew.  On  their  arrival  at  their  own  country,  great 
preparations  were  made  for  his  lingering  execution.  When 
all  vyas  ready,  and  the  tribe  assembled,  the  prisoner  was 
made  fast  to  a  tree.  He  was  deliberately  cut  and  stabbed 
all  over  his  body  and  limbs,  in  more  than  two  hundred 
places,  and  splinters  of  pitch-wood  were  put  into  every 
wound.  '  To  these  his  tormentors  were  about  to  apply  the 
fire,  when  the  mother  of  the  Indian  whom  he  killed,  de- 
clared that  she  would  take  him  as  her  son,  instead  of  the 
one  she  had  lost.  Upon  this,  he  was  immediately  unloosed  ; 
the  splinters  were  extracted,  and  some  medicinal  herbs  ap- 
plied, as  soon  as  they  could  be  gathered,  to  his  wounds. 
Such  was  the  efficacy  of  their  applications,  that  in  three  or 
four  days  he  was  free  from  pain,  and  able  to  travel  as  Bsual, 
though  he  retained  the  scars  till  his  death.  He  was  now 
adopted  into  the  family  of  the  squaw,  whom  he  was  to  call 
his  mother,  and  by  whom  he  was  treated  as  a  son.  He 
lived  with  her  about  six  years,  and  went  out  with  the  tribe  in 
their  hunting,  fishing,  and  fighting  expeditions.  He  was  too 
remote  from  the  civilized  settlements  to  venture  on  an  es- 
cape ;  but  was  too  earnest  to  return  to  his  friends,  not  to 
make  some  attempt  to  visit  them.  He  had  gained  the  affec- 
tions of  his  Indian  mother  and  family,  and  hoped  by  alarm- 
ing their  fears,  to  obtain  permission  to  leave  them.  He  ac- 
cordingly run  a  stick  down  bis  throat  so  violently  as  to 
produce   blood.     His  mother  believed  him  to  be  in  great 

88  Affair  Mt  Bloomjleld. 

clanger,  and  told  him,  "You  spit  hlood — you  die  P''  Moore 
said,  yes,  he  must  die,  unless  he  could  see  an  English  doctor, 
who  would  easily  cure  him.  The  Indians  tried  all  their 
remcdi'^s  in  vain,  for  the  stick  would  still  produce  blood,  and 
he  WiS  obliged  to  apply  it  so  often  that  he  became  pale  and 
debilitated.  Despairing  of  his  recovery,  without  the  aid  of 
a  while  physician,  his  mother  and  two  Indians  sat  out  with 
him  on  a  visit  to  the  whites  — Moore  assuring  them  that 
when  the  English  doctor  had  cured  him,  and  he  returned  to 
the  tribe  again,  he  should  make  a  better  hunter  and  a  braver 
warrior  than  ever.  They  first  went  to  a  French  physician, 
to  whom  Moore  made  known  his  object,  and  the  Frenchman 
directcil  them  10  an  English  doctor-,  who,  he  said,  would  bet- 
ter undprstand  the  disease.  The  Englishman  was  attached  to 
the  army, and  on  Moore's  arrival,  secured  him,  and  sent  the 
Indians  away.  The  old  squaw  appeared  to  mourn  as  sin- 
cerely, and  lamented  as  loudly,  as  if  the  child  of  her  adop- 
tion had  been  the  child  of  her  blood.  Moore  returned  to 
Stratham,  where  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  days,  living 
to  the  age  of  63  years,  and  dying  in  March,  1 790. 

In  January,  of  the  year  1772,  Joseph  Weston,  who  was 
the  second  settler  in  the  county  of  Somerset,  Maine,  moved 
into  the  town  of  Canaan,  now  dignified  with  the  name  of 
Bloomfield.  His  predecessor  in  the  settlement  of  the 
county  was  Jonathan  Emery,  who  pitched  his  tent  in 
Fairfield,  where  his  descendants  yet  live.  Settlers,  however, 
rapidly  increased  ;  and  the  Indians  began  to  leel  jealous  of 
the  encroachments  on  their  territory,  and  to  threaten  hostili- 
ties. About  the  time  that  the  struggle  commenced  between 
Great-Britain  and  her  refractory  colonics,  a  person  who  had 
settled  as  far  up  the  Kennebeck,  as  Carritunk  falls,began 
to  be  alarmed,  and  moved  his  family  down  to  the  settlement 
in  Bloomficld.  He  soon  after  returned  ;  when  he  found  that 
his  hut  had  been  robbed  by  the  Indians.  He  hastened 
back  with  the  intelligence ;  which  excited  so  much  alarm, 
that  three  experienced  hunters,  Joseph  Weston,  senior,  Isaac 
Smith  and  Oliver  Wilson,  were  despatched  with  a  birch 
canoe,  and  each  a  gun,  on  a  voyage  of  discovery.  They 
proceerled  up  the  river,  as  far  as  Savage's  Island,  where 
they  found  it  expedient  to  separate;  agreeing  not  to  dis- 
charge their  guns  at  >ny  game  they  might  chance  to  see, 
unless  they  came  across   the  Indians  ;    but,  when  any  one 

Affair  at  Bloomfitld.  89 

heard  the  report  of  a  gun,  he  was  to  return  to  Bloomfiold 
with  all  possible  speed,  and  make  preparations  for  as  good 
a  defence  as  practicable. 

Having  made  these  arrangements,  Wilson  proceeded  in 
the  boat,  and  the  oilrer  two  on  shore.  They  had  not  long 
been  separated,  before  tlie  two  who  were  on  the  land,  were 
saluted  with  the  report  of  a  gun,  echoing  through  the  forest, 
and  reverberating  from  hill  to  hill  with  a  noise  like  thunder. 
With  the  greatest  despatch  they  hastened  home  to  their  ex- 
pecting friends,  with  the  dreadful  intelligence,  that  the  hos- 
tile Jndians  were  certaiiily  approaching.  All  the  families 
in  the  settlement  were  soon  collected,  and  ferried  over  to 
the  Great  Island,  so  called,  containing  about  30  acres,  an  J 
situated  just  below  the  confluence  of  the  Wissesunset  stream 
and  the  Kennebeck.  They  here  awaited  with  fcarlul  ex- 
pectations, ignorant  of  the  fate  of  Wilson,  who  had  most 
probably  fallen  a  victim  to  the  ferocity  of  the  savages  ;  and 
fearing  every  moment,  that  they  were  soon  to  be  butchered 
themselves,  or  see  their  helpless  infants  murdered  before 
their  eyes.  They  dreaded  that  the  swages  would  come 
down  the  river  in  their  canoes,  and  make  an  attack  in  the 
night.  They,  therefore,  stationed  a  guard  of  their  ablest 
men  at  the  head  of  the  island,  to  watch  during  the  darkness, 
while  their  wives  and  children  with  the  remaining  men  con- 
tinued in  a  barn,  the  only  place  of  refuge  at  hand. 

About  midnight,  the  sentinels  discovered  a  black  speck 
moving  slowly  and  steadily  down  the  stream  ;  and  as  it  ap- 
proached nearer,  they  thought  it  resembled  a  canoe,  with 
six  or  seven  Indians.  They  accordingly  concealed  them- 
selves in  the  bushes,  and  as  soon  as  it  was  near  enough, 
having  each  singled  out  his  man,  at  a  given  signal,  all  fired 
and  re-loaded  their  guns  as  quick  as  possible;  but  hearing 
no  noise  from  the  canoe,  they  waited  till  it  had  drifted  almost 
ashore,  when  it  was  discovered  to  be  a  tree  covered  with 
limbs,  which  they  had  "  killed  as  dead  as  a  hammer.'''' 
Meanwhile,  the  party  at  the  barn,  awakened  (if  they  could 
sleep  in  such  a  situation)  by  the  noise  of  the  guns,  jumped 
from  their  beds  of  hay  and  straw ;  the  men  seized  their 
arm*,  and  hastened  to  the  scene  of  action  ;  while  the  women 
clasped  their  children  to  their  breasts,  expecting  soon  to  be 
sent  to  the  world  of  spirits,  or  doomed  to  endure  a  captivity 
more  terrible  than  death  itself.  The  return  of  the  men 
from  the  shore,  however,  pacified  them  in  some  measure. 
The  next  day,  Wilson  returned  from  his  voyage,  and  in- 
formed them  that  as  he  was  paddling  his  canoe  along,  an 
ttld  bear  came  down  to  the  shore  Qf  the  river  to  drink,  and 

90  Original  Letters. 

before  he  thought  of  their  agreement,  he  had  put  a  brace  of 
bullets  thro\jgh  her  ;  and  that  he  had  not  seen  or  heard 
aught  of  the  Indians.  Thus  ended  this  perilous  affair;  the 
inhabitants  returned  to  their  habitations,  and  resumed 
their  occupations  in  peace. 

(f^ttfliiifil  ^ttitv^. 

Copy   of  a  Letter  from  Mr.    Dunbar  to  Governor  Belcher^ 
written  m  1734. 

SIR, — On  Fryday  last,  the  carrier  delivered  to  me  a 
packet  at  Exeter,  where  I  was  upon  His  Majesty's  service, 
and  in  it  an  order  from  your  Excelf^y  dated  from  no  place 
the  1 1  inst.  for  convening  the  Council  here,  and  asking  their 
advice  upon  a  proclamation  for  a  general  Fast,  upon  ihe  25th 
inst.  dated  also  the  1 1th  inst.  and  said  to  be  from  the  Coun- 
cill  Chamber  in  this  town,  when  every  body  knows  you 
were  at  Boston,  and  I  know  no  Council  was  held  here  on 
that  day.  I  have  always  been  of  opinion,  and  am  confirmed 
in  it  by  the  advice  of  every  gentleman,  except  a  few  here 
under  your  influence,  that  you  have  no  right  to  send  oiders 
hither  in  the  manner  you  do.  A  few  days  will  convince  you 
that  you  have  not;  in  the  mean  time,  I  shall  only  say  in 
answer  to  the  Proclamation,  that  I  can  by  no  means  be  in- 
strumental in  issuing  of  it,  the  day  appointed  being  a  festival 
of  the  church  by  act  of  Parliament ;  I  was  in  hopes  two  or 
three  mistakes  your  Ex^y  had  made  at  Boston  in  proclaim- 
ing a  feast  on  a  fast,  and  a  fast  on  a  feast  day  of  the  church 
woii'd  have  prcvcnLeil  any  more  such,  except  it  was  done  in 
contempt  of  church  authority,  which  may  be  reasonably 
suspected  by  your  giving  sanction  to  your  platform  of  wor- 
ship, where  you  say  that  arch-bishops,  bishops,  &c.  not  be- 
ing plants  of  the  Lord's  planting  shall  be  all  rooted  out  and 
cast  forth  at  the  last.  I  don't  doubt  but  you  have  or  will 
hear  from  home  upon  that  act  of  government. 

As  to  your  warrant  for  paying  your  salary  in  advance, 
1  must  presume  your  sending  it  to  me  was  in  case  I  should 
offer  it  for  the  Council's  approbation  (tho'  it  is  already  sign'd 
and  countersign'd  as  if  by  their  advice)  to  make  use  of  it 
as  an  argument  against  my  demanding  any  part  of  it,  for 
which  reason  I  shall  not  only  suspend  offering  it,  but  pro- 
test against  paying  it  untill  I  know  who  has  the  right  to  it. 
Your  Excy  knows  there  is  no  money  in  the  treasury,  and  so 

Original  Letters.  91 

delaying  for  a  few  days  untill  ships  arrive  can  be   no   detri- 

1  did  not  intend  to  have  troubled  you  with  any  letter  at 
this  time,  but  having  this  occasion,  1  can't  avoid  taking  no- 
tice of  your  treatment  of  me  in  sending  your  orders  from 
Boston  to  the  militia  officers  here  without  any  notice  of  me. 
This,  sir,  is  unprecedented  and  not  like  a  soldier,  and  no 
man  but  yourself  wou'd  have  done  it.  This  and  your  other 
usages  of  me  is  in  effect  taking  His  Majesty's  commission 
from  me,  which  I  shall  not  give  up  untill  it  is  his  pleasure  to 
take  it.  Yet  your  construction  of  my  power  has  made  it  so 
contemptible  here,  that  I  meet  with  all  the  opposition  and 
disregard  in  the  execution  of  my  duty,  and  in  support  of  the 
King's  service,  as  surveyor  of  the  woods. 

I  presume  by  the  time  this  reaches  you  our  dispute  will  be 
ended  from  home. 

Your  manner  of  sending  your  orders  was  I  suppose  to 
avoid  saying, 


Your  humble  servant, 


P.  S.  1  will  call  the  Council  to-morrow,  and  if  they  will 
joyn  with  me,  I  will  appoint  Fryday  after  your  Excellency's 
appointment,  being  the  26th  inst.  for  fasting  and  prayer,  &c. 

D.  D. 

From  Sir  William  Pepperell  to  the   Duke  of  Kew-Castle. 

Louisbourg,  June  28,  1745. 
My  Lord  Duke^ — 

I  have  already  had  the  honour  to  transmit  to  your 
Grace  in  conjunction  with  commodore  Warren  an  account 
of  ye  success  of  his  Majesty's  arms,  in  the  reduction  of 
Louisbourg  and  territories  adjacent,  to  his  Majesty's  obedi- 
ence, which  was  happily  effected  on  the  sixteenth  inst.  by 
an  army  of  his  Majesty's  new  English  subjects,  whom  I  have 
the  honour  tip  be  at  the  head  of;  assisted  on  the  sea-side  by 
a  squadron  of  his  Majesty's  ships,  under  the  command  of 
Mr.  Warren,  said  fortresses  and  territories  being  surrender- 
ed on  terms  of  capitulation,  of  which  a  copy  was  forwarded 
to  your  Grace  with  our  letter,  and  duplicate  thereof  is  here- 
with inclosed.  On  the  1  7th  inst.  his  Majesty's  ships  enter- 
ed the  harbour  and  the  same  day  part  of  the  troops,  with 
myself  march'd  into  the  city  ;  since  which  have  us'd  the  ut- 
most diligence  in  making  the  proper  dispositions,  for  the  se- 
curity and  good  regulation  of  the  place  and  the  speedy  evae- 

92  Original  Letters. 

uation  of  it,  agreeable  to  the  terms  of  capitulation.  I  haVe 
now  the  honour  to  inclose  to  your  Grace  an  account  of  what 
troops  were  raised  in  each  of  his  Majesty's  governments  in 
Nevv-England,  which  were  aiding  in  this  expetlition*  and 
tht-  present  state  of  them,  and  1  flatter  myself  that  his  Maj- 
esty will  lie  graciously  pleased  to  approve  of  their  zeal  in 
voluntjrily  engaging  in  so  expf-nsive  and  hazardous  an  en- 
terprize,  even  betore  they  had  notice  of  any  other  naval 
force  than  the  private  vessels  of  war  fitted  out  by  thcm- 
«t  Ives  ;  and  I  humbly  b?g  your  Grace's  leave  to  say  that  I 
shou'd  not  do  my  fellow  soldiers  justice  if  I  omitted  this  op- 
p.irtunity  to  assure  your  Grace  that  tbey  have  w ith  the  ut- 
most cheeifulness  endured  almost  inrredinle  hardships,  not 
only  those  necessarily  incident  to  a  camp,  in  snrh  an  incle- 
ment climate,  where  their  lodging  and  accommodations 
could  not  be  but  of  the  poorest  sort ;  hut  abo  in  landing 
a'ld  tran -porting  with  infinite  industry,  and  f.ains.  our  heavy 
artillery  (some  of  which  were  42lb  cannon)  several  miles,  in 
coM  foggy  nights,  over  almost  impassable  bogs  morasses  and 
rocky  hills  ;  also  in  landii.g  the  warlike  stores,  and  provis- 
ions, in  doing  which  they  were  extreamly  exposed:  and  at 
the  same  time,  we  were  obliged  to  keep  ©ut  large  d'Hach- 
mcnts  to  range  the  woods  in  order  to  intercept  and  disperse 
parties  of  the  French  and  Indian  enemy,  w  ho  were  cjathcring 
together  behind  us,  with  whom  we  had  sevrral  skirmishes, 
in  alj  which  we  routed  the  enemy,  killed  and  wounded  many 
of  ihem,and  took  upwards  of  two  hundred  prisoners.  Sever- 
al sallies  wer^^  maile  from  the  town  in  all  which  we  repulsed 
the  enemy  with  very  little  loss  on  our  side,  and  we  have  been 
so  happy  through  God's  goodness  as  not  to  lose  above  100 
men  by  the  enemy  in  the  whole  of  this  great  enterpi'ize. 
They  held  out  against  a  close  sipge  of  forty  nine  days,ciuring 
which  time  we  raised  five  fascine  batteries,  from  whence, 
and  a  large  battery  deserted  by  the  enemy,  on  our  landinsT, 
we  gave  them  above  nine  thousand  cannon  ball,  and  about 
six  hundred  bombs,  which  greatly  distressed  them,  and  much 
damaged  their  fortifications,  and  in  particular  rendered  use- 
Jess,  the  most  considerable  battery  of  the  town,  (called  the 
Circular  battery)  which  mounted  sixteen  large  cannon,  and 
very  much  commanded  the  harbour.  The  fatigue  of  our 
men  in  all  those  services  was  so  great  that  we  had  near 
fifteen  hundred  sick  at  a  time.  Notwithstanding  all  which 
they  not  only  continued  to  express  the  greatest  zeal  to  go  on 

*X.  6.  All  the  officers'  names  were  sent  home  plac'd  according  to 
fhcir  rank. 

Original  Letters,  •  93 

vigorously  against  the  enemy,  but  in  general,  generously  ac- 
quiesced in  the  loss  of  the  plunder  they  expected  from  the 
riches  of  the  city  ;  and  tho'  undisciplined  troops,  I  am  per- 
suaded his  majesty  has  not  in  his  dominions,  a  number  of 
subjects  more  universally  loyall,or  that  could  possibly  ex- 
press greater  readiness  to  spend  their  lives  in  the  cause  they 
were  embarked  in  for  his  majesty's  honour  and  the  good  of 
their  country.  I  esteem  it  a  peculiar  favour,  and  of  the  hap- 
piest consequence,  that  his  Majesty's  slips  sent  so  timely  to 
our  assistance  wore  under  the  command  of  a  gentleman  of 
such  distinguished  merit  and  so  universally  beloved  in  New- 
En^^land  as  Commodore  Warren.  He  has  constantly  ex- 
erted himself  to  give  the  army  all  possible  assistance  ;  and 
the  same  day  that  a  suspension  of  hostilities  was  desired  by 
the  enemy,  we  had  determined  upon  a  general  assault  by 
land  and  sea.  And  for  the  better  manning  the  ships  for 
that  purpose,  it  was  agreed  to  spare  them  six  hundi'ed  men 
out  of  our  troops.  I  have  the  honour  also  to  inform  your 
Grace,  that  in  our  way  from  New-England,  we  stopt  at 
Canso,  and  began  to  rebuild  the  fortification,  there  which 
the  French  destroy'd  last  year,  and  left  eight  cannon  with 
the  necessary  stores,  and  eighty  men  of  the  troops,  to  cora- 
pleat  and  defend  the  same,  which  hope  will  meet  with  his 
majesty's  gracious  appi'obation  ;  we  have  also  destroy'd  the 
town  and  fort  of  St.  Peters,  and  several  other  considerable 
settlements  upon  this  island;  and  may  the  h^^ppy  sbccess  of 
this  expedition  against  Louisbourg  (the  pride  of  France) 
whereby  his  majesty  has  the  key  of  the  great  river  of  St. 
Lawrence,  and  by  which  the  absolute  command  of  the  fish- 
ery, and  indeed  very  much  of  the  whole  trade  of  North 
America,  is  secured  to  his  majesty's  subjects,  be  an  happy 
prelude  to  the  reduction  of  all  the  French  settlements  in 
America;  in  which  will  your  Grace  permit  me  to  say  I  am 
confident  his  Majesty's  new  English  siibjects  will  at  all 
times  be  ready  to  contribute  their  utmost  assistance,  as 
far  as  their  circumstances  will  admit  of.  And  his  Majes- 
ty's great  goodness  leaves  us  no  room  to  doubt  but  that  he 
will  be  graciously  pleased  to  express  his  royal  favour  to- 
ward those  who  engag'd  in  this  expedition,  in  such  manner 
as  will  animate  them  and  their  country  to  proceed 
further  with  the  greatest  chearlulness.  I  must  not  omit  to 
acquaint  your  Grace  that  the  French  in  conjunction  with  the 
Indian  enemy  had  prepared  to  besiege  the  garrison  of  An- 
napolis Royal  this  summer.  Seven  or  eight  hundred  of 
them  gathered  together  there,  expecting  as  it  is  said  an 
armament  from  France  to  join  them,  but  were  called  off  from 

04  LoveweWs  Fight, 

thence  to  the  relief  of  Louisbourg,  but  did  not  arrive  in  season. 
It  appears  that  there  were  notwithstanding  about  2000  men 
able  to  bear  arms  in  the  city  when  it  was  surrendered. 

T  now  have  the  honour  to  inclose  to  your  Grace,  an  ac- 
count of  the  state  of  this  fortress,  and  of  the  stores  found 
here,  and  I  beg  your  Grace's  leave  to  mention,  that  the  in- 
clemency of  this  climate,  will  render  it  absolutely  necessary, 
that  care  be  taken  for  the  warm  cloathing  and  lodging  of  the 
troops  posted  here.  I  presume  his  Majesty  will  be  pleased 
forthwith  to  make  known  his  royal  pleasure,  relating  to  this 
important  place  ;  till  which  time,  I  shall  endeavour,  with  the 
utmost  loyalty,  and  my  best  discretion,  to  promote  the  se- 
curity and  good  regulation  thereof;  and  beg  leave  to  sub- 
scribe myself,  with  all  possible  duty  and  respect, 
May  it  place  your  Grace, 
Your  Grace's, 

Most  obedient  and  most  humble  servant, 

Louisbourg,  June  28th,  1745. 

His  Grace  the  Duke  of  New-Castle,  &c.  &,c. 


What  time  the  noble  Lovewell  came, 
With  fifty  men  from  Dunstable, 

The  cruel  Pequa'tt  tribe  to  tame. 
With  arms  and  bloodshed  terrible. 

*  "  The  story  of  Lovewell's  Fight  is  one  of  the  nursery  tales  of  fiew- 
Hampshire  ;  there  is  hardly  a  person  that  lives  in  the  eastern  and  north- 
ern part  of  the  state  but  has  heard  incidents  of  that  fearful  encounter 
repeated  from  infancy.  It  was  on  the  18lh  of  April,  1725.  that  Capt. 
John  Lovewell,  of  Dunstable,  Massachusetts,  with  thirty-four  men, 
fought  a  famous  Indian  chief,  named  Paug-us,  at  the  head  of  about  eigh- 
ty savages,  near  the  shores  of  a  pond  in  Pequackett.  Lovewell's  men 
were  determined  to  conquer  or  die,  although  outnumbered  by  the  In- 
dians more  than  one  half^  They  fought  till  Lovewell  and  Paugus  were 
killed,  and  all  Lovewell's  men  but  nine  were  either  killed  or  wounded 
dangerously.  The  savages  having  lost,  as  was  supposed,  sixty  of  their 
number  out  of  eighty,  and  being  convinced  of  the  fierce  and  determined 
resolution  of  their  foes,  at  length  retreated  and  left  them  masteis  of  the 
ground.  The  scene  of  this  desperate  and  bloody  action  which  took 
place  in  the  town  which  is  now  called  Fryeburgh,  is  often  visited  with 
interest  to  this  day,  and  the  names  of  those  who  fell,  and  those  who  sur- 
vived, are  yet  repeated  with  emotions  of  grateful  exultation." 

jYorth  American  Reviete. 

LovewelVs  Fight.  9^ 

Then  did  the  crimson  streams,  tl^it  flowed, 

Seem  like  the  waters  of  the  brook, 
That  brightly  shine,  that  loudly  dash 

Far  down  the  oliffs  of  Agiochook. 

With  Lovewell  brave,  John  Harwood  came  ; 

From  wife  and  babes  'twas  hard  to  part, 
Young  Harwood  took  her  by  the  hand, 

And  bound  the  weeper  to  his  heart. 

Repress  that  tear,  my  Mary,  dear, 

Said  Harwood  to  his  loving  wife. 
It  tries  ma  hard  to  leave  thee  here. 

And  seek  in  distant  woods  the  strife. 

When  gone,  my  Mary,    think  of  me, 

And  pray  to  God,  that  I  may  be. 
Such  as  one  ought  that  lives  for  thee, 

And  come  at  last  in  victory. 

Thus  left  young  Harwood  babe  and  wife, 

With  accent  wild,  she  bade  adieu  ; 
It  grieved  those  lovers  much  to  part. 

So  fond  and  fair,  so  kind  and  true. 

Seth  Wyman,  who  in  Woburn  lived, 

(A  marksman  he  of  courage  true,) 
Shot  the  first  Indian,  whom  they  saw. 

Sheer  through  his  heart  the  bullet  flew. 

The  Savage  had  been  seeking  game. 

Two  guns  and  eke  a  knife  he  bore, 
And  two  black  ducks  were  in  his  hand, 

He  shrieked,  and  fell,  to  rise  no  more. 

Anon,  there  eighty  Indians  rose. 

Who'd  hid  themselves  in  ambnsh  dread ; 
Their  knives  they  shook,  their  guns  they  aimed. 

The  £iimous  Paugns  at  their  head. 

Good  heavens  !  they  dance  the  Powow  dance. 

What  horrid  yells  the  forest  fill  ? 
The  grim  bear  crouches  in  his  den. 

The  eagle  seeks  the  distant  hill. 

What  means  this  dance,  this  Powow  dance  ? 

Stern  Wyman  said ;  with  wonderous  art, 
He  crept  full  near,  his  rifle  aimed,  ^ 

And  shot  the  leader  through  the  heart. 

John  Lovewell,  captain  of  the  band. 

His  sword  he  waved,  that  glittered  bright,* 

For  the  last  time  he  cheered  his  men, 
And  led  them  onward  to  the  fight. 

9C  LovewelPs  Fight. 

Fight  on,  fight  on,  hrave  LoVewell  said, 

Fight  on,  while  heavea  shall  give  you  breath 

An  Indian  ball  then  pierced  him  through, 
And  Lovewell  closed  his  eyes  in  death. 

John  Harwood  died  all  bathed  in  blood, 
When  he  had  fought,  till  set  olHay  ; 

And  many  more  we  may  not  name, 
Fell  in  that  bloody  battle  fray. 

When  news  did  come  to  Harwood's  wife. 
That  he  with  Lovewell  fought  and  died, 

Far  in  the  wilds  had  given  his  life, 
Nor  more  would  in  their  home  abide; 

Such  grief  did  seize  upon  her  mind, 
Such  sorrow  filled  her  faithful  breast ; 

On  earth,  she  ne'er  found  peace  again, 
But  followed  Harwood  to  his  rest. 

'Twas  Paugus  led  the  Pequa'tt  tribe ; — 
As  runs  the  Fox,  would  Paugus  run  ; 

As  howls  the  wild  wolf,  would  he  howl; 
A  large  bear  skin  had  Paugus  on. 

But  Chamberlain,  of  Dunstable, 

(One  whom  a  savage  ne'er  shall  slay,) 

Met  Paugus  by  the  water  side. 
And  shot  him  dead  upon  that  day. 

Good  heavens !  Is  this  a  time  for  pray'r  ? 

Is  this  a  time  to  worship  God  ? 
When  Lovewell's  men  are  dying  fast, 

And  Paugus'  tribe  hath  felt  the  rod  ? 

The  Chaplain's  name  was  Jonathan  Frye  ; 

In  Andover  his  fcther  dwelt. 
And  oft  with  Loveweil's  men  he'd  prayed, 

Before  the  mortal  wound  he  felt. 

A  man  was  he  of  comely  form, 

Polished  and  brave,  well  learnt  and  kind ; 
Old  Harvard's  learned  halts  he  left, 

Far  in  the  wilds  a  grave  to  fin  d. 

Ah  I  now  his  blood  red  arm  he  lifts, 
His  closing  lids  he  tries  to  raise ; 

And  speak  once  more  before  he  dies, 
In  supplication  and  in  praise. 

He  prays  kind  heaven  to  grant  success. 
Brave  Lovewell's  men  to  guide  and  bless^ 

And  when  they've  shed  their  heart  blood  true, 
To  raise  them  all  to  happiness. 

"  The  Albums  97 

Come  hither,  Farwell,  said  young  Frye, 

You  see  that  I'm  about  to  die  j 
Now  for  the  love  I  bear  to  you, 

When  cold  in  death  my  bones  shall  lie  ; 

Go  thou  and  see  my  parents  dear, 

And  tell  them  you  stood  by  me  here  ; 
Console  them  when  they  cry,  Alas ! 

And  wipe  away  the  falling  tear. 

Lieutenant  Farwell  took  his  hand, 

His  arm  around  his  neek  he  threw, 
And  said,  brave  Chaplain,  I  could  wish, 

That  heaven  had  made  me  die  for  you 

The  Chaplain  on  kind  Farwell's  breast, 

Bloody  and  languishing  he  fell; 
Nor  after  this  said  more,  but  this^ 

"  I  love  thee,  soldier,  fare  thee  well.'^ 

Ah  !  many  a  wife  shall  rend  her  hair, 

And  many  a  child  cry,  "  Woe  is  me  !'' 
When  messengers  the  news  shall  bear, 

Of  Lovewell's  dear  bought  victory. 

With  footsteps  slow  shall  travellers  go, 

Where  Lovewell's  pond  shines  clear  and  bright. 

And  mark  the  place,  where  those  are  laid, 
Who  fell  in  Lovewell's  bloody  fight. 

Old  men  shall  shake  their  heads,  and  say, 

Sad  was  the  hour  and  terrible, 
When  Lovewell  brave  'gainst  Paugus  went. 

With  tifty  men  from  Dunstable. 


Of  all  the  follies  and  fooleries  of  the  present  hook-reading, 
book-writing,  book-selling  and  book-buying  age,  there  is 
none  more  peculiar  and  notable  than  the  devices  of  certain 
would-be  literary  ladies  ;  those  who  have  a  right  to  place  af- 
ter their  names  the  formidable  B.  S.  or  Bhie  Stocking.  How  is 
a  gentleman  of  no  literary  pretensions  or  acquirements,to  es- 
cape the  snares  which  such  ladies  place  to  entrap  him  ?  How 
can  such  gentlemen,  and  their  number  is  very  great,  being 
1+x,  or  any  other  unknown  quantity,  escape  the  payment  of 
a  contribution  which  is  frequently  levied  upon  them  by  suck 

98  "  The  Album:' 

ladies?  Alas!  we  utterly  despair  of  ever  having  any  certain 
sign  or  token  whereby  the  B.  S.  may  be  readily  known  and 
distinguished.  "  As  the  fishes  are  taken  in  an  evil  net,"  so 
are  the  l+x  taken  by  a  blue  stocking.  There  are  some 
marks  which  should  make  us  suspicious  that  we  arc  in  com- 
pany with  a  B.  S.  1  speak,  Messrs.  Editors,  from  sad  ex- 

"  Quorum  magna  pars  fui," 

and  would  willingly  contribute  my  mite,  to  ascertain  some 
certain  characteristics  by  which  the  B.  S.  may  be  known. 

They  are  generally  ladies  of  no  particular  age,  being  uni-" 
formly  between  25  and  50;  they  are  always  wnmaweci  la- 
dies, and  apparently  feel  some  dreadful  misgivings  about 
"leading  apes  hereafter," &c.  They  arc  studious  of  the 
company  of  yoang  ladies  in  their  teens,  and  endeavor  to  imi- 
tate and  practice  their  pleasantries  and  graces.  They  have 
a  smattering  of  chymistry,  botany,  conchology,  and  indeed 
of  pantology,  by  which  we  would  not  be  supposed  to  have  any 
reference  to  frying.  They  have  an  apt  quotation  for  every 
event ;  and  endeavoring  to  wind  around  the  unfortunate 
l+x  the  arachnoid  web  of  their  literature,  quote  Shakspeare, 
and  Milton, Scott,] rving  and  Cooper,to  the  utter  consternation 
of  the  gentleman  who  would  gladly  be  released,from  the  thral- 
dom of  the  Sybil,  by  the  cry  of  Jire !  fire ! !  And  they,  and 
they  only,are  always  possessed  of  a  certain  resis'less  method 
of  extorting  from  the  l+x  some  compliment,  upon  which 
perhaps  they  may  found  an  action  of  breach  of  promise, 
&c.     You,  of  the  l+x,  readily  apprehend  that  I  mean   an 

ALBUM  ! ! 

Ye  powers !  what  a  vision  for  us !  a  winding  sheet  has  not 
half  its  chilling  elTect.     An  album  ? 

"  Avaunt  antl  quit  my  sight !   Let  the  earth  hide  thee! 
"  Thy  bones  are  marrowkss .'" 

Ah  album  is— what  ?  A  trap  to  catch  compliments  from 
gentlemen.  It  is — the  greatest  bore  of  the  age — and  lucky- 
he,  who  can  escape  without  leaving  therein  some  mark  of  his 
own  folly,  and  that  too  under  his  own  hand.  A  man  of  sense 
always  bolts,  when  he  sees  one  of  these  "  abominablcs,"  al- 
though it  may  be  impossible  for  him  to  escape.  Not  long 
since,  one  of  these  "  compliment-traps"  pounced  down,  pop  ! 
Unawares  on  a  friend  of  mine,  uho  was  fain  to  make  his  es- 
cape; but  no,  there  was  no  discharge  in  that  wai  fare.  I 
had  an  opportunity  to  turn  over  the  leaves  of  the  thing,  by 
which  he  was  caught,  and  1  verily  believe  that  no  sensible 
maa  will  write  in  "such  a  book  •,  nor  will'  any  modest  and 
lovely  lady  lay  a  gentleman  under  such  contribution.     In- 

Miscellanies,  99 

deed,  women  of  sense  will  laiigh  at  the  folly  of  those,  who 
do  scratch  a  line  in  a  lady's  album.  I  have  transcribed 
from  the  book,  the  album,  one  piece  which  expresses  my 
views  of  the  subject,  and  no  doubt  it  was  intended  by  its  au- 
thor as  a  hint  to  the  owner  of  the  trap  ;  and  I  now  send  it  to 
you,  for  publication,  if  you  please. 


Heugh  !  Sirs !  it's  an  unco'  sight, 
To  see  a  dull  and  plodden  wight, 
Tak'  up  his  pen  and  try  to  write 

Poetic  lines ; 
That  he's  a  fool^  he'll  gie  outright, 

O'er  mony  signs. 

Wha  cares  for  that  ?  did  not  the  lass 
Gie  me  her  Alburn^  or  mirror-glass, 
Whiik  shaws  tiie  mind  of  a'  wha  pass 

Before  it?— True, 
It  shaws  the  fool,  alack !  alas, 

Like  me  or  you. 

It  shaws  the  wise — ha — stap  !  you're  wrang ; 
The  wise  that  gate  will  never  gang  ; 
Nane  but  the  daft  will  write  a  sang, 

In  sic  o'  place. 
Where  they'll,  aye,  be  laugh'd  at  lang. 

By  girls  o'  grace. 

Sae,  lassie,  back  the  book  I'll  send, 
But  if  it  you  should  ever  lend, 
You'll  tak  gude  care  'Us  never  ken'd 

By  great  or  wee, 
That  these  daft  lines  were  ever  penn'd 

By  aae  like  me. 

January  16,  1824. 


I  have  this  day  read  the  number  of  the  Historical  Col- 
lections  for  February.     The  memoir   of    Paul  Jones   was 
particularly  interesting    to  me,  as  I   had  some  slight  ac- 

~!t    ir>^  .«"ft  't;    iT-^  ir^ri 

lOQ  Miscellanies. 

quaintance  with  him  in  ray  youthful  days.  There  is  a  par- 
ticular account  of  the  compliment  paid  him  by  the  king  of 
France  on  hijs  return  after  capturing  the  Serapis,  in  the  2d 
volume  of  Niles'  Register,  page  330,  which  perhaps  you 
may  choose  to  publish  in  your  next  number. 

"  In  the  year  1780,  Lewis  16th,  king  of  France,  present- 
ed John  Pa\il  Jones  with  a  sword  mounted  with  gold,  on 
which  was  engraven  the  following  flattering  raolto  : 

Vindicati  Maris 

Ludovicus  16,  r enumerator 

Strenuo  Vindici. 

The  hilt  was  of  gold,  and  the  blade,  &c.  emblazoned  with 
his  maje'ity's  arms,  the  attributes  of  war,  and  an  emblemati- 
cal representation  of  the  alliance  between  France  and  Amer- 

Perhaps  you  may  think  the  following  anecdote  deserving 
a  place  in  your  Collections. 

About  the  year  1720,  Capt.  Thomas  Baker  of  Northamp- 
ton, in  the  county  of  Hampshire,  in  Massachusetts,  sat  off 
with  a  scouting  party  of  thirty-four  men,  passed  up  Connect- 
icut river  and  crossed  the  height  of  land  to  Pemigewasset 
river.  He  there  discovered  a  party  of  Indians,  whose  Sa- 
chem was  called  Walternummus,  whom  he  attacked  and  de- 
stroyed. Baker  and  the  Sachem  levelled  and  discharged 
their  guns  at  each  other  at  the  sam€  instant.  The  ball  from 
the  Indian's  gun  grazed  Baker's  left  eyebrow,  but  did  him  no 
injury.  The  ball  froni  Baker's  gun  went  through  the  breast 
of  the  Sachem.  Immediately  upon  being  wounded,  he  leap- 
ed four  or  live  feet  high,  and  then  fell  instantly  dead.  The 
Indians  fled  \.o  the  river ;  Baker  and  his  party  pursued  and 
destroyed  every  one  of  them.  They  had  a  wigwam  on  the 
bank  of  the  river,  which  was  nearly  filled  with  beaver.  Ba- 
ker's party  took  as  much  of  it,  as  they  could  carry  away, 
and  burned  the  rest.  Baker  lost  none  of  his  men  in  this 
skirmish.  It  took  place  at  the  confluence  of  a  small  river 
with  the  Pemigewasset,  between  Plymouth  and  Campton, 
which  has  since  had  the  name  of  Baker's  river. 

Ptdism  of  General  Washington. — It  is  presumed  on  good 
ground,  that  the  late  President  Washington  was  descended 
from  a  very  respectable  family  of  the  name,  anciently  es- 
tablished at  Twitfield  and  Warton,  in  Lancashire  [England] 
and  afterwards  lords  of  the  manor  of  Sulgrave,  in  the  county 

Miscdlanies.  101 

«f  Northampton.  Sir  William  Washington  of  Packington,  in 
Leicestershire,  the  eldest  son  and  heir  of  Laurence  Wash- 
ington, of  Sulgrave,  Esq.,  married  Anne,  the  half  sister  of 
George  Viliiers,  duke  of  Buckingham. 

This  Sir  William  had,  among  oiher  younger  brothers,  two, 
named  John  and  Laurence;  and  the  latter  appears  to  have 
been  a  student  at  Oxford,  1622. 

John  and  Laurence  Washington,  brothers,  emigrated  from 
the  north  of  England,  (according  to  the  tradition  in  the  fam- 
ily of  the  President)  and  settled  at  Bridge's  Creek  on  the 
Potomack  River,  in  the  county  of  Westmoreland.  John  was 
employed  as  General  against  the  Indians,  in  Maryland,  and 
the  parish  in  which  he  lived  was  called  after  him.  He  was 
the  lather  of  Laurence  Washington,  gentleman,  who  died  in 
1697,  leaving  two  sons,  John  and  Augustine. 

Augustine  died  in  1743,  at  the  age  of  forty-nine,  leaving 
several  sons  by  his  two  marriages.  George,  the  President, 
was  the  eldest  by  the  second  wife,  Mary  Ball,  and  was  born 
1 1  th  of  February,  1 732,  O.  S.  The  grandfather  of  General 
Washington  emigrated  to  America  about  the  year  1657. 

This  Pedigree  was  communicated  to  the  Editor  of  the  English  edition  of 
Marshall's  Life  of  Washington,  by  the  late  Sir  Isaac  Heard,  Garter  King  at  Arms. 

[Extracts  from  the  Town-Records  of  Newbury,  Mass.] 

Great  Earthquake  of  1638.  "  Being  this  day  [June  1, 
1638]  assembled  to  treat  and  consult  about  the  well  order- 
ing of  the  aflairs  of  the  toune,  the  sunn  shining  faire,  it 
pleased  God  to  raise  a  vehement  and  terrible  earthquake, 
coming  with  a  still  clap  of  thunder  issuing  as  is  supposed 
out  of  the  east,  which  shook  the  earth  and  the  foundations 
of  the  house  in  a  very  violent  manner  to  our  great  amaze- 
ment and  wonder;  wherefore  taking  notice  of  so  great  and 
strange  an  hand  of  God's  providence,  we  were  desirous  of 
leaving  it  on  record  to  the  view  of  after  ages,  to  the  intent 
that  all  might  take  notice  of  the  power  of  Almighty  God  and 
feare  his  name."  This  earthquake  is  noticed  by  Hutchin- 
son in  his  History  of  Massachusetts,  who  says,  that  "  by  the 
printed  accounts  of  it  and  manuscript  letters,  it  appears  to 
have  been  equal  to  that  in  1727;  the  pewter  in  many  places 
being  thrown  off  the  shelves,  and  the  tops  of  chimneys  in 
some  places  shook  down,  but  the  noise,  though  great,  not 
so  surprising  as  that  of  the  last  mentioned." 

Settlement  of  Keiohury  and  the  introduction  of  JsTew  Style. — 
"  For  religion's  sake,  as  I  trust,  our  forefathers  left  their  na- 
tive shore,  they  bid  adieu  to  their  stately  buildings  and  good- 
ly seats  and  many  of  them  took  a  final  farewell  of  their 

102  Miscellanies. 

friends  and  shipped  themselves  and  families  on  board  the 
ship  Hector  for  New-England,  and  by  the  grace  of  God, 
they  arrived  in  this  wilderness  in  the  year  1633,  and  this 
place  was  then  called  by  the  natives  Quasquacanguon.  Our 
fathers  with  courage  began  to  clear,  manure,  and  till  the 
land ;  the  Lord  was  pleased  to  bless  their  industry,  and 
the  earth  brought  forth  encrease,  and  also  the  Lord  ad- 
ded to  their  families,  and  increased  their  number,  and  in  the 
year  1635,  on  the  third  month,  called  May,  the  Great  and 
General  Assembl}'^  was  pleased  to  incorporate  them  into  a 
town  and  invested  them  with  town  privileges  and  called  the 
name  thereof  Newbury;  and  our  fathers  began  the  year  of 
births  and  deaths  as  by  record  do  appear  on  the  first  of 
March,  and  it  hath  been  so  continued  IVom  time  to  time  until 
this  day,  and  now  by  an  Act  of  Parliament,  we  are  ordered 
to  begin  the  year  on  the  first  of  January,  and  in  humble 
obedience  to  the  crown  and  dignity,  I  shall  proceed  accord- 
ingly ;  riz.  January,  ye  first,  1 752.  Joseph  Coffin,  Town 

Falmouth,  in  Casco  Bay^  May  26,  1 732. 

On  the  1 7th  day  of  the  last  month,  arrived  here  a  mast- 
ship,  (Captain  William  Hills,commandcr)  which  day  fin- 
ished her  loading;  her  cargoe  are  large,  fair  and  fine  trees, 
(for  the  supply  of  his  Majestyes  Royal  navy,)  amongest  the 
rest,  there  is  one  that  is  forty  inches  and  a  half  diameter, 
hewed  into  its  sixteen  squares;  holding  its  bignessc  in  all  its 
quarters;  haveing  a  very  lar^e  tongue,and  wanting  but  a  few 
inches  of  29  yards  in  length.  Perhaps  such  a  mast  or  Ruch 
a  cargoe,  hath  hardly  ever  been  carryed  out  of  New-Eng- 
land, or  into  Great  Britain,  or  such  a  dispatch  known  in 
such  a  case.  As  the  excellency  of  the  pine  groves  in  these 
parts  furnished  the  cargoe,  the  extraordinary  commodious- 
ness  of  the  harbour  contributed  to  the  dispatch  in  loading 
this  ship,  the  same  being  accomplished,  in  a  month  and  nine 
days  from  her  arrival  in  our  bay. 


A  faithful  picture  has  probably  never  yet  been  drawn  of  the  species  of  warfare 
prosecuted  liy  the  Rangers— or  of  the  laardships  and  privations  endured  by  the 
soldiery  in  the  old  French  wars.  Mr.  JoHW  Shxtte,  now  living  in  Concord,  at 
the  a^e  of  89  years,  and  whose  memory  and  faculties  are  unimpaired,  was  a  soldier 
under  Rogers  in  the  ranging  service  ;  and  an  hour  spent  in  listening  to  his  ac- 
eount  of  that  service,  and  his  own  sufferings  and  adventures,  is  by  no  one  regretted. 
Mr.  S.  is  a  son  of  Jacob  Shute,  who  came  with  the  first  family  of  settlers  to 

The  5rst  person  in  Concorrt  who  accepted  a  commission  under  the  provincial 
congress,  was  Capt.  Reuben  Kimball.  He  was  a  zealous  friend  to  the  revolu- 
tionary cause — raised  a  company,  and  was  at  Saratoga,  when  the  army  of  Bur* 
§oyne  surrendered  to  the  AmeiicaDS.    He  died  June  13,  1814,  aged  84, 

Miscellanies.  lOS 

Origin  of  the  name  of  the  Ship  "  Le  Bon  Homme  Richard^ 
' — The  late  Capt.  John  Paul  Jones,  at  the  time  he  was  at- 
tempting to  fit  »ut  a  little  squadron  during  the  Revolutionary 
War,  in  one  of  the  ports  of  France,  to  cruise  on  the  coast  of 
England,  was  much  delayed  by  neglects  and  disappoint- 
ments from  the  Court,  that  had  nearly  frustrated  his  plan. 
Chance  one  day  threw  into  his  hands  an  old  Almanack,  con- 
taining Poor  Richard's  Maxims,  by  Dr.  Franklin.  In  that 
curious  assemblage  of  useful  instructions,  a  man  is  advised, 
"  if  he  wishes  to  have  any  business  faithfully  and  expedi- 
tiously performed,  to  go  and  do  it  himself; — otherwise  (o 
send."  Jones  was  immediately  struck  upon  reading  this 
maxim,  wiih  the  impropriety  of  his  past  conduct  in  only 
sending  letters  and  messages  to  Court,  when  he  ought  to  have 
gone  in  person.  He  instantly  set  out,  and  by  dint  of  person- 
al representations  procured  the  immediate  equipment  of  the 
squadron,  which  aftervvai'ds  spread  terror  along  the  Eastern 
coasts  of  England,  and  with  which  he  so  gloriously  captured 
the  Serapis,  and  the  British  ships  of  War  returning  from  the 
Baltic.  In  gratitude  to  Dr.  Franklin's  maxim,  he  named 
the  principalship  of  hts  squadron  after  the  name  of  the  pre- 
tended almanack  maker,  Le  Bon  Homme  Richard,  Father 

An  Indian  Trap. — Among  the  first  settlers  of  Brunswick, 
Me.  was  Daniel  Malcolm,  a  man  of  undaunted  courage,  and 
an  inveterate  enemy  of  the  Indians,  who  gave  him  the  name 
of  Sungurnumby,  i.  e.  very  strong  man.  Early  in  the  spring, 
he  ventured  alone  into  the  forest  for  the  purpose  of  splitting 
rails  from  the  spruce,  not  apprehensive  of  Indians  so  early  in 
the  season.  While  engaged  in  his  work,  and  having  opened 
a  log  witfi  small  wedges  about  half  its  length,  he  was  sur- 
prised by  Indians,  who  crept  up  and  secured  his  musket, 
standing  by  his  side.  "Sungurnumby,"  said  the  chief,  "now 
me  got  you ;  long  me  want  you ;  you  long  speak  Indian, 
long  time  worry  him  ;  me  havQ  got  you  now,  look  up  stream 
to  Canada." — "  Well,"  said  Malcolm,  with  true  sang  froid, 
"you  have  me  ;  but  just  help  me  open  this  log  before  I  go." 
They  all,  fire  in  number,  agreed.  IVLalcolm  prepared  a  large 
wooden  wedge,  carefully  drove  it,  took  out  his  small  wedges, 
and  told  the  Indians  to  put  in  their  fingers  to  the  partially 
clefted  wood,and  help  pull  it  open-  They  did  :  he  then  sud- 
denly struck  out  his  blunt  wedge,  and  the  elastic  wood  in- 
stantly cloicd  fasten  their  fingers,  and  he  secured  them. 

(   104  ) 

The  first  number  of  "The  Philadelphia  Museum,  or  regis- 
ter of  natural  history  and  the  arts,"  has  just  issued  from 
the  xMuseum  press  of  Philadelphia.  The  object  of  the  work, 
in  the  language  of  the  Editor  is,  "  to  diffuse  a  taste  for  the 
study  of  natural  history,  as  well  as  those  delightful  arts 
which  contribute  so  much  to  the  improvement  and  gratifica- 
tion of  the  mind." 

Washington  Irving  is  reported  to  have  collected  materials 
for  a  new  work  during  his  late  tour  in  Germany. 

Another  highly  important  work  respecting  Napoleon  is 
soon  to  appear — the  Journal  of  Dr.  Antomarchi,  who  was 
the  physician  appointed  after  the  departure  of  Mr.  O'Meara, 
and  who  attended  Napoleon  in  his  last  moments.  It  is  said 
some  extraordinary  particulars  relating  to  the  Emperor  will 
be  divulged  in  this  work. 

The  well  known  and  learneJ  Julius  Klaproth,  whose  trav- 
els in  the  Caucasus  and  Georgia  appeared  some  years  since, 
and  who  accompanied  a  Russian  embassy  to  China,  is  pre- 
paring for  publication,  from  new  and  authentic  materials,  a 
Geographical,  Statistical,  and  Historical  Description  of  the 
Empire  of  China  and  its  Dependencies. 

A  collection  of  the  Reports  of  Bow-Street  cases,  made  for 
the  newspapers,  is  about  to  be  published  with  illustrative 

A  compilation  of  all  the  Memoirs  relating  to  the  Duke  d* 
Enghien,  translated  from  the  Freneh,  is  soon  to  appear. 

An  Odd  Title. — A  book  has  been  recently  published  at 
Philadelphia,  having  the  following  title  : 





Forming  a  collection  of  Parlour  POETRY,  and  drawing- 
room  DROLLERY,  suitable  for  all  Seasons  ;  and  supplying 
smiles  for  SUMMER,  amusement  for  AUTUMN,  wit  for 
WINTER,  sprightliness  for  SPRING. 

Mirth— Merriment — Cheerfulness — Laughter. 

Johnson'*  Dictionary* 

APRIL,  1824. 


The  attention  that,  within  the  few  last  years,  has  been  be- 
stowed on  the  more  minute  parts   of  our   early  history,  is 
highly  commendable.     It  has  a   higher  and  better  purpose, 
than  merely   to  satisfy  a  vain   curiosity ;  it  connects   itself 
with  the  best  feelings  of  our  nature,  and  serves  to  raise  in 
our  estimation  the  character  of  those  trom  whom  we  are  de- 
scended.    It  is  the   historian's    duty   to  describe    national 
character  in  the  aggregate  ;  and  general,  and  sweeping  out- 
lines, are  all  that  are  required  at  his  hands.     But  our  prov- 
ince, though   more  humble,  is,   we  confess,  not  without  its 
pleasure ;  it   is  for  us  to  treasure  up  for  the  use  of  the  fu- 
ture historian,  and  to  set  forth  in  detail  whatever  may  illus- 
trate the  peculiarities   of  character,  situation  and  conduct, 
that  so  stronglv    marked  our  ancestors,   and  distincjuished 
them  from  the  rest  of  the  world.     1  he  more  critically  we 
examine  these  particulars,  the   more  shall   we  admire   the 
courage,  and   perseverance   that  accompanied  them.     The 
situation  of  the  early  settlers,  was  of  no  ordinary  kind  ;  it 
was  full  of  gloomy  doubt,  of  continually  impending  danger, 
of  actual  and   intense  suffering.     A  plain  representation  of 
these,  without  any  aid  of  the  imagination,  might  almost  pass 
for  an  interesting,  though  highly  wrought  fiction.    Something 
like  an  air  of  romance  hangs  about  them,  and  we  almost  for- 
get that  they  once  existed  in  sad   and  painful  reality.     The 
wide   spread   and   surrounding  wilderness,  the  length  and 
inclemency  of  the    winters,   a  climate   constant   only   in 
change,  slender  settlements,   scattered  habitations,  togeth- 
er with  the  continual  dread  of  Indian   hostility,    combin- 
ed to  render  their  situation  perilous,  full  of  anxiety  and  dis- 
tress, and  at  the  same  time,  served  to  form  characters,  that 
stood  forth  in  bold  and  manly  proportions. 

Even  in   a  time  of  peace,  their  security  was  often  more 
fancied  than  real,  for  their  savage  enemy,  like  some  nations, 

106  Mrs.  Rowlandson, 

high  in  the  scale  of  civilizatioa,  regarded  treaties  only  as 
a  fit  opportunity  to  gather  up  their  strength,  and  ripen  their 
plans,  in  order  to  strike  a  more  effectual  and  deadly  blow. 
Their  approach  was  noiseless,  like  the  pestilence  that  walketh 
in  darkness;  and  a  dwelliag  wrapt  in  flames,  or  a  family  bar- 
barously murdered  and  scalped,  were  usually  the  first  inti- 
mation of  their  appearance. 

In  war,  peculiar  caution  seemed  necessary  on  the  part  of 
the  settlers.  Oft  times  the  husbandman  going  forth  to  the 
peaceful  labours  of  the  field,  was  laid  prostrate  by  an  un- 
seen hand.  The  quiet  of  the  sabbath,  the  calm  scenes  of 
domestic  life,  the  sleep  of  the  cradle,  were  broken  by  the  hor- 
rid sound  of  the  war-hoop,  bringing  death  and  desolation  in 
its  notes.  Frequently  death  itself,  was  in  comparison  a 
happy  fate,  and  so  did  the  poor  captive  deem,  when  dragged 
from  the  scenes  and  employments  of  domestic  life,  and  sur- 
rounded by  a  gloomy  wilderness,  and  a  cruel  foe.  Looking 
back,  he  might  behold  the  dead  bodies  of  those  he  held 
most  dear,  and  the  consuming  fire,  that  numbered  his  habit- 
ation amongst  the  waste  places;  while  before  him  the  pros- 
pect of  lasting  servitude,  removed  far  away  all  consolation  ; 
or  the  cruel  preparations,  or  the  actual  and  intense  suffering 
of  torture,  reduced  life  itself  to  one  protracted  scene  of  ag- 
ony, and  made  the  cold  embrace  of  death  seem  like  the 
greeting  of  a  beloved  and  affectionate  friend. 

Many  of  our  border  towns  suffered  extremely  from  In- 
dian warfare.  In  some  instances,  almost  all  the  dwelling 
houses  were  destroyed,  and  such  of  the  inhabitants  as  esca- 
ped death  or  captivity,  were  forced  to  take  shelter  in 
places  of  greater  strength  and  security. 

In  the  following  article,  we  purpose  giving  some  account 
of  the  captivity  of  Mrs.  Mary  Rowlandson,  of  Lancaster, 
Mass.  making,  ad  libitum,  extracts  from  the  narrative  of 
her  various  "  removes"  as  set  forth  under  her  own  hand. 
Few  of  our  towns  ever  suffered  more  than  Lancaster  from 
the  incursions  of  the  savages.  A  great  number  of  the  in- 
habitants, at  successive  times,  were  either  destroyed  or  led 
away  captives.  At  the  time  of  which  we  write,  the  town 
was  utterly  deserted,  and  four  years  elapsed  before  it  was 
again  settled :  such  was  the  dismay  that  struck  into  the 
hearts  of  the  inhabitants. 

Previous  to  the  year  1675,  most  of  the  Indian  tribes  dwel- 
ling within  the  limits  of  New-England,  from  New-Hamp- 
shire to  Connecticut,  had  formed  a  combination  against  the 
English.     They  felt  that  this  might,  and  probably  would,  be 

Mrs.  Rowlandson.  107 

their  last  and  most  desperate  struggle  ;  that  if  defeated,  they 
might  retreat  into  the  wilderness,  while  success  on  their  part 
would  compel  the  English  to  quit  these  shores. 

The  plot  seems  to  have  been  well  and  carefully  laid,  and 
was  ripening  apace.  The  attack  was  to  have  been  simultane- 
ous from  Cochecho  to  the  Narraganset  country ;  but  the 
disclosure  of  the  conspiracy  to  the  English  by  a  friendly  In- 
dian,* forced  the  enemy  to  a  war,  for  which  they  were  not 
fully  prepared,  and  the  want  of  concert  and  system  thus  oc- 
casioned, contributed  very  materially  to  their  final  over- 

Metacom,  son  of  Massasoiet  of  Pokanoket,  better  known 
by  the  name  of  King  Philip,  was  the  principal  agent  in  plan- 
ning the  war  and  hastening  the  commencement  of  hostili- 
ties. The  inimical  disposition  be  had  for  a  long  time  felt  to 
the  English  now  burst  forth  into  open  violence — odia  in  Ion- 
gum  jaciens  quae  reconderet  aucfaqne  promerel.  Finding  that 
his  intrigues  had  been  discovered,  as  (he  only  means  of 
safety,  he  was  forced  into  a  state  of  actual  war  in  a  great 
measure  unprepared.  The  other  Indian  tribes,  surprised  at 
this  unexpected  discovery,  and  at  the  conduct  of  Philip, 
while  equally  unprepared  for  war,  were  compelled  to  join 
him  in  his  attempts  against  the  English. 

In  this  state  of  things,  on  the  10th  of  February,  (O.  S.) 
1675,  early  in  the  morning,  Philip,  with  several  hundred  In- 
dians! under  his  command,  made  an  attack  upon  Lancaster. 
They  approached  in  five  several  parties,  and  began  their 
work  of  destruction  at  the  same  time  in  as  many  different 
places,  setting  fire  to  a  number  of  buildings  and  murdering 
many  of  the  inhabitants.  After  destroying  other  parts  of 
the  town,  they  came  to  the  garrisoned  house  belonging  to 

*  John  Sausaman,  a  praying^  Indian,  was  (he  person  who  disclosed  to 
theEngflish  the  conspiracy  of  Philip.  The  information  he  g-ave,  cost  him 
his  life.  He  was  met,  not  long  after  by  three  or  four  Indians  on  a 
frozen  pond,  where  they  knocked  him  down  and  put  him  under  the  ice, 
leaving  his  gun  and  hat  upon  the  ice,  to  make  the  English  believe,  that 
he  accidentally  fell  in  and  was  drowned.  When  the  body  was  found 
and  taken  up,  the  wounds  appeared  on  his  head.  An  Indian  happened 
to  be  on  a  hill  at  a  distance  and  saw  the  murder  committed  ;  be  con- 
cealed it  for  some  time,  but  at  length  discovered  it.  The  murderers 
were  apprehended,  and  tried  at  Plymouth,  on  the  Indian's  testimony  and 
other  ciscumEtances,were  convicted  and  executed.  The  was 
said,  were  employed  by  Philip,  who,  by  their  detection,  was  obliged  to 
commence  hostilities  prematurely. 

fConsisting  of  a  part  of  his  owD  tribe,  and  some  of  the  Nipnets  and 

108  Mrs.  Rowlandson. 

the  Rev.  Mr.  Rowlandson  :  "  and  quickly,"  says  Mrs.  R."it 
was  ihc  dohfullest  day  that  ever  mine  eyes  saw."  Mr. 
Rowlandson's  house*  stood  on  the  brow  of  a  hill :  the  In- 
dians attacked  it  on  all  sides,  killing  a  number  of  the  sol- 
diers and  inhabitants,  who  were  there  collected. 

The  defence  was  conducted  with  great  bravery,  upwards 
of  two  hours ;  till  at  last  the  enemy,  after  many  unsuccessful 
attempts  to  set  fire  to  the  house,  collected  in  a  cart  a  large 
quantity  of  combustible  matter,  which  they  kindled  and  rol- 
led towards  the  building.  The  English,  finding  that  any  fur- 
ther resistance  would  be  useless,  and  to  avoid  perishing  in 
the  flames,  were  under  the  sad  necCvSsity  of  surrendering  to 
the  barbarous  foe.  No  other  garrison  was  destroyed  but 
that  of  Mr.  Rowlandson.t 

Twelve  were  killed  out  of  forty  two,  that  were  in  the 
house.  Among  the  former,  were  a  brother  in  law,  nephew, 
sister,  and  child  of  Mrs.  R.  Mrs.  Rowlandson  on  leaving 
the  hou«;e,  was  taken  by  a  Narraganset  Indian  and  sold  to 
Quannopin,  a  sagamore,  and  connected  with  Philip  by  mar- 
riage, their  s(iuaws  being  sisters.  The  men  who  were  taken 
prisoners,  were  cither  put  to  death  or  reserved  for  torture, 
while  the  women  and  children  were  carried  into  the  wilder- 

"  Now  away  we  must  go  with  those  barbarous  creatures, 
with  our  bodies  wounded  and  bleeding,  and  our  hearts  no 
less  than  our  bodies.  About  a  mile  we  went  that  night,  up 
upon  a  hillj  within  sight  of  the  town,  where  they  intend  to 
lodge.  This  was  the  dolefullest  night  that  ever  my  eyes 

The  Indians  feasted  that  night  upon  the  cattle  and  other 
things  they  had  plundered,  in  their  usual  extravagant  man- 
ner, when  the  immediate  supply  was  plentiful,  and  thought- 

*A  short  distance  S.  W.  of  fhe  new  church,  on  land  novr  owned  by 
Samuel  Ward,  Esq.  The  cellar  was  filled  up  only  a  few  years  since  ;  the 
garden  extended  west  from  the  house ;  where  the  g-arden  was,  are  a 
number  of  very  a^ed  appletrees  more  or  less  decayed  ;  these  without 
question  date  back  to  the  time  of  Mr.  Rowlandson. 

fMr.  Rowlandson  at  this  time  was  in  Boston,  soliciting^  of  the  g-overn- 
ment,  troops  for  the  defence  of  the  town.  This  g^entieman  graduated 
at  Cambridgfe,  1652.  After  the  destnic'ion  of  Lancnster,  he  preached 
at  Weatbersfield,  Conn,  and  died  before  the  town  was  ag^ain  settled. 
He  is  mentioned  by  Cotton  Mather,  among  the  early  authors  of  Har- 
vard, of  "lesser  composures." 

J  George  hill,  about  a  mile  and  a  half  West  of  the  church  :  it  is  said 
to  have  taken  its  name  from  an  Indian  who  dwelt  thereupon.  From  this 
bill,  tiiere  ia  a  fine  view  of  the  town. 

Mrs,  Rowlandson.  109 

less  as  children  of  the  future  :  while  the  darkness  of  the 
night,  the  lurid  glare  of  the  fire,  "the  roaring,  singing,  danc- 
ing, and  yelling  of  those  black  creatures,  made  the  place  a 
lively  resemblance  of  hell." 

The  next  morning,  (Feb.  11th,)  the  Indians  left  the  town 
and  pursued  their  way  in  rather  a  circuitous  course  to  the 
banks  of  the  Connecticut.  Mrs.  Rowlandson,  who  was  her- 
self wounded  in  the  side,  was  compelled  to  walk  and  carry 
in  her  arms  her  wounded  little  child  Sarah,  till  weak  and 
exhausted,  she  sunk  to  the  earth.  The  savages  then  placed 
them  both  on  a  horse,  but  going  down  a  steep  hill,  they  again 
fell.  Soon  after,  it  began  to  snow,  "and  when  night  came  on, 
they  stopped,  and  now  down  I  roust  set  in  the  snow,  by  a 
little  fire,  and  a  few  boughs  behind  be,  with  my  sick  child  in 
my  lap,  and  calling  much  for  water,  being  now  (through  the 
wound)  fallen  into  a  violent  fever.  My  own  wound  also 
growing  so  stiff  that  I  could  scarce  sit  down  or  rise  up,  yet 
so  it  must  be,  that  I  must  sit  all  this  cold  winter  night,  upon 
the  cold  snowy  ground,  with  my  sick  child  in  my  arms, 
looking  that  every  hour  would  be  the  last  of  its  life,  and 
having  no  christian  friend  near  me  either  to  comfort  or  help 
me."  The  following  morning,  (Feb.  1 2th,)  Mrs.  Rowland- 
son  and  her  sick  child  were  placed  on  horseback  behind  one 
of  the  party.  Neither  of  them  received  any  food  nor  any  re- 
freshment, excepting  a  little  cold  water,  from  the  night  (Wed- 
nesday) preceding  the  attack  till  the  following  Saturday. 

The  Indians  arrived  the  same  day  at  one  of  their  towns, 
called  Wenimesset,*  north  of  Quaboag.t  At  this  place,  they 
found  a  large  number  of  their  brethren,  and  continued  there 
for  a  few  days.  "  I  sat  much  alone  with  my  poor  wounded 
child  in  my  kip,  which  moaned  night  and  day,  having  noth- 
ing  to  revive  the  body  or  cheer  the  spirits  of  her." 

"  Nine  days  1  sat  upon  my  knees  with  my  babe  in  my  lap 
till  my  flesh  was  raw.  My  child  being  even  ready  to  depart 
this  sorrowful  world,  they  bid  me  carry  it  out  to  another  wig- 
wam, (I  suppose  because  they  would  not  be  troubled  with 
such  spectacles)  whither  I  went  with  a  very  heavy  heart,  and 
down  I  sat  with  my  picture  of  death  in  my  lap.  In  about 
two  hours,  in  the  night,  my  sweet  babe,  like  a  lamb,  departed 
this  life  on  Feb.  18,  1675,  it  being  about  six  years  and  five 
months  old.  It  was  nine  days  from  the  first  wounding  in  this 
miserable  condition,  without  any  refreshing  of  one  nature 
or  other,  except  a  little  cold  water." 

*New-Braintree.    fBrookfield,  both  in  the  county  of  "Wlorcester. 

110  Mrs.  Rowlandson. 

Full  of  affliction,  it  was  an  aggravation  of  her  calamnity, 
that  the  remains  of  this  fond  child  must  be  buried  in  the  wil- 
derness. The  Indians,  however,  interred  it  decently  on  a  hill 
in  the  neighborhood,  lying  in  the  town  of  New-Braintree,  and 
known  at  this  day  as  the  place  of  the  burial. 

Feb.  19,  Mrs.  Rowlandson  had  the  good  fortune  to  meet 
with  her  daughter  Mary,  who  was  about  ten  years  old.  She 
had  been  taken  from  the  door  of  the  garrison  by  one  of 
the  praying  Indians,  and  exchanged  by  him  for  a  gun. 
"  When  I  came  in  sight,  she  would  fall  a  weeping,  at  which 
they  were  provoked  and  would  not  let  me  come  near  her,  but 
bid  me  begone,  which  was  a  heart-cutting  word  to  me.  I 
had  one  child  dead,  another  in  the  wilderness,  I  knew  not 
where  ;  the  third  they  would  not  let  me  come  near  to.  Me 
hove  ye  bereaved  of  my  children^  Joseph  is  not,  arid  Simeon  is 
not,  and  ye  will  take  Benjamin  also  ;  all  these  things  are 
against  77ie."  Equally  unexpected  was  the  meeting  with  her 
son,  on  the  same  day.  He  had  been  taken  captive  at  the 
same  time  with  his  mother,  and  was  then  staying  with  anoth- 
er body  of  Indians  six  miles  distant.  His  master  being  ab- 
sent in  an  expedition  against  Medfield,  the  squaw  his  mis- 
tress very  kindly  brought  him  to  see  his  mother.  "He  asked 
me  whether  his  sister  Sarah  was  dead?  and  told  me  he  had 
seen  his  sister  Mary,  and  })rayed  me  that  I  would  not  be 
troubled  in  reference  to  himself." 

The  next  day,  (20th)  the  Indians  returned  from  Medfield, 
bringing  twenty-three  scalps,  in  token  of  their  success,  and 
rending  the  air  with  "  outrageous  roaring  and  whooping,"  so 
"  that  the  very  earth  rang  again." 

One  of  the  number  had  brought  a  Bible  which  he  had 
plundered  in  Medfield  :  this  he  gave  to  Mrs.  Rowlandson, 
and  it  was  to  her  (as  it  ever  is  to  the  afflicted,)  an  unfailing 
source  of  pure  and  healing  consolation. 

The  company  of  Indians,  with  whom  she  then  was,  after  re- 
maining a  few  days  at  Wenimesset,  made  preparations  to  re- 
move in  separate  parties  towards  Connecticut  river.  They  had 
with  them  ten  English  captives,  viz.  Mrs.  Rowlandson,  Good- 
wife  Joslin,  and  eight  children.  Mrs.  R.  was  separated  from 
her  daughter,  and  from  four  of  her  neighbors,  amongst  whom 
was  Mrs.  Joslin.  The  fate  of  this  last  female,  soon  after,  was 
truly  melancholly.  Being  near  the  time  of  her  confinement, 
and  obliged  continually  to  carry  in  her  arms  her  little  child, 
but  two  years  old,  she  entreated  the  savage  to  permit  her  to 
return  hom:e.     Wearied  and  enraged  with  her  importunity, 

Mrs,  Rowlandson.  Ill 

they  took  ofF  her  clothes,  knocked  her  on  the  head  and  cast 
her  with  her  child  ic  her  arms  into  the  flames,  in  which  they 
both  perished. 

Mrs.  Joslin  is  represented  as  a  worthy  woman;  she  dis- 
covered signally  her  fortitude  in  the  hour  of  death.  In  the 
midst  of  her  agony,  she  shed  not  a  tear  nor  used  the  lan- 
guage of  complaint,  but  met  her  death  like  a  christian,  with 
the  accents  of  prayer  on  her  lips. 

But  to  return  to  Mrs.  Rowlandson;  the  party  she  was  with 
on  leaving  Wenimesset,  bent  their  course  towards  Bacquag* 
rii^r.  "•  We  came  about  the  middle  of  the  afternoon  to  this 
pli|e;  cold,  and  wet,  and  snowy,  and  hungry,  and  weary, 
and  no  refreshing,  for  man,  but  the  cold  ground  to  sit  on  and 
our  poor  Indian  cheer." 

Her  spirits  were  more  and  more  cast  down  as  she  travel- 
led further  from  her  home  and  her  friends  into  the  gloomy 
wilderness.  She  was  now  the  only  captive  in  the  midst  of  a 
savage  host,  in  a  dreary  winter,  far  from  her  family,  from 
the  comforts  and  delights  of  domestic  life,  and  from  the  so- 
ciety of  the  refined  and  virtuous.  Her  health  had  suffered 
by  the  wound  she  had  received,  and  by  incessant  care  and 
maternal  anxiety  for  the  little  child  she  had  just  buried. 
The  irregularities  of  the  Indian  mode  of  life,  want  of  sleep, 
and  precarious  and  scanty  supplies  of  food,  added  to  her 
other  bodily  and  mental  sufferings. 

But  the  strength  of  christian  principle  and  spirit,  and  the 
fortitude  that  seems  so  intimately  blended  with  the  charac- 
ter and  tender  frame  of  the  female  sex,  did  not  fail  her  in 
the  hour  of  extremity. 

The  Indians  stopped  a  number  of  days  at  some  distance 
from  Bacquag  river,  when  apprehending  the  approach  of 
the  English  army,  they  continued  their  march  and  reached 
the  river  on  Friday,  (  25th  Feb. )  early  in  the  afternoon. 
"  Like  Jehu  they  marched  on  furiously,  with  their  old  and 
young  ;  some  carried  their  old  decrepid  mothers,  some  car- 
ried one  and  some  another."  They  immediately  began  to 
cut  down  dry  trees  in  order  to  make  rafts,  but  so  great  was 
the  crowd,  and  such  thedifTiculty  of  crossing  the  river,  that 
all  did  not  reach  the  opposite  shore  till  Sunday  morning  fol- 
lowing. All  passed  over  in  safety.  Mrs.  R.  says,  "  I  did  not 
wet  my  feet,  which  cannot  but  be  acknowledged  as  a  favour 
of  God,  to  my  weakened  body,  it  being  a  very  cold  time. 

*  Or  Payquag'e,  now  Miller's  river.  Tt  empties  into  the  Connecticut 
between  Northfield  and  Montajfue. 

112  Mrs,  Rowtandson, 

"  When  thou passest  through  the  waters  I  will  he  with  thee^  and 
through  the  rivers^  they  shall  not  overflow  thee.''''  On  Monday, 
(28th  Feb.)  they  set  fire  to  their  wigwams  to  prevent  their 
being  of  any  use  to  the  English  army  that  just  then  ap- 
proached the  opposite  banic.  Hastening  forward,  they 
came  to  a  great  brook  w^ith  ice  in  it;  some  waded  through  it 
up  to  their  knees  and  higher,  but  others  went  till  they  came 
to  a  beaver  dara,and  I  amongst  them,where,through  the  good 
providence  of  God,  I  did  not  wet  ray  feet."  The  next  day, 
after  a  cold  and  laborious  march,  they  reached  Squauheag.* 

The  Indians  spread  themselves  over  the  deserted  field^f 
the  English,  gathering  up  the  remnants  of  the  harvest  offhe 
preceding  year.  They  succeeded  in  collecting  a  few 
sheaves  of  wheat,  some  Indian  corn  and  ground  nuis.  To 
shew  the  extent  of  their  wants  and  hunger,  Mrs.  Rowland- 
son  relates  that  a  piece  of  horse  liver  was  offered  to  her  by 
one  of  the  party,  but  before  she  could  roast  it,  half  of  it 
was  snatched  away,  "  so  that  I  was  forced  to  take  the  rest 
and  eat  it  as  it  was  with  all  the  blood  about  my  mouth,  and 
yet  a  savoury  bit  it  was  to  me,  for  to  the  hungry  soul  every 
bitter  thing  is  sweet."  On  the  following  day,  (March  2nd) 
the  Indians  purposed  crossing  the  Connecticut;  two  canoes 
full  had  paddled  over,  but  on  a  sudden  alarm  being  given, 
whether  in  consequence  of  the  English  scouts  being  seen  or 
for  some  other  cause  does  not  appear,  they  desisted  and 
took  counsel  of  their  heels  for  safety. 

Mrs.  Rowlandson  was  carried  a  few  miles  to  the  north, 
and  while  the  Indians  were  resting,  her  son  Joseph  unex- 
pectedly came  towards  her  :  the  same  son  doubtless  she  had 
seen  on  the  18th  Feb.  The  party  travelled  on  till  night, 
and  the  next  morning,  (March  3rd)  "  went  over  the  ri^*  to 
Philip's  crew,"  where  a  very  large  number  of  the  nfftives 
had  collected  together. 

"When  I  came  ashore,"  says  Mrs.  R. "  they  gathered  all 
about  me,I  sitting  alone  in  the  midst  of  them.  I  observed  they 
asked  one  another  questions,  and  laughed  and  rejoiced  over 
their  gains  and  victories.  Then  my  heart  began  to  fail,  and 
I  fell  a  weeping,  which  was  the  first  time  to  my  remembrance 
that  I  wept  before  them,  although  I  had  met  with  so  much 
affliction,  and  my  heart  was  many  times  ready  to  break,  yet 
could  I  not  shed  a  tear  in  their  sight,  but  rather  had  been 
all  this  while  in  amaze  and  like  one  astonished  ;  but  now  I 
may  say,  as  Psalm  137,  "%  the  river  of  Babylon,  there  wt  sat 

*  On  Squakeag',  now  NorthfieW. 

Mrs,  Rozolandson.  113 

down,  yea,  we  wept  when  we  remembered  Zion.^^  This  is  one 
of  the  many  apposite  scriptural  quotations  made  by  Mrs.  R. 
Indf^'ed  it  was  very  much  the  custom  at  that  time  among  the 
puritans  both  in  Old  and  New-England  to  treasure  up  scrip- 
tural passages,  and  to  apply  them  without  stint  to  their  indi- 
vidual cases.  Her  captivity  seems  to  have  thoroughly  cur- 
ed her  of  one  habit,  which  however  excusable  it  may  be  in 
men,  is  certainly  rather  disgusting  in  the  fair  sex,  we  mean 
the  use  of  tabacco.  Pauvre  tabac  !  Mrs.  R.  gives  it  as  vi- 
olent a  counterblast  as  did  ever  James  of  royal  memory. 
"Then  I  went  to  see  King  Philip ;  he  bid  me  come  and  sit  down, 
and  asked  me  w-hethcr  I  would  smoke  itV  (a  usual  compli- 
ment nowadays  among  saints  and  sinners:)  "  but  this  no 
way  suited  me,  for  though  I  had  formerly  used  tobacco,  yet 
I  had  left  it  ever  since  I  was  taken.  It  seems  to  be  a  bait  the 
devil  lays  to  make  men  loose  their  precious  time.  I  remem- 
ber with  shame  how  formerly  when  I  had  taken  two  or  three 
pipes,  I  was  presently  ready  for  another,  such  a  bewitch- 
ing thing  it  is,  but  I  thank  God  he  has  now  given  me  power 
over  it :  surely  there  are  many  who  may  be  better  employ- 
ed than  sucking  a  stinking  tobacco  pipe.*"  The  Indians  re- 
mained by  the  banks  of  the  Connecticut  a  few  daj'^s,  mak- 
ing preparations   for  an  attack  upon  Northampton. 

"  During  my  abode  in  this  place,  Philip  spake  lo  me  to 
make  a  shirt  for  his  boy,  which  I  did  ;  for  which  he  gave 
me  a  shilling."  With  this  she  bought  some  horse  flesh. 
Having  obtained  a  piece  of  vbear's  meat  and  some  peas  in 
payment  for  work  she  had  done,  she  invited  her  Indian 
master,  Quannopin,  and  her  mistress  to  dinner.  "  But," 
says  Mrs.  R.  "  the  proud  gossip,  because  I  served  them  both 
in  one  dish,  would  eat  nothing,  except  one  bit  that  he  gave 
her  upon  the  point  of  his  knife." 

While  here,  she  went  to  see  her  son,  whom  she  found  up- 
on the  ground,  having  chosen  that  posture  for  prayer,  that 
the  savages  might  not  discover  him  engaged  in  his  devo- 
tions. The  party  that  had  been  sent  against  Northamp- 
ton returned  bringing  with  them  "  horses  and  sheep  and  oth- 
er things  which  they  had  taken,"  but  no  scalps.  The  whole 
body  then  moved  five  miles  up  the  river  and  then  we  crossed 
it.  "  Here  we  abode  a  while.  Here  lived  a  sorry  Indian, 
who  spake  to  me  to  make  him  a  shirt ;  when  I  had  done  it, 

♦  Doubtless  :  bwt  if  Mrs.  R.  had  lived  in  this  age  of  cigars,  and  had 
emoked  ''  real  Spanish  Flint's  brand,"  she  would  have  been  less  violtnt 
in  her  denunciatioD  of  tobacco. 


1 1 4  Mrs.  Rowlandson. 

he  would  pay  me  nothing  for  it."  Her  son  was  in  th« 
neighbourhood,  afflicted  most  sorely  with  Job's  complaint, 
and  no  one  to  render  hira  assistance  or  "  to  do  any  office  of 
love  for  him  either  for  soul  or  body,  but  1  was  fain  to  go  and 
look  after  something  to  satisfy  my  hunger."  A  squaw  gave 
her  a  piece  of  bear's  flesh  that  after  a  long  time  searching 
she  found  an  opportunity  to  broil.  "  I  have,"  she  observes, 
"  sometimes  seen  a  bear  baked  handsomely  among  the  Eng- 
lish, and  some  liked  it,  but  the  thoughts  that  it  was  bear, 
made  me  tremble,  but  no«v  that  was  savoury  to  me,  that  one 
would  think  was  enough  to  turn  the  stomach  of  a  brute 

About  this  time,  a  part  of  the  company  including  the  cap- 
tive, removed  a  short  distance,and  the  following  day  crossed 
a  river  and  climbed  "  over  tiresome  and  wearisome  hills." 
Soon  after,  (March  1 2th  or  13th)  one  Sunday  morning,  they 
again  made  preparations  for  a  march.  While  reading  in 
her  bible,  Mrs.  R.  had  it  snatched  from  her  by  her  Indian 
mistress,  (the  "  proud  gossip")  who  threw  it  away.  Mrs. 
R.  recovered  it  again  and  concealed  it. 

On  complaining  of  the  weight  of  the  load  given  her  to 
carry,  her  mistress  "  gave  her  a  slap  on  the  face  and  bade 
her  begone."  Amidst  all  the  severe  hardships  and  petty 
cruelties  inflicted  upon  her,  her  heart  was  greatly  cheered 
with  the  prospect  of  returning  homewards.  This  hope  was 
sadly  disappointed  for  a  season.  The  Indians  directed 
their  course  towards  the  sea  board,  but  Mrs.  Rowlandson's 
mistress  after  proceeding  a  short  distance  resolved  to  turn 
back,  and  her  poor  captive  must  go  with  her.  Under  this 
affliction,  she  opened  her  bible  and  the  "quieting  scripture 
came  to  her  hand,  Be  still  and  know  that  I  am  the  Lord." 

This  of  course  was  considered  providential,  and,  as  she 
affirms,  stilled  her  spirits  for  a  time. 

Her  master,  whom  she  considered  her  best  friend,  was 
with  the  company  from  which  she  had  been  separated,  and 
she  had  abundant  reason  to  lament  his  absence.  She  was 
driven  from  one  wigwam  to  another,  hungry,  weary,  faint 
and  cold,  and  threatened  with  instant  doath  if  she  disobey- 
ed. .  At  last,  an  old  Indian  of  more  compassion  than  his 
fellows,  gave  her  fire  and  shelter  for  the  night.  "  We  were 
at  this  place  and  time  about  two  miles  from  Connecticut  riv- 
er; we  went  in  the  morning,  (March  13th  or  14th)  to  the  riv- 
er to  grither  ground-nuts,  and  went  back  again  at  night.  I 
went  with  a  great  load  at  my  back  (for  they,  when  they 
went,  though  but  a  little   way,  would  carry  all  their  trum- 

Ecclesiastical  .History,  115 

pery  with  them.)  I  told  them  the  skin  was  ofT  my  back, 
but  I  had  no  other  comforting  answer  from  them  than  this, 
that  it  would  be  no  matter  if  my  head  were  off  too."  After 
this,  the  company  continued  their  progress,  but  instead  of 
going  towards  the  "  Bay,"  they  proceeded  five  or  six  miles 
along  the  banks  of  the  river,  and  there  remained  "  almost 
a  fortnight  in  a  mighty  thicket  of  brush."  Here,  she 
wrought  with  her  hands  and  made  a  shirt  for  a  papoose  and 
received  for  her  labour,  "  a  mess  of  broth  thickened  with 
meal  made  of  the  bark  of  a  tree,"  a  few  peas,  and  ground 

She  inquired  concerning  her  son,  of  one  of  the  Indians, 
and  received  the  edifying  intelligence  that  the  boy's  "  mas- 
ter had  roasted  him,  and  that  himself  did  eat  a  piece  of  him 
as  big  as  his  two  fingers,  and  that  he  was  very  good  meat. 
But  the  Lord  upheld  my  spirit  under  this  discouragement, 
and  I  considered  their  horrible  addictedness  to  lying ;  and 
there  is  not  one  of  them  that  makes  the  least  conscience 
of  speaking  the  truth." 


.  (To  be  continued.) 

Sccleistastical  f^Cstorg, 

Memoranda  :  relating  to  the  Churches  and  Clergy  of  New- 


In  1773,  the  Rev,  Elijah  Fletcher  was  ordained  atHop- 
kinton  ;  Rev.  Nathaniel  Porter  at  New-Durham  ;  Rev. 
Jonathan  Searle  at  Salisbury  ;  Rev.  William  Conant  at 
Lime  ;  and  the  Rev.  Nathaniel  Ewers  at  New-Market. 

Mr.  Fletcher  was  son  of  Mr.  Timothy  Fletcher,  of  West- 
ford,  Mass.,  whose  wife  was  Bridget,  the  third  daughter  of 
Capt.  Zachariah  Richardson,  of  Chelmsford.  She  was  the 
mother  of  Rev.  Mr.  Fletcher,  and  was  a  woman  of  distin- 
guished piety  and  devotion,  and  author  of  a  small  volume  of 
Hymns  and  Spiritual  Songs,  which  was  published  by  her 
son  about  the  year  1774.  Mr.  Fletcher  graduated  at  Har- 
vard in  1769.  He  was  ordained  January  27,  1773,  and 
died  April  8,  1786,  aged  39. 

116  Ecclesiastical  History. 

Of  the  five  ministers,  who  have  been  settled  in  Hopkinton, 
he  is  the  only  one  who  died  there  in  the  ministry.  He  was 
the  patron  of  the  late  President  Webber,  of  Harvard  Col- 
lege, whom  he  found  a  poor  boy  in  his  parish,  but  possessed 
of  native  genius,  and  disposed  for  improvement.  Mr.  Fletch- 
er prepared  him  for  College,  and  assisted  him  in  procuring 
an  education.  The  President  ever  acknowledged  his  obli- 
gcUions  to  his  early  instructor  and  friend.  Mr.  Fletcher  left 
four  children, thret^  daughters  and  one  son;  one  married  aMr, 
White,  of  Pittsficld,  one  is  the  wifp  of  the  Hon.  Israel  W. 
Kelly,  of  Salisbury,  and  the  other  is  the  wife  of  the  Hon. 
Daniel  Webster,  of  Boston.  Timothy  Fletcher,  the  only 
son,  is  a  merchant  in  Portland.  Mr.  Fletcher's  widow  mar- 
ried the  Rev.  Christopher  Paige,  and  died  at  Salisbury  July 
9,  1821,  aged  G7. 

Mr.  Porier  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College,  in  1768, 
and  was  the  first  minister  of  New-Durham,  where  he  was  or- 
dained Sept.  8, 1773.  In  1777,  he  was  dismissed  ;  and  on 
the  20lh  Oct.  1778,  was  installed  at  Conway,  of  which  town 
also  he  was  the  finit  minister.  The  Colleges  of  Harvard 
and  Dartmouth,  in  1814,  conferred  on  him  the  degree  of 
Doctor  of  Divinity.  He  was  the  first,  and  is  tht^  only  min- 
ister, in  the  county  of  Strafford,  who  has  received  that  de- 
gree. Mr.  Porter  married  his  second  wife.  Miss  Phebe  Page, 
in  the  meeting  house  in  Conway,  Jan.  12,  1812.  He  is  still 
living,  but  resigned  the  pastoral  care  of  his  people  in  1815. 
He  has  had  no  successor  in  the  ministry,  either  in  New-Dur- 
ham or  Conwa3\ 

Mr.  Searle  was  a  native  of  Rowlej',  and  a  graduate  of 
Harvard  College.  He  was  ordained  the  first  minister  of 
Salisbury,  November  17,  1773,  about  the  time  the  church  was 
organized.  Mr.  Jewett,  of  Rowley,  preached  the  ordination 
sermon.  In  sixteen  or  seventeen  years  after  his  settlement, 
Mr.  Searle  became  deranged,  and  continued  so  till  his  death. 
He  was  dismissed  in  1790,  and  died  in  1818, 

Mr.  Conant  was  a  native  of  Bridgewater,  Mass.,  and  was 
graduated  at  Yale  College  in  1770.  He  was  the  first  minis- 
ter of  Lime,  where  he  was  ordained  in  December,  1773,  and 
continued  there  in  the  ministry  till  his  death,  March  8, 1810, 
at  the  age  of  67. 

Mr.  Ewers  nad  not  the  advantage  of  a  liberal  education, 
and  was  advanced  in  life  before  he  entered  the  work  of 
the  ministry.  He  was  settled  at  New-Market  about  the 
close  of  the  year  1773,  while  Mr.  Moody  was  minister  of 
the  town.     Mr.  Ewers  was  a  nern  light,  and  preached  at  the 

Ecclesiastical  History.  1 1 7 

Plains.  Soon  after  his  settlement,  he  united  with  Mr.  Prince, 
of  Barrington,  and  Mr.  Murray,  of  Boothbay,  in  forming  a 
Presbytery,  which,  however,  was  never  connected  with,  or 
recognized  by  the  Synod  of  New-England.  After  the  death 
of  Mr.  Moody,  and  the  settlement  of  Mr.  Tombs  at  New- 
Market,  Mr.  Ewers  was  associated  with  Mr.  T.  in  the  minis- 
try, but  the  union  was  not  very  cordial  or  lasting.  Mr.  Ew- 
ers died  in  April,  1806,  at  the  age  of  84. 

In  1774,  the  Rev.  Selden  Church  was  ordained  at  Camp- 
ton  ;  Rev.  Augustine  HiBBARD  at  Claremont ;  Rev.  Isaac 
Smith  at  Gilmanton ;  and  the  Rev.  John  Strickland  at  Not- 

Mr.  Church  was  graduated  at  Yale  College  In  1765.  The 
Congregational  Church  was  gathered  in  Camplon,June  1, 
1774,  and  Mr.  Church  was  ordained  its  first  pastor  the  fol- 
low in  jr  October.  After  a  ministry  of  eighteen  years,  he 
was  dismissed  in  1792. 

Mr.  Hibbard  was  graduated  at  Dartmouth  College,  and 
was  the  first  graduate,  of  that  College,  who  was  ordained  in 
New-Hampshire.  He  succeeded  Mr.  VVheaton  at  Clare- 
mont in  October  1774,  and  was  dismissed  in  1785. 

Mr.  Smith  was  a  graduate  of  New-Jersey  Collf  ge  ;  was 
ordained  the  first  minister  of  Gilmanton,  Nov.  30,  1774,  at 
the  time  the  church  in  that  town  was  organized,  and  contin- 
ued in  the  ministry  till  his  death,  March  25,  1817,  at  the  age 
of  72. 

Mr.  Strickland  was  born  at  Pladley,  Mass.,  June  1739,and 
was  graduated  at  Yale  College  in  1761.  He  was  ordained 
at  Oakham,  Mass.,  April  1,  1768.  Difficulties  arose  between 
the  Congrcgationalists  and  Presbyterians,  which  caused  his 
dismission  June  24, 1773.  Mr.  Strickland  was  a  member  of 
the  Boston  Presbytery.  He  was  installed  over  the  Presby- 
terian church  in  Nottingham-West,  in  this  State,  July  13, 
1774,  where  he  continued  about  nine  years,  and  was  honor- 
ably dismissed  in  1783.  On  the  20th  September,  1784,  he 
was  installed  at  Turner,  Me.,  and  was  there  dismissed  May 
18,  1797.  Hp  was  installed  at  Andover,  Me.,  over  the  Con- 
gregational church  and  society,  March  12,  1806,  where  he 
continued  till  his  death,  Oct.  4,  1823,  in  the  84th  year  of  his 
age,  and  in  the  56th  of  his  ministry.  He  married  Patty 
Stone,  by  whom  he  had  14  children,  11  of  whom  survived 
him.     His  wife  died  May  4,  1 805. 

"  Mr.  Strickland  was  a  man'  of  simplicity  and  frankness, 
without  hypocrisy  or  guile.  He  was  kind  and  benevolent, 
just  and  upright  in  all  his  concerns  with  men.     His  conver- 

118  Ecclesiastical  History, 

sation  was  chaste  and  instructive.  He  maintained  his  rank 
among  men  with  dignity  and  propriety.  His  sermons  were 
evang;ehcal,  plain,  and  practical.  His  prayers  were  origin- 
al, affectionate,  and  devout.  At  the  closing  period,  his  trust 
in  God  and  his  hope  of  mercy,  through  the  blood  of  Christ, 
supported  him  under  a  long  distressing  sickness ;  and  he 
waited  for  the  time  when  he  should  be  absent  from  the  body 
and  present  with  the  Lord.  He  was  willing  to  leave  a  vain 
world  for  those  joys  which  are  unspeakable  and  full  of  glo- 
ry.  He  appeared,  in  a  dying  hour,  to  have  the  comfort  of 
that  gospel  which  he  had  preached  to  others,  and  had  ex- 
horted all  to  embrace  in  its  purity  and  simplicity." 

In  1776,  the  Rev.  Samuel  Shepard  was  ordained  at  Strat- 
ham,  as  the  minister  over  the  united  Baptist  churches  in 
Stratham,  Brentwood  and  Epping  ;  and  Rev.  Daniel  Bar-' 
BER  succeeded  Mr.  Cossil  in  the  Episcopal  church  at  Clare- 

Mr.  Shepard  was  the  third  minister  of  the  Baptist  denom- 
ination settled  in  New-Hampshire.  Mr.  Powers  of  Newtown 
was  ordained  in  1755,  and  the  Rev.  Maturin  Ballou  was  set- 
tled at  Richmond  in  1770.  Mr.  Shepard  was  educated  a 
Ehysician,  and  had  an  extensive  practice.  As  a  preacher, 
is  labors  were  unwearied  and  successful.  He  did  more 
than  any  other  man  in  this  State,  towards  building  up  the 
religious  sect  to  which  he  belonged.  His  church  extended 
itself  into  many  of  the  neighboring  towns  ;  and,  in  several 
instances,  the  brethren  in  places  remote  from  Dr.  Shepard, 
chose  rather  to  be  under  his  watch  and  care,  than  to  form 
themselves  into  a  separate  body,  and  become  branches  of 
his  church,  which  was  probably  more  extensive  and  numer- 
ous than  any  other  church  in  New-England.  Dr.  S.  re- 
moved from  Stratham  to  Brentwood,  where  he  lived  many 
years,  and  died  in  November,  1815,  aged  77.  One  of  his 
daughters  married  Benjamin  Conner,  Esq.,  of  Exeter,  and 
was  the  mother  of  Hon.  Samuel  S.  Conner,  an  officer  of 
distinction  in  the  late  war,  and  member  of  Congress  from 

Mr.  Barber  took  the  oversight  of  the  Episcopal  Society 
in  Claremont  in  August,  1776,  and  continued  there  in  the 
ministry  till  November,1818,  when  he  was  dismissed.  Hav- 
ing embraced  the  Roman  Catholic  religion,  he  was  ordained 
at  Boston,  as  a  Missionary  for  New-Hampshire,  December 
3, 1822,  and  is  stationed  at  Claremont  over  a  small  society 
of  Roman  Catholics,  which  he  assisted  to  form  in  that 

Ecclesiastical  History*  119 

In  1 776,  the  Rev.  Joseph  Haven  was  ordained  at  Roches- 
ter ;  Rev.  John  iiicHARDs  at  Piermont ;  Rev.  Isaac  Mans- 
field at  Exeter  ;  Rev.  David  M'Clure  at  North-Hampton  ; 
and  Rev.  Elihu  Thayer  at  Kingston. 

Mr.  Haven  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1774, 
and  was  ordained  at  Rochester  as  successor  of  Mr.  Hall 
Jan.  10,  1776,  He  is  still  living  ;  but  is  assisted  in  the  work 
of  the  ministry  by  the  Rev.  Thomas  C.  Upham,  who  was 
ordained  his  colleague,  July  16,  1823, 

Mr.  Richards  was  the  first  minister  of  Piermont. — *'  He 
continued  his  labors  till  1802,  when  his  advanced  age  de- 
prived the  church  and  society  of  his  usefulness.  He  died 
in  Vermont  in  1814." 

Mr.  Mansfield  was  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1767,  and  or- 
dained at  Exeter,  Oct.  9,  1776.  Mr.  Thayer,  of  Hampton, 
preached  the  ordination  sermon  ;  Mr.  Fogg,  of  Kensington, 
gave  the  charge  ;  and  Mr.  Noyes,  of  Salisbury,  Mass.,  gave 
the  right  hand  of  fellowship.  Mr.  Mansfield  married  Polly 
Clapp,  of  Scituate,  Mass.,  Nov.  16,  1776.  He  continued  in 
the  ministry  at  Exeter  till  1787,  when  he  was  dismissed. 

Mr.  M'Clure  was  a  native  of  Connecticut,  and  graduated 
at  Yale  College.  He  was  installed  at  North  Hampton,  Nov. 
13,  1776,  and  continued  there  till  Aug.  30,  1785,  when  he 
was  dismissed.  He  was  installed  at  East-Windsor,  Con,, 
in  1786,  and  died  there  in  1820,  aged  71,  He  was  a  Trus- 
tee of  Dartmouth  College  more  than  twenty  years  from 
1777,  and  received  from  that  institution  his  degree  of  Doc- 
tor of  Divinity. 

Mr.  Thayer  was  born  in  Braintree,  Mass.,  March  29, 
1747  ;  graduated  at  New-Jersey  College  in  1769;  ordained 
at  Kingston  Dec.  18,  1776,  and  continued  there  till  he  died, 
Aprils,  1812.  He  was  President  of  the  New-Hampshire 
Missionary  Society,  from  its  organization  in  1801,  till  1811, 
when  he  declined  a  re-election.  He  received  his  Doctorate 
in  Divinity  from  Dartmouth  College  in  1807.  A  volume  of 
his  sermons  has  been  published  since  his  death.  He  was 
eminent  for  humility,  zeal,  and  fidelity,  in  the  cause  of  his 
Master;  and  was  universally  beloved  and  respected.  His 
wife,  whom  he  married  Dec.  28,  1780,  was  Hannah  Caief, 
By  her  he  had  eleven  children,  ten  of  whom  survived  him. 

The  Rev,  Edward  Sprague  was  ordained  at  Dublin,  Nov, 
12,  1777,  as  successor  of  Mr.  Farrar,  who  was  dismissed 
the  year  before.  Mr.  Sprague  was  gi'aduated  at  Harvard  in 
1776.  He  was  a  man  of  many  peculiarities.  He  continu- 
ed in  the  ministr}-^  till  his  death,  which  was  occasioned  by  a 

120  Ecclesiastical  History. 

fall  by  the  upsetting  of  his  carriage,  Dec.  16,  1817.  By 
his  will,  he  left  $5000  to  the  town  for  the  support  of  the 
ministry ;  and,  after  providing  for  his  wife,  gave  the  residue 
of  his  estate,  about  $20,000,  for  the  mainienance  of  free 
schools.  His  widow  who  died  in  1819,  gave  $500  to  the 
New-Hampshire  Missionary  Society.  They  left  no  child- 

In  1778,  the  Rev.  Aaron  Hall  was  ordained  at  Keene  ; 
Rev.  Nehemiah  Ordvvay  at  Middleton")  Rev.  Joseph  Cum- 
MING5  at  Marlborough  ;  and  Rev.  Abel  Fiske  at  Wilton. 

Mr.  Hall  was  a  graduate  of  Yale  College  in  1772;  suc- 
ceeded Mr.  Sumner  in  the  ministry  at  Kecne^  February  19, 
1778,  and  died  August  1'2,  1814.  He  was  a  man  of  peace, 
and  rejoiced  in  the  peace  and  harmony  of  his  people  till  the 
close  of  his  labors  and  life. 

Mr.  Ordway  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1764. 
He  was  the  first  minister  of  Middleton,  where  he  continued 
but  a  few  years,  and  was  dismissed.  His  church,  with  but 
one  or  two  exceptions,  joined  themselves  to  other  denomina- 
tion of  christians,  and  he  has  had  no  successor. 

Mr.  Cummings  was  a  graduate  of  Harvard  College  in 
1763;  Avas  ordained  at  Marlborough,  the  first  minister  of 
that  town,  Nov.  12,  1778,  when  the  church  there  was  first 
organized,  and  was  dismissed  Dec.  30,  1780. 

Mr.  Fiske  was  born  at  Pepperell,  Mass.,  May  28,  1752  ; 
graduated  at  Harvard  College,  1774;  succeeded  Mr.  Liver- 
more  in  the  ministry  at  Wilton,  Nov.  18,1 778,  and  died  April 
21,1802,  aged  50.  From  his  ordination  to  the  ordination  of 
his  successor,  March  2,  1803,  the  number  of  baptisms  was 
745,  and  of  additions  to  the  church,  224.* 

In  1779,  the  Rev.  Joseph  Buckminster  was  ordained  at 
Portsmouth  ;  Rev.  David  Annan  at  Peterborough  ;  and  Rev. 
Jeremiah  Shaw  at  Moultonborough. 

Mr.  Buckmmsterwas  a  son  of  the  Rev.  Joseph  Buckmin- 
ster, of  Rutland,  Mass.,  and  grandson  of  Col.  Joseph  Buck- 
minster, of  Framingham,  who  was  forty  years  a  member  of 
the  Provincial  Legislature  of  Massachusetts.  Mr.  Buck- 
minster was  graduated  at  Yale  College  in  1770,  and  was  a 
tutor  in  that  institution  four  years.  He  was  ordained  at 
Portsmouth,  Jan.  27,  1779.  He  married  Sally  Stevens,  the 
only  child  of  the  Rev.  Benjamin  Stevens,  D.  D.,  of  Kittery 
Point,  March  24,  1782.  She  died  July  19,  1790,  aged  36, 
leaving  one  son  and  two  daughters ;    Mr.  Buckminster's  sec- 

*  Rev.  Mr.  Beede's  description  of  Wilton,  Coll.  Vol.  I,  p.  67, 


Ecclesiastical  History,  121 

ond  wife  was  Mary  Lyman,  daughter  of  the  Rev.  Isaac  Ly^ 
man,  of  York — by  her  he  had  several  children,  most  of 
whom  are  dead  :  she  died  June  8,  1 803,  aged  39.  His  third 
wife  was  the  widow  of  Col.  Eliphalet  Ladd.  Mr.  Buckmin- 
sier  received  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Divinity  from  New- 
Jersey  college  in  1 803.  He  was  an  excellent  Latin  scholar, 
and  is  said  to  have  written  in  that  language  as  readily  as  in 
English.  He  died  at  Reedsborough,  Vermont,  while  on  a 
journey  for  his  health,  June  10,  1812,  aged  61.  His  body 
was  interred  at  Bennington,  about  15  miles  north-west  from 
Reedsborough.  His  son,  the  Rev.  Joseph  S.  Buckminster, 
ot  Boston,  a  thorough  scholar  and  most  promising  man,  died 
about  twenty-two  hours  before  him.  Although  Dr.  Buck» 
minster  h:id  not  heard  of  his  son's  sickness,  he  told  his  wife, 
a  few  hours  before  his  own  death,  that  Joseph  was  dead — 
and  again  repeated  it,  Joseph  is  dead !  The  baptisms,  from 
Dr.  Buckminster's  settlement  to  1808,  were  nearly  800;  and 
admissions  to  church  membership,  75.  The  whole  number 
of  baptisms,  from  1757  to  1808,  was  1667  ;  and  of  admis- 
sions, 161. — It  has  been  said,  that  Dr.  B.  in  his  early  years, 
was  attached  to  a  young  lady  by  the  name  of  Whitman,  and 
is  represented  in  a  popular  American  Novel,  called  the  Co- 
quette, or  Eliza  Wharton,  under  the  name  of  Boyer. — The 
writer  regrets  that  he  has  not  the  means  of  furnishing  a  list 
of  Dr.  Buckminster's  publications. 

Mr.  Annan  was  born  in  Scotland,  April  4,  1754,  came  to 
America  in  his  youth,  was  educated  at  Queen's  College, 
New-Brunswick,  N.  J.,  and  ordained  by  the  Presbytery  in 
that  State,  for  Peterborough,  in  October  1 778.  He  was  dis- 
missed by  the  Presbytery  of  Londonderry  at  his  own  re- 
quest, in  June  1792,  returned  to  Europe  on  a  visit  in  1801, 
and  died  in  Ireland  the  next  year-  * 

Mr.  Shaw  was  a  native  of  Hampton  in  this  State,  and  was 
graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1767.  He  succeeded  Mr. 
Perley,  at  Moultonborough,  Nov. 17,  1779,  where  he  still  con- 
tinues, and  is  supposed  to  be  the  oldest  officiating  clergyman 
in  New-Hampshire. 

In  1780,  the  Rev.  Jeremiah  Barnard  was  ordained  at  Am- 
herst ;  Rev.  Zaccheus  Colby  at  Pembroke  ;  Rev.  George 
Lesslie  at  Washington  5  Rev.  Experience  Estabrook  at 
Thornton  5  and  the  Rev.  Curtis  Coe  at  Durham. 

Mr.  Barnard  was  a  native  of  Bolton,  ]\las?.,  and  was  grad- 
uated at  Harvard  College  in  1773.  He  was  ordained  at 
Amherst,  March  3,  1780,  as  colleague  with  Mr.  Wilkins,  and 

*B.ev,  Mr,  Danbar'a  description  of  Peterborough,  Coll.  Vol.  I,  p.  132, 


122  Ecclesiastical  History, 

is  still  living,  in  his  74th  year.  The  Rev.  Nathan  Lord  has 
been  associited  with  him  in  the  work  of  the  ministry,  since 
the22dof  May,  1816. 

Mr.  Colby  was  a  native  of  Newtown,  and  was  graduated 
at  Dartmouth  College  in  1777.  He  was  ordained  at  Pem- 
broke, March  22,  1780;  and  soon  afterwards,  the  two 
churches  in  that  town  were  united  under  his  ministry.  He 
was  dismissed  May  11,  1803,  and  on  the  13th  of  the  follow- 
ing October,  was  installed  over  the  Presbyterian  church  in 
Chester,  where  he  continued  about  six  years,  and  was  dis- 
missed in  1809. 

Ml'.  Lesslie  was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1748, 
and  appears  to  have  been  settled  in  the  ministry  before  his 
installation  at  Washington,*  which  was  on  the  12th  of  July, 
1780.  He  died  Sept.  11,  1800,  at  the  age  of  72.  Mr.  Less- 
lie  was  a  man  of  no  extraordinary  powers  of  mind  ;  but  it 
was  announced  in  a  Newbury  port  paper  of  December  1790, 
that  a  Mr.  John  Thayer  had  thrown  the  gauntlet  in  favor  of 
the  church  of  Rome.  Mr.  Lesslie  of  Washington  accepted 
the  challenge,  and  was  ready  to  meet  him  on  the  field  of 
argument.  But  the  champions  never  met,  and  the  question 
between  them  still  remains  as  much  undecided,  as  at  the 
moment  of  the  challenge. 

Mr.  Estabrook  was  graduated  at  Dartmouth  College  in 
1776,  and  was  ordained  at  Thornton,  the  first  minister  of 
that  town,  August  10,  1780,  when  the  church  there  was  first 
organized.  In  a  few  years,  he  was  dismissed,  and  was  in- 
stalled over  the  first  church  in  Plainfield,  June  6,  1787, 
where  he  continued  but  a  short  time,  and  was  dismissed 
April  19,  1789. 

Mr.  Coe  was  a  native  of  Middletown,  Conn.,  and  a  grad- 
uate of  Brown  University,  at  Providence.  He  was  the 
successor  of  Mr.  Adams  in  the  ministry  at  Durham,  where 
he  was  ordained  November  1,  1780,  and  continued  till  May 
1,  1805,  when  he  was  dismissed.  Since  that  time,  he  has 
been  much  and  usefully  employed  in  the  missionary  service, 
and  is  still  living  at  New-Market. 

About  the  year  1780,  Elder  Benjamin  Randall  organized 
the  first  Freewill  Baptist  church  in  New-Hampshire, 
and  has  been  called  the  founder  of  that  society  of 
christians.     He    was  born  at  New-Castle  in  this  State,  in 

*  Rev.  George  Lesslie  was  born  in  Scotland ;  was  ordained  the  first 
minister  oi  Linebrook  parish,  compooed  of  part  of  Ipswich  and  part 
of  Rowley,  in  1749,  and  was  dismissed  in  1779.  F^ide  Mr.  KitobaU'e 
Ecclesiastical  Hist,  of  Ipswich,  Mass. 

Essays  of  Cincinnatus,  1 23 

March  1748.  He  commenced  preaching  early  in  life,  but 
does  not  appear  to  have  seceded  from  the  regular  or  Calvin- 
istic  Baptists  till  after  his  removal  to  New-Durham,  which 
was  previous  to  the  year  1777.  As  a  preacher,  he  was 
zealous,  affectionate,  and  indefatigable.  Neither  heat  or 
cold,  the  severest  storms  or  deepest  snows,  prevented  his 
journeying  to  fulfil  his  appointments.  At  all  times,  he  ap^ 
peared  willing  to  spend  and  be  spent  in  his  Master's  ser- 
vice. He  repeatedly  travelled  to  Nova-Scotia  and  the  dif- 
ferent parts  of  New-England  to  visit  his  brethren,  plant 
churches,  and  regulate  the  ecclesiastical  affairs  of  his  soci- 
ety. His  jurisdiction,  in  point  of  territory,  was  far  more 
extensive  than  that  of  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and 
he  had  probably  a  more  numerous  band  of  attached  and 
devoted  friends  and  followers.  Although  he  had  many  in- 
vitations to  remove  from  New-Durham  to  different  places, 
with  alluring  offers  of  pecuniary  compensation,  he  rejected 
them  all,  believing  that  God,  who  had  cast  his  lot  in  that 
place,  had  work  for  him  there,  and  there  he  continued  till 
his  d^ath,  in  October,  1808,  at  the  age  of  60  years.  The 
Freewill  Baptists  have  rapidly  increased,  and  now  constitute 
one  of  the  most  numerous  sects  of  christians  in  New-Hamp- 
shire. K. 





•'  The  president,"  says  the  constitution,  "  shall  be  commander  in  chief 
of  the  army  and  navy  of  the  United  States ;  and  of  the  militia  of  the 
several  States,  when  called  into  the  actual  service  of  the  United  States. 
"  This  ^rant  confers  g^reat  power  and  high  responsibility  upon  the  pres- 
ident, but  the  interest  and  security  of  the  nation  require  that  it  should 
be  vested  in  some  one  branch  of  the  government.  There  is,  perhaps, 
no  principle  in  government  in  which  nations  have  so  generally  agreed, 
as  thac  <he  c  mtnander  of  their  military  and  naval  forces  sbonld  be  ves- 
ted in  tbeir  chief  magistrate.  This  principle  has  prevailed  in  republics 
as  well  as  monarchies,  and  its  propriety  is  undeniable  :  for  the  very  na- 
ture of  commanding  the  armed  force  of  a  nation  requires  ihe  authority 
should  be  vested  in  one  man.  As  the  president  is  intrusted  with  our  for- 
eign relations,  it  is  proper  that  he  should  have  the  command  of  its  phys- 
ical force.  It  would  not  only  be  a  useless  expense  to  vest  that  power  in 
another  person,  but,  on  some  occasions,  would  embarrass  and  perplex 
the  government,  and  expose  the  nation  to  the  evils  of  delay  and  danger 
that  nsceuarily  result  from  a  difierence  of  opinioD  between  the  presi> 

1 24  Essays  of  Cincinnatus. 

deot  and  such  a  commander.  Though  the  president  has  the  supreme 
command  of  our  forces,  he  is  undei  no  obligation  to  appear  at  the  head 
of  the  armr  or  navy  either  in  peace  or  war;  indeed  the  other  duties  of 
bis  office  will  not  permit  him.  Both  the  army  and  navy  must  be  intrus- 
ted to  such  officers  as  he,  with  the  consent  of  (he  Senate,  appoints :  but 
those  oflScers  are  subject  to  bis  command  and  explicitly  bound  to  obey 
all  his  orders. 

This  course  of  proceeding  relieves  the  president  from  duties  he  could 
not  otherwise  perform,  but  does  not  diminish  his  authority  or  impair  his 
responsibility.  He  is  still  commander  in  chief  of  the  army  and  navy, 
and  as  such  is  responsible  for  the  conduct  of  those  who  hare  actual  com- 
mand. He  is  bound  to  require  the  officers,  whom  he  appoints,  to  perfo.-m 
their  duty,  and  ii  they  neglect  or  refuse,  it  is  his  duty  to  remove  them,  and 
appoint  others  better  qualified  for  the  trust.  All  orders  to  the  general  of- 
ficers must  emanate  from  him  ;  and  it  is  his  duty  to  locate  the  troops  in 
Buch  phces,  and  send  the  naval  forces  when  and  where  the  interest  and 
security  of  the  nation  require  them. 

Tiiongh  our  presidents  have,  each  of  them,  generally  executed  thii 
h'gh  trust  with  vigilance  and  sotmd  discretion,  yet  inst^^nces  have  oc- 
curred, particularly  in  locating  some  portions  of  the  army  where  they 
were  not  wanting,  and  nec-lecting  other  places  where  their  presence 
was  necessary.  Whoever  reads  and  compares  the  different  returns  of 
the  army  made  to  congress,  of  the  limes  and  places  where  the  troops 
have  been  stationed,  and  their  number  at  each  place,  will  be  convinced 
of  the  fact.  Governor  King,  in  his  message  of  June  2,  1820,  to  the  le- 
jfisl'iture  "rf  Maine,  observes.  That  (here  was  no  Stale  in  the  Union  whose 
inland  frontier  was  more  exposed,  and  yet  they  had  garrisons  and  other 
wo'^ks  in  that  State,  erected  at  considerable  expence  by  the  national  govern' 
mentjhat  had  m>l  then  a  single  soldier  to  guard  them,  and  for  want  of  ne- 
cessary attention  were  rapidly  falling  into  decay.  But  if  we  turn  to  the 
number  of  troops  that  were  at  that  very  time  stationed  in  the  harbours 
of  Boston  and  Portsmouth,  we  shall  find  more  soldiers  at  those  places 
than  was  necessary ,or  usefully  employed  in  the  public  service. 

The  president  is  not  only  commnnder  in  chief  of  the  army,  and  navy, 
but  of  the  militia  of  the  several  States  when  called  into  the  actual  service 
of  the  United  States.  The  constitution  authorizes  congress"  to  provide 
for  calling  forth  the  militia  to  execute  the  laws  of  the  Union,  suppress 
insurrections,  and  repel  invasions."  In  pursuance  of  that  provision,con- 
gress  have  passed  several  laws  giving  the  president  that  authority ;  and 
he  has  from  time  to  time  exercised  it,  in  each  of  the  three  cases  specified 
in  the  constitution :  he  has  called  out  the  militia  to  execute  the'lawt,  to  sup- 
press insurrection, and  to  repel  tnvaston.  As  the  president  is  vested  with 
power  to  order  such  portions  of  tbe  militia  into  the  service  of  the  Uni- 
ted States  as  he  may  think  necessary,  he  must,  from  the  nature  of  the 
case,  have  the  sole  and  exclusive  authority  of  deciding  what  portion  of 
the  militia  are  wanting,  and  ^rhen  and  where  their  services  shall  com- 
mence. This  was  the  intention  of  the  venerable  sages  who  formed  the 
constitution  of  the  United  States  :  for  when  a  proposition  was  made  in 
the  convention  who  drafted  that  instrument,  that  only  a  part  and  not  the 
whole,  of  the  militia  of  a  State  should  be  obliged  to  march  out  of  the 
State  without  the  consent  of  the  legislature  of  such  State,  it  was  negativ- 
ed' •  The  convention  was  convinced  that  the  security  and  defence  of  the 
nation  required  that  the  president  should  have  this  power,  subject  only 
to  such  restrictions  as  congress  should  by  law  establish  ;  hence  they  re- 
fused to  trust  any  portion  of  ttiat  authority  with  the  State  legislatures, 

Essays  of  Cincinnalus.  125 

Baach  less  with  a  governor  or  militia  oflScer.  As  tbe  president  has  au- 
thority to  make  these  orders,  the  officers  to  whom  he  issues  them,  wheth- 
et  g'overnors  of  states  or  militia  officers  under  them,  have  no  rght  to 
question  the  necessity  or  expediency  of  such  call,  the  number,  or 
time  when  their  service  sshall  commence;  but  it  is  their  duty  promptly  to 
obey  and  fully  execute  the  orders  they  receive  from  the  president.  A 
contrary  doctrine  is  opposed  to  the  soundest  principles  of  military  law, 
produces  a  spirit  of  insubordination,  confusion,  and  uncertainty,  en- 
dangers public  security,  and  defeats  the  very  object  for  which  the  mil- 
itia was  established. 

In  the  war  of  1812,  a  spirit  of  insubordination  existed,  and  supported 
by  party  feeling,induced  some  governors  to  refuse  obedience  to  the  or- 
ders of  the  president.  Their  misconduct,  instead  of  repelling  the  ene- 
my who  invaded  our  shores,  encouraged  and  aided  them  in  destroying 
the  lives  and  property  of  our  citizens.  It  is  to  be  hoped,  before  the  na- 
tion will  again  need  the  aid  of  the  militia,  congress  will  by  law  make  ef- 
fectual provision  to  enforce  the  requisitions  of  the  president  upon  the 
governors  and  militia  otficers.  The  securit3'  of  the  nation  requires  it ; 
and  sound  policy  dictates  that  the  measures  necessary  for  so  important 
a  purpose  should  be  established  without  delay.  The  means  for  defence  in 
war  should  be  prepared  when  the  nation  is  in  peace.  When  peace  per- 
vades the  country ,congre«s  may  with  calmness  and  deliberation  legislate 
on  the  subject,  but  the  feelings,  zeal,  and  haste  which  ex'sting  war  ex- 
cites, may  insensibly  induce  ttiem  to  adopt  measures  hoetile  to  the  rights 
of  individuals,  and  at  the  same  time  net  such  as  will  most  ciTectuaily 
protect  the  nation- 

The  president  has  the  sole  authority  to  nominate,  and  with  the  consent 
of  the  senate  to  a'pfoint^  ambassadors,  other  public  ministers  and  con- 
suls, judges,  and  all  other  officers  of  the  national  government,  except 
senators  and  representatives  to  congress,  their  presiding  officers,  ser- 
geant at  arms,  clerk,<^G.;  clerks  in  the  several  departments  end  in  the 
courts  of  law,  assistant  and  deputy  postmasters,  and  non-commissioned 
officers  in  the  army  and  navy.  He  has  also  the  sole  "  power  to  fill  up 
all  vacancies,  that  may  happen  during  the  recess  of  the  senate,  by 
granting  commissions  which  shall  expire  at  the  end  of  their  next  ses- 
sion ;''  and  congress  may  by  law  vest  the  appointment  of  such  inferior  of- 
ficers as  thej  think  proper  in  the  president  alone. 

In  making  appointments,  the  power  and  responsibility  of  the  presi- 
dent is  great:  it  gives  him  much  influence  and  a  vast  weight  of  patron- 
age. No  man  can  be  appointed  ambassador  to  a  foreign  court,  head  of 
a  department,  judge  of  a  court,  officer  of  the  customs,  collector  of  tax- 
es, or  to  any  command  in  the  army  or  navy,  unless  he  pleases  to  nom- 
inate him.  In  him  alone  is  vested  the  sole  and  exclusive  right  of  nom- 
ination ;  the  senate  may,  indeed,  withhold  their  consent  from  the  ap- 
pointment, but  they  can  nominate  no  man  to  any  office. 

In  all  appeintments,  but  in  particular  those  to  high  and  responsible 
stations,  it  is  the  duty  of  the  president  to  select  men  who  are  best  quali-' 
fied  for  the  trust,  men  of  practical  talents,  of  strict  integrity,  and  who 
have  a  competent  knowledge  of  the  business  which  they  are  required  to 
perform.  Many  of  the  blessings  of  good  government  result  from  the 
character  and  conduct  of  those  who  administer  it ;  and  the  president 
cannot  give  a  greater  proof  of  his  own  greatness  than  by  appointing 
great  men  to  office,  and  in  no  other  way  can  he  confer  greater  benefits 
or  his  country.  But  in  a  country  so  extensive  as  the  United  States,  bow 
is  the  president  to  ascertain  those  who  are  best  qualified  for  tbe  numer- 

1 26  Essays  of  Cincinnafus, 

ons  offices  he  is  obliged  to  fill  ?  Certainly  not  from  the  applicants  them- 
selves ;  those  who  have  the  best  talents  for  getting  an  office  have  often 
the  worst  for  executing  it.  Nor  can  he  trust  to  the  recommendations  and 
■olicita  ions  of  the  friends  of  the  applicant :  for  a  great  proportion  of 
those  who  sign  recommendations  act  from  friendship  and  courtesy  to  the 
office  seeker,  or  without  due  consideration,  and  so  far  from  feeling  re- 
sponsible for  the  character  and  qualifications  of  the  man,  that  if  they 
had  the  power  and  were  answerablc,would  not  appoint  those  whom  they 
recommended.  Every  man  who  has  had  the  authority  to  make  appoint- 
ments can  cite  numerous  facto  in  support  of  this  declaration.  But  the 
difficulty  of  finding  the  best  men  for  office,afler  all,is  not  great.  A  man 
who  is  qualified  for  president,  knows  the  most  prominent  character  in 
every  great  section  of  the  country,  and  who  ?re  qualified  for  important 
trusts.  The  nature  of  his  office  renders  this  knowledge  necessary  ;  and 
if  at  the  first,  hp  has  not  all  the  information  he  wants,  he  may  soon  ac- 
quire it.  It  has  been  said  of  one  of  our  presidents,  that  be  had  mem- 
oranda of  every  eminent  man  in  each  state,  and  knew  their  character. 
If  a  president  takes  proper  measures  for  iof  jrmation,  and  his  sale  ob- 
ject is  to  select  men  who  are  best  qualified,  tlie  appointments,  in  general, 
will  be  good  It  is  true  the  best  and  purest  minds  may  err  in  judgment, 
and  where  there  are  many  well  qualified,  the  best  may  not  always  be 
aopoioted,  but  tie  nation  will  not  materially  suffer  by  such  errors. 
When  bad  men  are  preferred  to  the  good,  it  is  seldom  owjug  to  igno- 
rance ;  it  usually  proceeds  from  improper  motives,  the  spirit  of  party, 
the  rewarding  of  a  partisan,  a  personal  friend,  or  bis  friends.  Such  mo- 
tives are  unworthy  of  a  president,  and  ought  never  to  influence  him. 

But  there  is  one  class  oi  men  whom  I  think  the  president  ought  not 
to  appoint  to  any  office  whatever — that  is  members  of  congress.  I  am 
sensible  this  practice  commenced  with  the  first  president,  and  has  been 
followed  by  every  president  we  have  had,  and  what  is  worse  the  num- 
ber of  such  appointments  has  increased,  and  in  the  nature  of  tl  ings 
probably  will  continue  to  increase.  The  importance  of  tlis  suftject 
merits  tbe  attention  cf  those  who  are  desirous  of  preserving  the  purity 
of  our  excellent  system  of  government ;  but  as  these  essays  have  al- 
ready extended  beyond  my  expectations,  I  shall  therefore  make  but 
few  observations. 

There  is  no  necessity  for  appointing  members  of  congress  to  civil  offi- 
ces. Our  nation,  like  every  other,  contains  more  men  well  qualified 
tor  office  than  there  are  offices.  And  it  is  a  fact  that  senators  and  rep- 
resentatives are  not  always  the  men  best  qualified  for  other  offices.  It 
is  not  unusual  to  find  men  who  are  eminent  as  legislators  prove  ineffi- 
cient and  indifferent  heads  of  department,judges,  attorney  generals, 
commanders  in  the  army  and  navy,or  collectors  of  the  customs.  If  it  were 
not  invidious  I  could  name  instances  of  this,  but  they  will  occur  to  e?- 
ery  well  informed  man. 

There  are  few  measures  which  have  a  more  direct  and  powerful  ten- 
dency to  subvert  and  destroy  the  very  principles  of  our  government,  than 
that  of  conferring  office  upon  members  of  congress.  It  was  the  inten- 
tion of  the  constitution  to  make  the  twp  houses  of  congress  free  and  in- 
dependent of  the  president ;  but  be  may  give  the  members  such  offices, 
agencies,  and  contracts,  honorable  and  lucrative,  as  excites  their  hopes 
and  fears,  has  an  undue  influence  upon  their  minds,  and  insensibly  im- 
pairs their  independence  as  legislators.  The  power  in  an  individual 
to  bestow  office  and  money  upon  the  members  of  the  national  legislature^ 
is  an  evil  principle,  and  its  effects  upon  tbe  government  are  miaohieT' 

Essays  of  Cintmnalus.  127 

BUS ;  it  corrupts  the  legislature,  which  ought  to  be  the  source  of  secu- 
rity. If  a  few  votes  are  necessary  to  establish  a  favorite  presidential 
measure,  will  not  office  procure  them  ?  We  have  had  instaaces  cf  mem- 
bers who  for  sometime  zealously  opposed  a  measure,  but  suddenly  with* 
drew  not  only  their  opposition,  but  actually  voted  for  it ;  and  icon  af- 
ter were  raised  to  office  aad  emolument.  I  could,  were  it  necessary, 
name  the  individuals.  When  a  senator  or  representative  who  is  emi- 
neut  for  talents  opposes  the  president,  or,  what  the  president  may  con- 
sider more  injurious,  exposes  his  errors  and  misconduct,  if  such  a  mem- 
ber can  be  silenced  by  office,  is  there  not  a  strong  temptation  to  give 
it  to  him  ?  This  has  often  been  done  in  Great  Britain,  and  I  know  no 
reason  why  it  may  not  happen  iu  the  United  States.  But  there  is  an- 
other cast  where  this  course  of  proceeding  assumes  a  more  alarming  and 
fatal  character.  From  the  vast  extent  of  our  country  and  its  increasing 
population,  and  from  the  numbers  that  will  be  candidates  for  the  pres- 
idency, several  of  whom  may  have  equal  claims  to  that  high  office,  wc 
have  little  reason  to  expect  our  presidents  will  in  future  be  chosen  by  the 
electors.  The  house  must  then  elect  one  of  the  three  highest  candi- 
dates to  that  office.  When  that  case  shall  occur,  can  there  be  any  doubt 
that  some  of  the  members  whose  vstes  are  necessary  to  make  a  choice 
will  be  rewarded  with  office  and  emolument  ?  Those  who  think  other- 
wise discover  their  ignorance  of  human  nature,  and  of  past  events. 
The  election  of  a  president  has  been  once  carried  into  the  house  of  rep- 
resentatives, and  it  is  now  history  supported  by  records  that  certain 
members  who  held  the  votes  of  states  in  their  hands,  were  soon  after 
appointed  to  office  by  the  president  whom  they  elected. 

The  constitution  of  the  United  States  explicitly  prohibits  senators 
and  representatives  from  being  appointed  to  any  civil  office  under  the 
authority  of  the  United  States,  which  shail  be  created,  or  its  emolu- 
ments increased  during  the  time  they  are  members ;  but  to  make  it 
effectual,  its  provisions  ought  to  render  them  ineligible  to  any  office 
during  the  time  they  are  legislators,  and  for  a  certain  period  after.  There 
are  few  amendments  to  the  constitution  more  necessary  than  this,  and 
few,  if  any,  that  congress  are  less  willing  to  propose  :  for  such  aa 
amendment  would  annihilate  their  own  prospects  for  office.  la  1820,  a 
,  notion  was  made  in  the  house  of  representatives  to  amend  the  constituo 
tion  so  as  to  exclude  members  of  congress  from  being  appointed  to  any 
civil  office  while  they  were  members  and  for  one  year  after ;  but  the 
motion  was  negatived. 

The  power  of  the  president  to  influence  congress  by  the  disposal 
of  offices,  and  the  practice  of  the  members  nominating  candidates  for 
the  presidency  and  prematurely  pledging  their  support,  have  a  delete- 
rious influence  upon  the  public  measures,  and  ought  to  be  studiously 

The  authority  and  patronage  of  the  president  are  great  ;  the  office  is 
one  of  the  highest  and  most  exalted  that  man  can  hold,  and  is  in  fact 
more  independent  of  the  legislature  and  judicial  departments,  than 
either  of  tliem  are  of  him.  But  it  is  a  subject  of  great  exultation,  that 
our  five  presidents  have  by  their  official  conduct,  contributed  more  to 
the  improvement  and  happiness  of  the  people,  than  any  five  crowned 
heads  who  ever  reigned  m  succession  in  any  portion  of  the  world. 


March  1,  1824. 

ERRATA,  in  No.  XCVIII.  In  the  2d  paragraph,  10th  Une,for  tivo  thirds,  read  a  majtri- 
iy,  and  in  tlio  9ik  {laragraph,  iitstead  of  tl*e  word*  be  mj/icient  to,  the  woj-d  prevent  shi>u(<i 
tiv  addeiU 

•^  (128) 

Anfcdote, — John  D ,  of  Deerfield,a  descendant  of  Rev", 

Mr.  D ,  of    E ,  a  Captain  in  the  militia.     lie 

was  an  old  b;ichelor,  had  :in  old  maid  for  a  h.^use-keeper, 
an'l  tilled  nis  ground  like  an  honest  man.  He  was  acquaint*- 
ed  with  Gov.  Wentworth,  and  frequently  called  upon  him 
when  at  Portsmouth,  that  he  might  tell  his  rustic  neighbors 
how  thick  he  was  with  his  Excellency.  To  add  to  hi^  im- 
portance, he  onct;  invited  the  Governor  to  call  upon  him  at 
Deerfield,  on  his  way  into  the  country  ;  and  the  Governor 
promised  to  do  so.  The  Captain  expected  the  visit  some- 
time in  a  certain  week,  and  kept  near  his  house  busily  em- 
ployed as  usual.  One  very  warm  day,  hts  house-keeper 
came  puGfing  into  the  fii'ld  to  inform  him  that  a  grand  car- 
riage, which  must  be  the  Governor's,  was  at  a  little  dis- 
tance. The  Captain  ran  into  the  house,ind  had  hardly  time  to 
slip  on  his  military  red  coat  and  cocked  hat,  ere  his  Excel- 
lency drove  up.     With  his  trusty  sword  in  h'l.nd,  D ran 

into  the  street,  and  assuming  a  true  captain-like  strut,  paid  a 
martial  salute  to  his  Excellency,  who,  on  beholding  him,burs£ 
out  into  a  hearty  laugh.  This  rather  discomposed  the  man 
of  the  sword  ;  but  he  was  put  to  immediate  flight  by  the 
following  speech  of  the  Governor.  "  Capt.  Dudley,  I  am 
glad  to  see  you  ;  but  think  your  appearance  as  a  military 
man,  would  be  somewhat  improved,  if  you  were  to  add  to 
your  uniform  a  pair  of  breeches!''^ — an  article,  which  the 
good  Captain,  in  his  haste  to  pay  his  respects  to  the  Gover- 
nor, had  entirely  forgotten. 

Indian  depredation  in  JVestborough,  J\Is» — In  Aug.  1 704,  as 
several  persons  were  employed  in  pulling  or  spreading  flax^ 
about  80  rods  from  the  house  of  Mr.  Thomas  Rice,  and  about 
the  same  distance  from  the  garrison,  then  kept  where  Maj. 
Fayerweather  now  lives,  several  boys  being  witn  them,  eight 
or  ten  Indians  rushed  suddenly  from  a  woody  hill,  killed  the 
youngest  child,  a  son  of  Mr.  Edmund  Rice,  (this  child  was 
the  first  English  person  buried  in  Westborough)  seized  two 
sons  of  Mr.  Thomas  Rice,  Ashur  and  Adonijah,  aged  10 
and  8  years,  and  two  sons  of  Mr.  E.  Rice,  named  Silas  and 
Timothy,  and  carried  them  to  Canada.  The  people  who 
were  at  work,  escaped  to  the  house.  Ashur  returned  in 
about  four  years,  being  redeemed  by  his  father.    He  after- 

Miscellanies.  129 

wards  settled  in  Spencer,  \There  he  lived  to  a  very  advanced 
age.  His  brother  Adonijah,  remained  in  Canada,  had  a 
good  farm,  which  he  cultivated,  in  the  vicinity  of  Montreal. 
Sila.s  and  Timoth}'^,  sons  of  the  said  E.  Rice,  mixed  with  the 
Indians,  lost  their  mother  tongue,  and  lived  at  Cagnawaga. 
The  Indian  name  given  to  Silas  was  Tookanowras.  Timo- 
thy, the  youngest,  became  the  most  distinguished  person. 
Accounts  received  of  him  have  uniformly  rrprtsent«d  him 
as  the  third  of  the  six  chiefs  of  the  Cagiiauagas.  He  was 
an  adopted  son  of  a  former  chief,  and  was  highly  distin- 
guished for  his  own  superior  talents,  courage  and  warlike 
spirit.  His  Indian  name  Ought sorongovght on.  In  Sept. 
1740,  this  chief,  in  company  with  one  Tarbell,  who  was  car- 
ried captive  from  Groton,  and  who  was  his  interpreter,  came 
to  visit  his  relations,  and  the  place  of  his  nativity.  He 
viewed  the  house  where  his  Father  lived,  and  the  place, 
whence  the  children  were  captivated,  of  which  he  retained 
a  clear  remembrance;  as  he  did  likewise,  of  several  elder- 
ly persons  then  living.  They  visited  Tarbell's  relations  at 
Gro'on  ;  by  the  request  of  Gov.  Belcher,  waited  on  him  at 
Boston,  and  again  returned  to  Canada.  It  is  also  credibly 
reported,  that  this  Rice  was  the  Chief,  who  made  the  speech 
to  Gen.  Gnge  in  behalf  of  the  Cagnawagas,  soon  after  the 
reduction  of  Montreal. 

The  following  extract  from  the  MS.  Diary  of  the  Rev- 
Thomas  Shepai-d,who  was  minister  of  Cambridge  from  1686 
to  1649,  furnishes  an  interesting  specimen  of  the  barbarous 
treatment,  which  o*ir  pious  ancestors  received,  under  the  in- 
quisitorial domination  of  bishop  Laud  :  "Dec.  16,  1630.  I 
was  inhil  ited  from  preaching  in  the  Diocess  of  London,  by 
Dr.  Laud,bi>hop  of  that  Diocess.  As  soon  as  I  came  in  the 
morning,  about  8  of  the  clock,  falling  into  a  fit  of  rage,  he 
asked  me.  What  degree,  I  had  taken  at  the  University  1  I  an- 
swered him,  I  was  a  Master  of  Arts.  He  ask*  d-  Of  what 
College,  t  I  answered,  Of  Emanuel.  He  asked,  Hoto /o/'gj 
had  lived  in  his  Diocessi  I  answered,three  years  and  upwards. 
He  asked, l^/to  maintain'' d me  all  this  w/ii/f/'  charging  me  to  deal 
plainly  with  hitn, adding  withal. that  he  had  been  more  cheat- 
ed and  equivocated  with  by  some  of  my  malignant  Faction 
than  ever  was  man  by  Jesuit.  At  the  sprakinff  of  which 
words,  he  look'd  as  tho'  bk)od  would  have  gushed  out  of  his 
face,  and  did  shake  as  if  he  had  been  haunted  with  an  Ague 
Fit,  to  my  apprehension,   by  reason  of  his  extream  malice 



130  Miscelianies. 

and  secret  venom.  I  desired  him  to  excuse  inc  :  lie  fell 
then  to  threaten  me,  and  withal  to  bitter  railing,  calling  me 
all  to  naught,  sajing,  You  prating  coxcomb!  Do  you  flunk 
all  the  Lsirning  is  in  your  brain  ?  He  pronounced  his  sen- 
tence thus  :  /  charge  ymi,  that  you  neither  Preach,  Read,  Mar- 
ry, Bury,  or  exercise  any  Ministerial  Function  in  any  part  of 
my  Diocess  ;  for  if  you  do,  and  I  hear  of  it,  Vll  he  upon  your 
hack,  and  follow  you  wherever  you  go,  in  any  part  of  the  king- 
dom, and  so  everlastingly  diseyiable you.  I  besought  him  not 
to  deal  so, in  regard  of  a  poor  Town  ;  and  here  he  stopt  me  in 
what  I  was  going  on  to  say,  ^  poor  town  !  you  have  made  a  com- 
pany nf  seditious  factious  Bedlams;  and  what  do  you  prate  to  me 
of  a  poi>r  Tozon  ?  I  prayed  him  to  suffer  me  to  catechise  in 
the  Sabbath  Days  in  the  afternocm  :  He  replied,  Spare  your 
breath,  Vll  have  no  such  felloros  prate  in  my  Diocess,  get  you 
gone,  and  now  make  your  complaints  to  whom  you  will.  So 
away  I  went ;  and  blessed  be  God,that  I  may  go  to  him." 

Freewill  Baptists. — The  first  appearance  of  this  sect  was 
dt  Durham,  N.  H.  in  1780.  when  a  church  was  formed  under 
the  instrumentality  of  Elder  Benjamin  Randall.  Soon  after, 
several  societies  were  formed,  as  branches  of  the  parent 
stock.  On  the  6ih  Dec.  1783,  the  elders  and  chosen  breth- 
ren of  the  different  branches  assembled  at  PhiIlipsburg,Me. 
when  they  agreed  thereafter  to  hold  similar  meetings  four 
tfties  a  year.  Hence  they  styled  them  Quarterly  meetings. 
The  second  quarterly  meeting  was  holden  at  New-Glouces- 
ter, March,  6,  1 784.  The  third  in  June,  at  New-Durham.  In 
1792,  the  numbers  of  this  persuasion  had  so  increased,  that 
at  a  meeting  July  9th,  at  New-Durham,  another  quarterly 
meeting  was  appointed,  to  be  called  New-Durham  quarterly 
meeting.  Yearly  Meetings,  for  the  purpose  of  receiving 
reports  from  the  quarterly  meetings,  have  since  been  estab- 
lished. In  1822,there  w^ere  16  quarterly  meetings  establish- 
ed ;  158  ordained  elders  ;  213  churches,  and  about  10,00®' 

At  the  election  of  Representatives  to  Congress  in  this  state, 
1789,  the  whole  number  of  persons  vott-d  for  was  about  70  ! 

In  1768,  th"  salary  of  Governor  Wentworth,  paid  out  of 
the  treasury  of  N.  H.  was  £700  lawful  money,  or  5^2331. — 
The  salary  of  our  chief  magistrate  at  this  day  is  $1200  only. 

(  131   ) 

aitcrarj)  potters. 

The  Philosophy  of  Natural  History^  6^  William  Smelue  ;  zvilh 

an  Introduction,  and  various  addilions^and  alterations,  &c. 

&c.  by  John  Ware,  M.  D.  S^c.  ^c — pp.  336.  8vo.  Boston  : 

Curamings,  Hilliard  &  Co.  1824. 

We  arc  among  the  number  of  those  who  are  gratified  and 
delighted  with  every  publication  which  tends  to  encourage 
and -facilitate  the  study  of  natural  history.  Myriads  of  ob- 
jects around  us,  bearing  the  impress  of  the  Supreme  Intelli- 
gence, and  wonderful  for  their  structure,  functions  and  hab- 
its, are  constantly  passed  by  as  unworthy  of  our  notice  and 
consideration  ;  and  yet  there  is  no  pursuit  which  is  at  once 
more  instructive  and  interesting  than  the  study  of  natural 
history  :  none  can  give  us  more  adequate  ideas  of  the  re- 
sources of  Infinite  Power  ;  none  can  so  deeply  impress  ns 
with  the  contrivances  of  Infinite  Wisdom  ;  none  can  afford 
us  such  views  of  the  benignity  of  Infinite  Goodness  ;  none 
can  inspire  us  with  more  exalted  feelings  of  gratitude  to- 
wards Infinite  Mercy  for  such  a  bountiful  distribution  of  hap- 
piness. Nor  can  any  study  tend  more  to  refine  and  elevate 
the  affections  than  that  of  natural  history.  Who  can  be- 
hold the  wonderful  transformations  of  the  egg  to  the  worm, 
and  of  the  worm  to  the  butterfly,  without  making  deep  moral 
reflections  from  the  changes  ?  Who  has  not  been  instructed 
in  geometry  by  the  bee  ?  To  whom  has  not  the  ant  given  a 
lesson  of  perseverance  and  industry  ?  Whose  filial  piety  is 
not  exceeded  by  that  of  the  stork?  Whose  fidelity  by  the 
dog?  or  whose  sagacity  by  the  elephant  ?  The  lilly  mpcks 
at  the  pencil  of  the  painter  ;  and  the  little  violet  stands  laugh- 
ing, and  throws  carelessly  around  sweeter  perfumes  than  is 
distilled  from  the  retort  or  sublimed  from  the  crucible  of 
the  most  accomplished  chymist.  Indeed,  every  living  being 
is  a  system  of  natural  theology,  and,  as  such,  is  entitled  to 
our  notice  and  observation — nay  more,  to  our  careful  study 
and  attention.  Its  perusal  gratifies  our  curiosity,  refines  our 
aflfections,  elevates  and  ennobles  our  mental  powers. 

There  is,  in  the  long  chain  of  existences,  beings  animate 
and  inanimate,  such  a  close  and  intimate  connection,  that  it 
is  very  difficult  to  determine  in  some  cases  w'hich  are  influ- 
enced by  vitality,  and  which  are  not.  At  first  view,  nothing 
appears  more  easy  than  to  distinguish  an  animal  from  a 
plant,  or  a  plant  from  a  stone  ;  but  these  are  extreme  cases, 
and,  in  reality,  it  is  a  question  of  no  little  difficulty,  and  one 

132  Literary  J^Totlces. 

which  has  not  yet  been  decided,  to  determine  at  what  link 
in  the  vast  chain  vitality  commences.  It  is  still  more  diffi- 
cult to  draw  that  line,  on  one  side  of  whic  h  are  vegetables, 
and  on  the  other  animals  only.  Who  has  given  us  a  defini- 
tion of /'/e  ?  No  one.  In  what  docs  it  consist?  None  can 
tell,  yet  every  one  knows  that  living  beings  possess  a  je  ne 
sais  quoii  by  which  thej^  are  capable,  to  a  certain  extent,  of 
resisting  the  usual  chymical  and  physical  agencies.  Dr. 
Ware  has  mentioned,  in  his  valuable  introduction,  certain 
"circumstances of  distinction  which  are  common  to  all  living 
beings,  whether  vegetable  or  animal" ;  but,  stricfly  speak- 
ing, the  circumstances  which  he  enumerates  ar^  common  on- 
ly to  those  beings  which  possess  vitality  in  higher  degrees. 
There  are  only  two  circumstances  which  we  consider  as 
common  to  all  living  bodies  ;  first,  their  origin — they  are  al- 
ways derived  from  parents^  as  mentioned  by  Dr.  Ware  ;  and 
secondly,  the  possession  of  an  organization  capable  of  being 
called  into  action  for  the  perforraance  of  certain  functions^ 
adapted  to  the  growth  and  preservation  of  the  individual,  or 
contimuition  of  the  species.  This  latter  circumstance  is  com- 
mon to  all  living  beings,  to  the  seed  rind  (he  egg,  and  to  man  ; 
to  that  which  possesses  the  highest,  and  that  which  possesses 
the  lowest  degree  of  vitality.  The  former  circumstance 
we  believe,  rather  from  analogy  than  direct  evidence,  and 
we  arc  by  no  means  inclined  lo  call  its  truth  in  (juestion,  or 
to  dispute  the  truth  of  the  Linncan  adage,  "  ornne  vivnni  ex 
ovo.'^^  The  other  circumstances,  m'ntiuned  as  being  com- 
mon to  living  beings,  are  not  absolute  and  unconditional, 
but  are  merely  relative.  Thus  the  power  of  resisting  certain 
ch'inges  of  temperature,  is  diftrrent  in  all  living  bodies. 
An  egg  or  a  seed  will  be  destroyed  at  temperatures  in  which 
some  other  bodies  will  be  uninjured  ;  and  the  power  which 
living  bodies  have  of  resisting  the  action  of  some  other 
agents,  is  to  be  considered  in  the  same  point  of  view.  W^e 
consider  these  facts  as  capa})le  of  being  brought  under  gen- 
eral laws.  Every  body,  living  or  not,  requires  a  specific 
temperature  for  the  production  of  certain  changes  ;  any  giv- 
en agent  is  capable  of  acting  on  certain  bodies,  but  not  on 
others.  We  do  not  see  any  difference  in  kind  between  the 
effect  of  heat  on  milk  and  on  an  es,g  ;  between  the  action  of 
nitric  acid  on  the  human  hand  and  on  silver ;  combination 
and  decomposition  take  place  in  both  cases,  nor  is  there 
evidence  that  the  living  hand  resists  the  action  of  this  agent 
more  effectually  than  a  dead  body. 

An  insuperable  difficulty  seems  to  attend  any  attempt  to 

Lkerary  Koikes.  133 

distinguish  between  vegetables  and  animals.  "  This  distinc- 
tion is  not  to  be  found  in  any  prmcipie  which  admits  ot  short, 
plain  ami  specific  dLtinition."''  (p.  12.)  Intact,  it  has  not 
yd  been  found,  if  it  exists  at  all,  and  we  are  very  much  dis- 
posed to  question  its  existence.  "  The  general  structure, 
gtiv^ral  mode  of  existence  and  purposes  of  existence  in  the 
two" — animals  and  vegetable^ — give  us  information  only 
in  those  cases  where  there  is  no  doubt,  and  can  be  of  no 
use  where  there  is  any  uncertainty  ;  because,  in  the  latter 
class  of  cases,  the  structure,  mode  of  existence,  aj^d  pur- 
poses of  existence,  are  known  to  us,  only  so  far  as  to  leave 
us  in  the  greate.^t  perplexity. 

Locomotion  has  been  considered  as  peculiar  to  animals; 
but  it  does  not  belong  to  the  oyster  and  to  many  other  ani- 
mals. It  might  rather  be  said  not  to  belong  to  anj'  vegeta- 
ble ;  for  although  "  some  species  of  plants  are  not  fixed  by 
roots  to  one  and  the  same  spot,  but  float  about  in  the  wa- 
ters," yet  they  cannot  be  said  to  form  exceptions  to  the 
general  law  ;  nur  can  they  be  said  to  possess  loromotion  in 
any  greater  degree  than  a  ship,  or  drift  wood,  or  floating 

The  mode  of  taking  and  digesting  ibod  has  been  consider- 
ed as  a  mark  of  distinction  between  animals  and  vegetajj|Ies, 
but  without  sufficient  reason  ;  for  a  multitude  of  animals, 
v^'uich  have  not  the  povv-n*  of  locomotion,  receive  only  such 
food  as  is  casually  presented  to  them,  and  in  a  manner  sim- 
ilar to  that  \n  which  plants  receive  nourishment.  Neither 
the  one  or  the  other  are  constantly  and  continually  receiv- 
ing food.  The  evidence  that  animals  luiifcrmly  perform 
the  function  of  digestion  in  a  stomach  and  intestinal  canal, 
is  by  no  means  satisfactory  ;  indeed,  it  is  not  always  the 
case  ;  some  animals  receive  food  into  a  cavity,  absorb  the 
nutritious  portions,  and  disgorge  the  remainder  through  the 
same  orifice  by  which  it  was  received  ;  but  this  cavity  is  not 
morf  entitled  to  be  called  a  stomach  than  the  vessels  of 
plants  into  which  sap  is  received  ;  nor  have  we  evidence 
that  food  suffers  any  greater  changes  in  one  than  in  the 
other,  or  that  !luids  are  secreted  in  either  case  to  facilitate 
digestion,  as  it  is  in  all  other  cases  where  animals  possess 
a  stomach.  Certain  changes  are  wrought  upon  the  food 
received  into  this  cavity  by  which  it  is  rendered  proper  for 
the  nourishment  of  the  individual  ;  the  useless  portion  is 
evolved.  So  it  is  in  plants  5  changes  are  wrought,  part  is 
retained,  and  part  expelled. 

Animals  are  said  to  exercise  a  choice  in  taking  food.    This 

134  Literary  Moiias. 

is  very  evident  in  some  of  the  more  perfect  animals.  It  is  a 
fact,  however,  as  appears  from  the  experiments  of  Saussure, 
that  vegetables  do  not  receive  into  their  vessels  every  thing 
indiscriminately  ;  they  do  in  some  instances  seem  to  prefer 
one  substance  to  another  ;  they  are  not  more  liable  to  take 
poison  when  presented  to  them  than  animals.  Is  there  any 
evidence  that  the  lower  orders  of  animals  exercise  a  more 
decided  preference  for  particular  substances  than  vegeta- 
bles ?  If  there  is  not,  this  circumstance  cannot  be  made  a 
ground  of  distinction  between  animals  and  vegetables. 

Animals  have  been  thought  to  difler  from  vege-t?ibles  in 
the  nature  of  their  food  5  but  they  do  not  differ  from  veget- 
ables in  this  respect  more,  nay,  not  so  much  as  they  differ 
from  each  other.  The  food  which  nourishes  and  supports 
one  anunal,  will  not  only  not  nourish,  but  Avill  actually 
poison  another.  But  where  is  the  evidence  that  anjraalsand 
vegetables  do  differ  from  each  other  in  the  nature  of  their 
food?  The  earth  worm  swallows  earth,  but  it  is  for  the 
nourishment  which  it  contains  ;  plants  push  their  roots 
through  the  soil,  but  it  is  for  the  nourishment  it  contains  ; 
and  Avho  can  tell  us  that  the  nourishment  in  both  cases  is 
not  identically  the  same  substance,  serving  to  nourish  both 
animals  and  vegetables  ?  If  it  be  not,  it  becomes  those  who 
say  that  there  is  an  essential  difference  in  food  of  animals 
and  vegetables,  to  show  that  it  is  not. 

The  power  of  feeling  and  voluntary  motion  appears  to  Le 
possessed  in  as  high  a  degree  by  some  vegetables  as  by 
some  animals,  at  least  so  far  as  we  can  ascertain  any  thing 
in  relation  to  the  feelings  and  volitions  of  these  inferior  ani- 
mals. It  is  said  that  the  sensitive  plant  and  the  hedysarum 
gyrans  move  only  on  the  application  of  stimuli  ;  ihe  same 
appears  to  be  the  fact  with  regard  to  some  polypi.  We 
have  no  reason,  other  than  analogy,  to  believe  that  their 
motions  arise  only  from  spontaneous  efforts,  without  the  in- 
tervention of  external  stimuli ;  and  to  account  for  the  mo- 
tions in  the  sensitive  plant  at  a  distance  from  the  part  to 
which  the  stimulus  is  applied,  we  appeal  to  that  potent 
wizard,  Sympathy,  within  the  circle  of  whose  enchantments, 
physiologists  and  naturalists  are  wont  to  entrench  them- 
selves to  hide  their  ignorance. 

"  The  chymical  composition  of  vegetables  also  differs 
from  that  of  animals  ;  the  elements  essential  to  vegetables 
are  oxygene,carbon  and  hydrogene."  In  addition  to  these, 
animal  substances  contain  azote  ;  but  the  differences  in  the 
chymical  agents  will  not  serve  to  distinguish  between  veget- 

Literary  Notices.  135 

ubles  and  animals  ;  for  although  the  latter  are  never  with- 
out that  bodj,  yet  t!ie  former  not  unfrequentlj  contain  it ; 
it  is  found  in  gluten,  and  consequently  exists  in  wheat,  rye, 
barley,  and  all  other  vegetables  which  contain  gluten  ;  it  is 
found  also  in  indigo,  and  perhaps  exists  in  gum  in  a  very 
small  quantity  ;  and  we  may  say,  without  fear  of  contradic- 
tion, that  azote  is  as  essential  to  the  composition  of  these 
vegetables,  as  it  is  to  muscle,  nerve  and  blood.  We  not  un- 
frcquently  hear  it  said,  that  gluten,  which  contains  so  much 
azote,  and  comports  itself  so  much  like  certain  animal  sub- 
stances, is  more  animalized  than  many  other  vegetable  pro- 
ductions. We  may  say  with  equal  propriety,  that  the 
animal  substance  which  contains  least  azote,  is  more  vegeta- 
ble-ized  than  other  mimal  bodies. 

No  mark  of  distinction  between  animals  and  vegetables 
can  be  founded  on  their  chymical  composition  ;  nor  has  any 
specific  difference  between  vegetables  and  animals  yet  been 
pointed  out.  Every  one  observes,  that  there  is  a  general 
difference  in  the  nature,  habits  and  constitution  of  plants 
and  animals  ;  but  it  is  not  in  these  palpable  every  day  differ- 
ences, noticed  in  individuals  which  are  far  removed  from 
the  confines  of  the  animal  and  vegetable  kingdoms,  that  we 
are  to  look  for  specific  differences  in  the  nature  of  animals 
and  vegetables,  if  such  difference  exists  ;  but  it  is  among 
the  borderers,  and  those  who  most  nearly  resemble  each  oth- 
er in  their  manners  and  habits.  Exclusive  of  the  mental 
powers,  among  which,  perhaps,  we  are  to  include  instinct, 
an  animal  may  be  considered  as  a  more  perfect  plant,  or  a 
plant  as  a  less  perfect  animal.  It  would  be,  perhaps,  quite 
as  difficult  to  point  out  the  distinction  between  reason  and 
instinct,  as  between  vegetables  and  animals.  Certain  in- 
stincts are  susceptible  of  being  improved  by  observation 
and  experience  ;  and  how  do  such  instincts  differ  from  rea- 
son ?  But  who  is  so  hardy  as  to  say,  that  other  animals  differ 
from  man  in  this  respect  only  in  degree.  None  will  say, 
that  other  animals  are  accountable  beings  ;  and  that  man 
has,  in  addition  to  his  reason,  a  moral  sense,  is  an  opinion  not 
altogether  improbable. 

It  is  in  vain  to  attempt  the  acquisition  of  a  knowledge  of 
natural  substances  without  order,  method  and  arrangement. 
In  the  Introduction,  wp  are  presented  with  a  very  brief  view 
of  the  classification  of  Cuvier  ;  one  which  is  alike  remarkable 
for  its  perspicuity  and  the  ease  with  which  it  is  acquired 
and  applied.  There  are  two  grand  divisons  of  animals,  viz. 
those  with  a  spinal  column,  and  those  without :  the  former 

136  Lilerary  Notices. 

are  called  zerUbral,  the  latter  intfrlrhral  animals  ;  the  one 
has  an  intcriial  skeleton  and  red  blood  ;  tlu  oihcr  has  no 
skeleton  and  white  blood.  ]\Ian,  quath-iipeds,  birds  and 
fishes  belong  to  the  first  class  ;  insects,  shell  lish,  &c.  &,c. 
belong  to  the  second.  Some  of  the  vertebral  animals  have 
ivarm  red  blood,  as  all  those  animals  which  nourish  their 
young  by  their  own  milk,  called  mammalia,  and  birds  ; 
others  again  have  cold  red  b'ood,  as  leptilfs,  fishes, &c.  &,c. 
But  we  refer  our  readers  to  the  book  itself  lor  information 
on  this  interesting  topic. 

The  Linnean  ch.'^sification  of  insects  has  been  retained  by 
Dr.  Ware,  in  preference  to  the  more  modern  systems  of 
entomology  ;  and  we  think  with  great  propriety.  The  whole 
object  of  classification  is  to  facilitate  the  acquisition  of 
knowledge.  Nature  herself  knows  no  division  into  classes, 
oi'ders  and.  genera  ;  hence  the  most  simple  and  least  com- 
plirated  systems  are  the  best. 

Many  parts  of  the  work  before  us  have  been  re-icrilltn  by 
the  editor,  and  adapted  to  the  present  slate  of  natural  his- 
tory ;  and  some  chapters  have  been  omitted,  which  are  con- 
tained in  former  editions.  We  regret  that  any  portion 
should  have  been  omittrd.  The  work  is  well  calculated  to 
excite  a  taste  for  natural  history,  and  offcrds  much  informa- 
tion which  cannot  fail  to  be  interesting  to  evrry  one.  It 
should  be  read  by  every  person,  who  has  any  pretcn.->ions  to 
general  literature  and  science,  and  introduced  into  our 
higher  academies  and  schools.  .  Wc  heartily  thank  Dr. 
Ware  for  the  attention  he  has  bestowed  upon  it,  and  cordial- 
ly hope  that  he  will  reap  a  rkUer  harvest  from  his  labors, 
than  the  men  publication  of  this  zvork  can  afford.  Q. 

Historical  Reader. Th"  first   edition    of    this  useful 

school-book  having  been  disposed  of.  Mr.  Hill,  of  this  town, 
has  put  to  press  a  second  ediiion,  which,  wc  understand,  is  to 
be  ornamented  with  several  en;'jravin2;s  on  wood. 

This  work  contains  a  selection  of  interesting  portions  of 
history,  from  the  annals  of  all  ag-°s,  and  ali  nations  ;  from  the 
creation  of  the  world  down  to  the  present  time.  Interspers- 
ed among  these  extracts,  are  concise  and.  choice  selections 
of  poetry  calculated  to  inspire  generous  sentiments,  and  to 
improve  the  taste.  At  the  end  of  each  chapter  are  append- 
ed a  few  questions,  designed  to  exercise  the  memory  of  the 
reader,and  for  the  convenience  of  the  ipstructor. 

We  are  pleased  to  see  a  favorable  notict  cf  this  woik  in 
a  paper  of  such  deserved  literary  repute,  as  the  Ntw-York 

MAY,  1824. 


[Continued  and  concluded  from  page  115.] 

Mrs.  Rowlandson  continued  to  be  treated  by  the  Irjdians, 
sometimes  with  much  apparent  kindness,  and  at  others,  with 
great  and  wanton  severity ,as  they  happened  to  be  influenced 
by  the  feeUng  of  the  moment.  She  had  now  been  six  weeks  in 
captivity,  attended  with  all  the  aggravating  circumstances 
incident  to  the  power  and  caprice  of  the  savage.  The  En- 
glish army  that  ^he  had  expected  to  her  relief,  had  marched 
in  a  different  direction,  and  the  prospect  of  being  carried  to 
Albany  seemed  more  remote  than  ever.  Her  master  had 
promised  that  she  should  be  sent  to  her  husband,  but  he  did 
not  regard  his  word  and  left  his  captive,  "  so  that  her  spirit 
was  quite  ready  to  sink."  While  they  remained  in  the 
"  thicket,"  several  Indians  returned  from  Hadley,  where 
they  had  killed  three  Englishmen  and  taken  one  prisoner. 

"I  asked  the  prisoner  about  the  welfare  of  my  husband  ; 
he  told  me  he  saw  him  such  a  time  in  the  bay,  and  he  was 
well,  but  very  melancholy.  By  which  I  certainly  understood 
(though  I  suspected  it  before)  that  whatsoever  the  Indians 
told  me  respecting  him,was  vanity  and  lies.  Some  of  them  told 
me  he  was  dead,  and  they  had  killed  him  ;  some  said  he  was 
married  again,and  that  the  Governor*  wished  him  to  marry, 
and  told  him  he  should  have  his  choice,  and  that  all  persua- 
ded him  I  was  dead.  So  like  were  these  harharmis  creatures  to 
him  who  was  a  liar  from  the  beginning.'''' 

Here,  also,  Philip's  maid  demanded  a  piece  of  her  apron, 
which  Mrs.  R.  refused,  till  at  last,  "my  mistress  rose  up,and 
took  up  a  stick  big  enough  to  have  killed  me  and  struck  at 
me  with  it,  but  I  stepped  out  and  she  struck  it  into  the  mat 
of  the  wigwam.  But  while  she  was  pulling  it  out,  I  ran  to 
the  maid  and  gave  her  all  my  apron,  and  so  that  sterra  went 

*CfoT.  Leverett, 


138  Mrs,  Rowlandso)i» 

While  at  this  place,  she  again  saw  her  son  and  communi- 
cated the  news  she  had  received  about  her  husband.  "He 
told  me  he  was  as  much  grieved  for  his  father,  as  for  him- 
self. I  wondered  at  his  speech,  for  I  thought  I  had  enough 
upon  my  spirit,  in  reference  to  myself,  to  make  me  mindless 
vt>f  my  husband  and  every  one  else,  they  being  safe   among 

/'  their  friends.  There  was  nothing  marvellous  in  the  boy's 
words,  but,  on  the  contrary,  they  exhibited  a  good  deal  of 
disinterested  and  kind  feeling."  A  young  man,*  one  of  the 
captives,was  sick  with  a  sore  disease.  Mrs.  R.  went  to  see 
him,  and  found  him  stretched  on  the  ground  in  the  open  air, 
on  a  raw  and  wintry  day,  with  scarcely  any  clothing.  By 
his  side  was  a  little  Indian  child,  whose  parents  were  dead. 
This  child  had  been  deserted  by  the  tribe,  and  was  lying  on 
the  earth  with  his  eyes,  nose,  and  mouth  full  of  dirt,  and  yet 
ahve  and  groaning. 

After  much  difficulty,  she  succeeded  in  removing  the  cap- 
tive to  a  fire  ;  for  this  kind  service  she  was  accused  by  the 
Indians  of  an  attempt  to  escape  and  take  the  Englishman 
with  her  ;  they  threatened  with  much  violence  to  kill  her  if 
she  left  the  wigwam. 

"Now  may  I  say  w'th  David,  /  am  in  a  gr fat  strait,  \(  I 
keep  in,  I  must  die  of  h  mger;  if  I  go  ^ut,  I  must  be  knock- 
ed on  the  head."  After  being  confined  for  a  day  and  a 
half,  she  was  released  by  her  mistress,  through  the  interces- 
sion of  an  Indian,  upon  promising  to  knit  him  a  pair  of  stock- 
ings. "He  gave  me  some  roasted  ground-nuts,  that  did  again 
revive  my  feeble  stomach."  "Being  out  of  her  sight,  I  had 
time  and  liberty  again  to  look  into  my  bible,  which  was  my 
guide  by  day  and  my  pillow  by  night.  Now  that  comforta- 
ble scripture  presented  itself  to  me, — Isaiah  Uv.  7.  For  a 
small  moment  have  Iforsaktn  thee,  hut  with  great  mercies  zvill  I 
gather  thee.''''  Thus  the  Lord  carried  me  along  from  one  time 
to  another,  and  made  good  to  me  this  precious  promise  and 
many  others."  Her  son  coming  to  see  her,  she  obtained 
permissionthat  he  might  stay  while  she  could  comb  his  head, 
which  was  in  a  most  deplorable,  though  very  animated  con- 
dition. But  she  had  scarcely  arranged  his  toilet,  when  his 
master,  angry  at  the  length  of  the  son's  visit,  "beat  him  and 
then  sold  him.  Then  he  came  running  to  tell  me  he  had  a 
new  master,  and  that  he  had  given  him  some  ground-nuts  al- 
ready. Then  I  went  along  with  him  to  his  new  master,who 
told  me  he  loved  the  boy,  and  he  should  not  want.  So  his 
master  carried  him  away  and  I  never  saw  him  afterward, 
till  I  saw  him  at  Pascataqua." 

*Johii  Gilbert,  of  Springfield. 

Mrs.  Rotolandson*  139 

Her  mistress'  child  being  sick,  Mrs.  Rowlandson  was  or- 
dered to  leave  the  wigwam  ;  but  the  child  soon  died,  and 
Mrs.  R.  with  much  comfort  observes,  "  there  was  one  htnefit  in 
it,  that  there  was  more  room.  1  went  to  a  wigwam  and  they 
bid  me  come  in,  and  gave  me  a  skin  to  lie  upon  and  a  mess 
of  venison  and  ground-nuts,  which  was  a  choice  dish  among 
them.  On  the  morrow  they  buried  the  papoose,  and  after- 
wards, both  morning  and  evening,  there  came  a  company  to 
mourn  and  howl  with  her,though  I  confess  I  could  not  much 
condole  with  them.  Many  sorrowful  eyes  I  had  in  this 
pigce,  often  getting  alone  like  a  crane  or  a  swallow,  so  did  I 
chatter  :  I  did  mourn  as  a  dove,  mine  eyes  fail  with  looking  up- 

"Upon  the  sabbath  days  I  could  look  upon  the  sun  and 
think  how  people  were  going  to  the  house  of  God,  to  have 
their  souls  refreshed,  and  then  home  and  their  bodies  also  ; 
but  I  was  destitute  of  both,  and  might  say  as  the  poor  prod- 
igal," &c.  "I  remember  how  on  the  night  before  and  after 
the  sabbath,  when  my  family  was  about  me,  and  relations 
and  neighbours  with  us, we  could  pray  and  sing,  and  refresh 
our  bodies  with  the  good  creatures  of  God,  and  then  have 
a  comfortable  bed  to  lie  down  on  ;  but  instead  of  all  this  I 
had  only  a  Uttle  swill  for  the  body,andthen  like  a  swine  must 
lie  down  on  the  ground.  I  cannot  express  to  man  the  sorrow 
that  lay  upon  my  spirit,  the  Lord  knows  it.  Yet  that  com- 
fortable scripture  Avould  often  come  to  my  mind,  For  a  small 
moment  have  1  forsaken  thee,  but  with  great  mercies  will  I  gather 

It  is  impossible  to  determine  how  long  the  party  remained 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Connecticut  river,  as  dates  are  not 
regarded  in  the  '"'"various  removes,''''  probably  it  was  a  number 
of  weeks.  At  length  they  prepared  for  a  march,and  direct- 
ed their  course  "towards  the  bay  towns."  During  the 
whole  of  the  day,Mrs.  R.  had  nothing  to  sustain  nature  ex- 
cepting a  few  crumbs  of  cake  that  had  been  given  her  by 
an  Indian  girl,  just  after  the  attack  upon  Lancaster.  "When 
night  came  on  we  sat  down  ;  it  rained,  but  they  quickly  got 
up  a  bark  wigwam,  where  I  lay  dry  that  night. 

"In  the  morning  they  took  the  blood  of  a  deer  and  boiled 
it.  I  could  eat  nothing  of  that,  though  they  eat  it  sweetly. 
And  yet  they  were  so  nice  in  other  things,  that  when  I  had 
fetched  water,and  had  put  the  dish  I  dipped  the  water  with, 
into  the  kettle  of  water  which  I  had  brought,  they  would  say 
they  would  knock  me  down,  for  they  said  it  was  a  sluttish 
trick."    She  went  on  cheerfully   with  the  thought  of  going 

140  Mrs.  Rowlandson. 

homeward,  '•  having  her  burden  more  on  her  back  than  on  her 
spirit.'"'  Arriving  at  Bacquag  river,there  they  remained  a  few 
days.  Speaking  of  hunger,  she  sajs,  "I  cannot  but  think 
what  a  wolfish  appetite  persons  have  in  a  starving  condition. 
And  after  I  was  thoroughly  hungry,  I  was  never  again  satis- 
fied. For  though  it  sometimes  fell  out  that  I  got  enough,and 
did  eat  till  1  could  eat  no  more  ;  yet  1  was  as  unsatisfied  as 
when  I  began.  And  now  could  I  see  that  scripture  verified, 
there  being  many  scriptures  that  we  do  not  take  notice  of  or 
understand  till  we  are  afflicted,  Mic.  vi.  14.  Thou  shall,  eat 
and  not  be  satisjied.^'' 

On  crossing  the  Bacquag,  "  the  water  was  up  to  our 
knees  and  the  stream  very  swift  and  so  cold  that  I 
thought  it  would  have  cut  me  in  sunder.  I  was  so 
weak  and  feeble  that  I  reeled  as  1  went  along. — The 
Indians  stood  laughing  to  see  me  staggering  along  ;  but 
in  my  distress,  the  Lord  gave  me  experience  of  the  truth 
and  goodness  of  that  promise,  zohen  tJiou  passeth  thrmigh  the 
zcaters  I  will  be  with  i/iee,  aiid  through  the  rivers,  they  shall  not 
overflow  thee.'''' 

An  Indian  arrived  with  orders  for  Mrs.  Rowlandson  to 
proceed  to  Wachusett,*  as  a  letter  had  come  to  the  Saga- 
mores from  their  council  relative  to  the  redemption  of  the 
captives,and  another  would  be  received  in  fourteen  days. — 
She  was  so  delighted  with  this  intelligence  and  with  the 
prospect  of  a  speedy  release  from  captivity,  that  she  forgot 
all  her  weakness,  fatigue  and  pain,  and  went  on  with  a  high 
hope  and  clastic  spirits.  The  Indians  remained  two  days 
near  the  Bacquag,  much  to  the  annoyance  of  the  captive. — 
"  In  time  came  a  company  of  Indians  to  us,  near  thirty,  all 
on  horseback.  My  heart  skipped  within  me,  thinking  they 
had  been  Englishmen  at  the  first  sight  of  them,  for  they 
•were  dressed  in  English  apparel  with  hats,  white  neekcloths 
and  sashes  about  their  waists,  and  ribbons  upon  their  shoul- 
ders ;  but  when  they  came  near,  there  was  a  vast  difterence 
between  the  lovely  faces  of  christians  and  the  foul  looks  of 
those  heathen  which  much  damped  my  spirits  again."  On 
the  following  day  they  came  to  an  Indian  town  and  remain- 
ed there  for  the  night.  The  next  morning,  still  pursuing 
their  route  towards  the  "bay  towns,''  they  reached  another 
Indian  settlement,  where  Mrs.  Rowlandson  met  with  some 
English  captives,  and  among  them  a  child  of  her  sister.  At 
this  place  she  had  the  enviable  choice  of  feasting  upon  hors- 
es' hoofs  boiled,  or  fainting  through   lack  of  food.      After 

•Princeton,  the  mountain  in  that  town  still  retains  the  name  of  Wachusetu 

Mrs,  Rozblandson,  141 

begging  nourishment  at  the  different  wigwams,  she  went  to 
her  mistress  who  told  her  by  way  of  consolation,  that  she 
had  disgraced  her  master  by  begging,  and  threatened  her 
with  death  if  she  offended  again  in  like  manner. 

Having  taken  many  weary  steps,  the  nineteenth  remove 
brought  the  party  in  sight  of  the  Wachusett  hills.  "Then 
we  came  to  a  great  swamp,  through  which  we  travelled  up 
to  our  knees  in  mud  and  water  ;  I  thought  I  should  have 
sunk  down  at  last,  and  never  get  out,  but  1  may  say  as  in 
Psajms,  xciv.  18,  when  my  foot  slipped,  thy  mercy,  O  Lord,  held 
vne  up.  King  Philip  came  to  her  and  told  her  that  in  "  two 
weeks  she  should  be  her  own  mistress."  On  arriving  at 
Wachusett,  she  was  glad  to  find  her  Indian  master,  who  had 
been  absent  a  number  of  weeks.  "He  asked  me  when  I 
washed  me,  and  I  told  him  not  this  month  ;  then  he  fetched 
me  some  water  himself,  and  bid  me  wash,  and  gave  me  the 
glass  to  see  how  I  looked,  and  bid  his  squaw  give  me  some- 
thing to  eat," 

Her  master  was  abundantly  supplied  with  wives,  being 
blessed  with  three  specimens  of  that  commodity.  The  first 
was  an  old  squaw  living  at  Wachusett,  and  her  treatment  of 
Mrs.  Rowlandson  was  really  humane  and  kind.  The  second 
was  called  Wettimore,  sister  to  Philip's  wife,  the  same  with 
whom  Mrs.  Rowlandson  had  been  during  the  greatest  part 
of  her  captivity. 

Our  captive  did  not  hold  her  in  especial  esteem,  if  we  may 
judge  from  the  following  description.  ^'' A  severe  and  proud 
dame  she  was  ;  bestowing  every  day  in  dressing  herself  near  as 
much  time  as  any  of  the  gentry  of  the  land  ;  powdering  her  hair^ 
and  painting  her  face,  going  with  her  necklaces^  with  jewels  in  her 
ears  and  bracelets  upon  her  hands.'^'' 

Mrs.  Wettimore  probably  was  very  beautiful,  and  therefore 
exempted  from  the  drudgery  and  servitude  to  which  squaws 
were  usually  subject ;  for"whenshe  had  dressed  herself  her 
work  was  to  make  girdles  of  wampum  and  beads."  In  her 
passion  for  finery  and  ornament,she  did  but  follow  the  strong 
propensity  of  the  sex,  that  may  almost  be  considered  a  law  of 
their  nature. 

Two  Indians,  called  Tom  and  Peter,  arrived  with  a  second 
letter  from  the  council  about  the  captives.  "Though  they 
were  Indians  I  took  th«m  by  the  hand  and  burst  outmto  tears; 
my  heart  was  so  full  that  I  could  not  speak  to  them  ;  but  re- 
covering myself,  I  asked  them  how  my  husband  did,  and  all 
ray  friends  and  acquaintance.  They  said  they  were  well,but 
very  melancholy." 

142  Mrs.  Rowlandson. 

The  cagamores  beiag  assembled,  called  Mrs.  Rowlandson 
before  them  to  enquire  how  much  her  husband  would  give 
for  her  redemption.  "  When  I  came,  I  sat  down  amongst 
them,  as  I  was  wont  to  do,  as  their  manner  is  ;  then  they 
bid  me  stand  up  and  said  they  were  the  Gentral  Court.  Af- 
ter some  hesitation,  she  offered  twenty  pounds,  not  then 
knowing  that  all  her  husband's  property  at  Lancaster  had 
been  destroyed  by  the  Indians.  The  sagamores  despatch- 
ed a  letter  to  the  council  at  Boston,  offering  to  restore  Mrs. 
Rowlandson  to  liberty  for  twenty  pounds.  This  letter  was 
written  by  one  of  the  praying  Indians,  a  class  of  the  abo- 
rigines that  made  but  indifferent  Christians  :  Mrs.  R.  cen- 
sures them  with  some  severity.  "  There  was  another  pray- 
ing Indian  who  told  me  that  he  had  a  brother  that  would 
not  eat  horse,  his  conscience  was  so  lender  and  scrupulous, 
though  as  large  as  hell  for  the  destruction  of  poor  chris- 
tians. Then  he  said  he  read  that  scripture  to  him  2  Kings 
vi,  XXV.  Thtre  was  a  famine  in  Samaria,  and  behold  they  be- 
sieged it,  until  an  ass''s  head  was  sold  for  four  score  pieces  of  sil' 
ver,  and  the  fourth  part  of  akab  of  dove^s  dung,  for  five  pieces 
of  silver.  He  expounded  the  place  to  his  brother,  and  shew- 
ed him  that  it  was  lawful  to  eat  that  in  a  famine,  which  is 
not  so  at  another  time.  And  now,sa3's  he,  he  will  eat  horse 
with  any  Indian  of  them  all."  "  There  was  another  pray- 
ing Indian  so  wicked  and  cruel,  as  to  wear  a  string;  about 
his  neck,  strung  with  christian  fingers." 

Before  an  answer  arrived  from  the  council,  the  Indians 
made  an  excursion  against  Sudbury.  Previously  to  setting 
out,  "  they  got  a  company  together  to  powow.''''  This  grand 
ceremony  we  will  describe  in  Mrs.  Rowlandson's  own  words. 
"  There  was  one  that  kneeled  upon  a  deer  skin,  with  the 
company  round  him  in  a  ring,  who  kneeled  striking  upon  the 
ground  with  their  hands,  and  with  sticks,and  muttering  with 
their  mouths  !  Besides  him  who  kneeled  in  the  ring,  there 
also  stood  one  with  a  gun  in  his  hand.  Then  he  on  the 
deer  skin  made  a  speech,  and  all  manifested  assent  to  it ; 
and  so  they  did  many  times  together.  Then  they  bid  him 
with  the  gun  go  out  of  the  ring,  which  he  did;  but  when  he 
was  out,  they  called  him  in  again,  but  he  seemed  to  make  a 
stand  ;  then  they  called  the  more  earnestly,  till  he  returned 
again.  Then  they  all  sang.  Then  they  gave  him  two  guns, 
in  each  hand  one.  And  so  he  on  the  deer  skin  began  a- 
gain;  and  at  the  end  of  every  sentence  in  hisspeaking,they 
all  assented,  humming  or  muttering  with  their  mouths,  and 
striking  upon  the  ground  with  their  hands.     Then  they  bid 

Mrs,  Rewlandson,  143 

him  with  the  two  guns  go  out  of  the  ring  again,  which  he  did 
a  little  way.  Then  they  called  him  in  again,but  he  made  a 
stand,  so  they  called  him  with  greater  earnestness  ;  but  he 
stood  reeling  and  wavering,  as  if  he  knew  not  whether  he 
should  stand  or  fall,  or  which  way  to  go.  Then  they  called 
him  with  exceeding  great  vehemency,  all  of  them,  one  and 
another.  After  a  little  while,  he  turned  in,  staggering  as  he 
went,  with  his  arms  stretched  out,  in  each  hand  a  gun.  As 
soon  as  he  came  in,  they  all  sang,  and  rejoiced  exceedingly 
awhile,  and  then  he  upon  the  deer  skin  made  another 
speech,  unto  which  they  all  assented  in  a  rejoicing  man- 

When  this  marvellous  scene  was  ended,  "  they  went  to 
Sudbury  fight."  They  returned  victorious,  but  without  ex- 
hibiting the  \isual  triumph  of  success.  "When  they  went 
they  acted  as  if  the  devil  had  told  them  that  they  should  gain 
the  victory,  and  now  they  acted  as  if  the  devil  had  told 
them  they  should  have  a  fall."  "  They  came  home  on  a 
sabbath  day,  and  the  powow  that  kneeled  upon  the  deer 
skin,  came  home,  { I  may  say  without  any  abuse )  as  black  as 
the  dtviW  "  It  was  their  usual  manner  to  remove,  when  they 
had  done  any  mischief,  lest  they  should  be  found  out ;  and 
so  they  did  at  this  time.  We  went  about  three  or  four  miles, 
and  there  they  built  a  great  wigwam,  big  enough  to  hold  an 
hundred  Indians,  which  they  did  in  preparation  to  a  great 
day  of  dancmg.  They  would  now  say  among  themselves, 
that  the  Governor  would  be  so  angry  for  his  loss  at  Sudbu- 
ry that  he  would  send  no  more  about  the  captives,  which 
made  me  grieve  and  tremble." 

At  this  place,  she  was  near  to  her  sister,  who  was  also 
taken  captive  at  Lancaster.  But  the  Indian,  her  master 
would  not  suffer  her  to  visit  Mrs.  Rowlandson  ;  nor  was  the 
latter  permitted  to  see  her  daughter,  then  but  a  mile  distant. 
"  But  the  Lord  requited  many  of  their  ill  doings,  for  this 
Indian,  her  (sister's)  master  was  hanged  afterwards  ai  BostorJ^ 
"They  made  use  of  their  tyrannical  power  whilst  they  had 
it,  but  through  the  Lord's  wonderful  mercy,their  time  was 
now  short."  The  time  of  her  restoration  to  liberty  was  now 
at  hand.  Mr.  John  Hoar,  "  the  council  permitting  him  and 
his  own  forward  spii-it  inclining;  him,"  came  accompanied  by 
Tom  and  Peter,  and  bringing  a  third  letter  from  the  council, 
together  with  the  money  for  her  redemption.*  The  Indians 
amused  themselves  with  playing  the  messenger  divers  rude 
pranks.     "  They  shot  over  his  horse,  and  under,  and  before 

^Raised  by  some  ladies  in  Boston,  jvith  the  assistance  of  Mr.  Usher. 

144  Mrs,  Rowlandson, 

his  horse,  and  they  pushed  him  this  way  and  that  way  at 
their  pleasure,  shewing  what  they  could  do." 

She  learnt  from  Mr.  H.  that  all  her  friends  were  well,  and 
desirous  to  see  her.  Nor  did  her  taste  for  the  goodly  weed, 
tobacco,  return  with  the  prospect  of  dehverance  from  cap- 
tivity ;  on  the  contrary,  she  bears  strong  testimony  against 
its  use.  Mr.  Rowlandson  sent  to  her  some  tobacco,  which, 
she  sold  to  the  natives,  who  were  often  reduced  to  the  ne- 
cessity of  "  smoking  hemlock  and  ground  ivy."  "It was  a 
great  mistake  in  any  who  thought  I  sent  for  tobacco^  for  through 
the  favour  of  God,  that  desire  was  overcome.^''  Mr.  Hoar  invi- 
ted the  sagamores  to  dine  with  him.  Mrs.  R.  accuses  them 
of  stealiag  before  dinnertime,  a  greater  part  of  the  provis- 
ions that  Mr.  Hoar  had  brought.  "They  seemed  to  be 
ashamed  of  the  fact,  and  said,  it  was  Matchit  Indians  that 
did  it.  Oh,  that  we  could  believe  that  there  is  nothing  too 
hard  for  God  !  However  to  dinner  they  came  and  eat  but 
litde,  they  being  so  busy  in  dressing  thcmselves,and  getting 
ready  for  their  dance."  We  will  give  an  account  of  the 
grand  ball,in  Mrs.  Rowlandson's  words,  and  the  description 
of  the  truly  c/ai5ica/  dresses  of  her  master  and  mistress,  two 
of  the  labourers  in  the  dance.  In  this  wise  was  the  dance, 
"  which  was  carried  on  by  eight*  of  them  four  men  and 
four  squaws,  my  master  and  mistress  being  two.  He .  was 
dressed  in  his  Holland  shirt,  with  great  laces  sewed  at  the 
tail  of  it  ;  he  had  his  silver  buttons,  his  while  stockings,  his 
garters  hung  round  with  shillings,  and  his  girdles  of  wam- 
pum upon  his  head  and  shoulders.  She  had  a  kersey  coatj 
covered  with  girdles  ot  wampum  from  the  loins  upward. 
Her  arms  from  her  elbows  to  her  hands,  were  covered  with 
braccletts  ;  there  were  handfuls  of  necklaces  about  her 
neck,  and  several  sorts  of  jewels  in  her  ears.  She  had  fine 
red  stockings,  and  white  shoes,  her  hair  powdered  and  her 
face  painted  red,  that  was  always  before  black.  And  all 
the  dancers  were  after  the  same  manner.  There  were  two 
others,  singing  and  knocking  on  the  kettle  for  their  musick. 
They  kept  hopping  up,  and  down  one  after  another,  with  a 
kettle  of  water  in  the  midst,  standing  warm  upon  some  em- 
bers, to  drink  of,  when  they  were  dry.  They  held  on  till  it 
was  almost  night,throwing  out  wampum  tot  he  standers  by." 
After  this  mighty  operation  was  over,  her  master  promised 
to  set  Mrs.  Rowlandson  at  hberty,  if  Mr.  Hoar  would  give' 
him  "  a  pint  of  liquor."  This  was  readily  granted  ;  he  had 
the  liquor,  but  it  proved  rather  too  powerful  for  his  head,  and 

*The  CotillioR. 

Mrs*  Rowlandson.  145 

occasioned  some  curious  freaks  and  gambols.  This  was 
the  first  instance  of  drunkenness  ^rs.  Rowlandson  had 
seen  during  her  captivity.  "  Philip,  smelling  the  business, 
called  me  to  him,  and  asked  me  what  I  would  give  him,  to 
tell  me  some  good  news  and  to  speak  a  good  word  for  me, 
that  1  might  go  home  to-morrow  ?  I  told  him  I  could  not 
tell  what  to  give  him  ;  I  would  any  thing  I  had,  and  asked 
him  what  he  would  have?  He  said  two  coats,  and  twenty 
shillings  in  money,  half  a  bushel  of  seed  corn,  and  some  to- 
bacco. I  thanked  him  for  his  love,  but  I  knew  that  good 
news,  as  well  as  that  crafty  fox."  At  last,  after  many  per- 
plexities and  sad  forebodings  on  the  part  of  Mrs.  R.  '^  they 
called  their  general  court  as  they  styled  it,  to  see  whether  I 
should  go  home  or  no.  And  they  all  seemingly  consented  that 
I  should  go,  except  Philip,  who  would  not  come  among  them." 
Here,  Mrs.  Rowlandson  pauses  in  her  story  for  a  space, 
"to  mention  a  few  remarkable  passages  of  Providence,  which 
she  took  special  notice  of  in  her  afflicted  time,"  viz.  that 
the  English  army  should  be  obliged  to  give  up  the  pursuit 
for  want  of  provisions,  while  close  upon  the  Indians,  "who 
were  in  such  distress  for  food,that  our  men  might  track  them 
by  their  rooting  in  the  earth  for  ground  nuts,  whilst  they 
were  flying  for  their  lives,  and  the  very  next  week  came  up- 
on our  town  like  bears  bereft  of  their  whelps,  or  so  many 
ravenous  wolves,  rending  us  and  our  lambs  to  death."  The 
Indians  derided  the  sluggishness  of  the  English  army  ;  "as  1 
went  along  with  them,  they  asked  me  when  I  thought  the  Eng- 
lish army  would  come  after  them  ?  I  told  them  I  could  not 
tell.  It  may  be  they  may  come  in  May,  said  they. — 
Thus  did  they  scoff  at  us,  as  if  the  English  would  be  a  quar- 
ter of  a  year  getting  ready."  Further,  it  seemed  strange 
that  "  when  the  English  army  with  new  supplies  were  sent 
forth  to  pursue  after  the  enemy,  and  they  understanding  it  fled 
before  them  toBacquagriver,where  they  forthwith  went  over 
safely ;  that  that  river  should  be  impassable  to  the  English." 
It  was  thought  that  if  their  corn  were  cut  down  they  would 
starve  and  die  with  hunger.  Yet  "  strangely  did  the  Lord 
provide  for  them ;  I  did  not  see,all  the  time  I  was  among  them, 
one  man,  woman  or  child  die  with  hunger.  Though  many 
times  they  would  eat  that,  that  a  hog  or  a  dog  would  hardly 
touch  ;  yet  by  that,  God  strengthened  them  to  be  a  scourge 
to  his  people.  Their  chief  food  was  ground-nuts;  they  eat 
also  nuts,  acorns  ojid  hartichokes  andlilly-roots^  ground  beans, 
and  several  other  weeds  and  roots  that  I  knew  not."  They 
would  pick  bones  tenanted  by  vermin,"and  then  boil  them  and 
drink  up  the  liquor,  and  then  beat  the  great  ends  of  them  in  a 


146  Mrs.  Roidandson. 

mortar,  and  so  eat  them."  Also  bear5,frogs,  rattlesnakes  and 
many  oiher  equally  choice  dishes  enumerated  by  Mrs.  Row- 
landson.  The  '•"turning  things  about  uhen  the  Indians  were 
at  the  highest,  and  the  English  at  the  lowest"  is  mentioned  as 
another  remarkable  providence.  "1  was  Avith  the  enemy 
eleven  weeks  and  jive  days^  and  not  one  week  passed  without 
their  fury,  and  some  desolation,  by  fire  and  sword  upon  one 
place  or  other.  They  mourned  tor  thqir  own  losses,  yet  tri- 
umy)hed  and  rejoiced  in  their  inhuman  and  devilish  cruelty  to 
the  English.  They  would  boast  much  of  their  victories,  say- 
ing that  in  two  hours  time  they  had  destroyed  such  a  captain 
and  his  company  in  such  a  place;  and  boast  how  many  towns 
they  had  destroyed,  and  then  scoff'  and  say,  they  had  done 
thnm  a  good  turn  to  send  them  to  heaven  so  soon.  Again, 
they  would  say  they  would  knock  all  the  rogues  on  the  head, 
or  drivv  them  into  the  sea,  or  make  them  fly  the  country; 
thinking,  surely,  Agag-like,//jc  bitterness  of  death  is  past. ^^ 

"Then  as  to  my  going  home,  at  first  they  were  all  against  it, 
except  my  husband  would  come  for  me  ;  but  afterwards, 
they  assented  to  it,  and  seemed  to  rejoice  in  it ;  some  asking 
me  to  send  them  some  bread,  others  some  tobacco,  others 
shaking  me  by  the  hand,ofierii)g  me  a  hood  and  scarf  to  ride 
in  ;  not  one  moving  hand  or  tongue  against  it." 

llere  she  took  her  leave  of  the  Indians,  and  says,  "  in 
comi'.ig  along,  7)iy  heart  mdted  into  tiars^  more  than  all  the 
whilt  1  was  with  them,  and  1  was  almost  swallowed  up  with 
the  though'.s  that  ever  I  sho\ild  go  home  again.  About  the 
sun's  going  down,  Mr.  Hoar,  myself  and  the  two  Indians, 
came  to  Lancaster,  and  a  solemn  sight  it  was  to  me.  There 
had  IIi\cd  many  comfortable  years  among  my  relations 
and  neii{hbors  ;  and  now  not  one  christiaii  to  be  seen^  nor  one 
house  left  standing.  ^Ve  went  on  to  a  farm  house  that  was 
yet  standing,  where  we  lay  all  night  ;  and  a  comfortable 
lo  Iging  we  ha-l,  though  nothing  but  straw  to  lie  on."  The 
next  day  she  reached  Concord,  and  met  her  brother  and 
brother  in  law,  who  asked  her  if  she  knew  where  his  wife 
A\as?  "Poor  heart  !  he  had  helped  to  bury  her  and  knew 
it  not ;  she  being  shot  down  by  the  house,  was  partly  burnt, 
so  that  those  who  were  at  Boston,  at  the  desolation  of  the 
town,  and  came  back  afterwards  and  bnried  the  dead,  did 
rtot  ivnow  her."  Continuing  her  journey,  she  arrived  in 
Boston  the  same  evening :  there  she  met  her  husband  and 
received  from  her  friends  a  full  measure  of  real  substantial 
kindness,  and  christian  sympathy.  '-So  much  love  I  re- 
ceived from  several,  many  of  whom  1  knew  not,  that  I  am 
not  capable  to  declare  it.    But  the  Lord  knows  them  all  bj 

Mrs.  Rozolandson.  147 

aame  ;  the  Lord  reward  them  seven  fold  into  their  bosoms 
of  his  spirituals,  for  their  temporals."  Rev.  Thom..3  Shep- 
ard,  the  minister  of  Charlestown,  invited  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Rowlandson  to  his  house,  and  they  remained  there  hospita- 
bly treated  for  the  space  of  eleven  weeks.  Soon  after  her 
return,  the  Governor  and  Council  obtained  the  release  of 
her  sister  and  goodu-ife  Kettle. 

She  was  k-'pt  sometime  in  anxiety  about  her  children, 
Joseph  and  Mary,  of  whom  she  could  gain  no  sure  intrlli- 
gence.  They  were  left  with  the  Indians  at  the  time  of  her 
release,  and  she  had  reason  to  fear  that  they  were  still  ex- 
posed to  the  cruel  and  capricious  power  of  the  savage. 

"  We  were  hurried  up  and  down,  in  our  thoughts  some- 
times we  should  hear  a  report  that  they  were  gone  this  way, 
and  sometimes  that,  and  that  they  were  come  in,  in  this 
place  or  that."  At  last  she  determined  to  journey  eastward 
with  her  husband,  to  seek  for  her  chiidien.  "  As  we  were 
riding  along,  between  Ipswich  and  Rowley,  we  met  with 
Wilham  Hubbard,*  who  told  us  our  son  Joseph,  and  my 
sister's  son,  were  come  into  Major  Waldron's;"  the  former 
having  been  redeemed  by  the  inhabitants  of  Portsmouth 
and  the  neighborhood,  and  the  latter  by  the  C  .'uncil. 

While  at  Newbury,  she  heard  that  her  daughter  was  at 
Providence.  After  bringing  Joseph  from  Portsmouth,  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  R.  on  their  way  to  receive  Mary,  met  her  at  Dor- 

The  manner  of  her  escape  was  this ;  "  She  was  travelling 
one  day  with  the  Indians,  with  her  basket  at  her  back  ;  the 
company  of  Indians  were  got  before  her  and  gone  out  of 
sight,  except  one  squaw;  she  follow'ed  the  squaw  till  night, 
and  then  both  of  them  lay  down,  having  notliing  over  them 
but  the  heavens,  nor  under  them  but  the  earth.  Thus  they 
travelled  three  days  together,  havingnothing  to  eat,or  drink, 
but  water  and  green  whortleberries.  At  last  they  came  into 
Providence,  where  she  was  kit\dly  entertained  by  several  of 
that  town.  The  Indians  often  said,  that  I  should  never  have 
her  under  twenty  pounds,  but  now  the  Lord  hath  brought 
her  in  upon  free  cost,  and  given  her  to  me  the  second  time." 
The  family  being  thus  coilected,Mr.  and  Airs. .Rowlandson 
removed  from  Mr.  Shepard's  (*•'  those  cordial  friends")  to 
Boston,where  they  resided  about  nine  months,  in  a  house, 
owned  by  Mr.  James  Whitcomb,  "  a  friend  near  at  hand 
and  afar  off."  This  house  was  generously  hired  for  them 
by  the  members  of  the  South  Church.     "  I  thought  it  some- 

*Piol)ably  the  R^ev.  William  Hubbard,  author  of  the  Indian  Wars,  and  anHiste- 
ry  of  New-iSngland. 

148  Mrs,  Rowlandsm* 

what  strange  to  set  up  house-keeping  with  bare  walls,  l)Ut,as 
Solomon  sajs,  money  answers  all  things :  and  that  we  had 
through  the  benevolence  of  christian  friends,  some  in  this 
town  (Boston)  and  some  in  that,  and  others  ;  and  some  from 
England,  so  that  in  a  little  time  we  might  look  and  see  the 
house  furnished  with  love.  The  Lord  hath  been  exceeding 
good  to  us  in  our  low  state,  in  that  when  we  had  neither 
house  nor  home,  nor  other  necessaries,  the  Lord  so  moved 
the  hearts  of  these  and  those  towards  us,  we  wanted  neither 
food  nor  raiment  for  ourselves  or  ours.  There  is  a  friend  that 
sticketh  closer  than  a  brother ;  and  hov/  many  such  friends 
have  we  found,  and  now  live  amongst."  Here,  after  a  few 
reflections,on  the  sudden  and  agreeable  change  in  her  situa- 
tion, the  benefit  she  had  derived  from  affliction,  that  at  one 
time,  before  she  knew  "  what  it  meant,  she  had  been  almost 
ready  to  wish  for,"  the  narrative  of  removes  and  adventures 
is  brought  to  a  close. 

At  the  expiration  of  nine  months  or  soon  after,  the  family 
moved  to  Weathersfield,  in  Connecticut,  where  Mr.  Row- 
landson*  preached  some  time  ;  it  is  probable  he  died  there. 
At  any  rate,  he  died  before  Lancaster  was  re-built.  Upon 
the  whole,  Mrs.  Rowlandson  experienced  belter  treatment 
than  usually  fell  to  the  lot  of  the  captives.  In  addition  to 
mental  anguish,  she  doubtless  suffered  much  from  fatigue 
and  hunger,  but  not  much  more  than  her  masters.  They 
were  frequently  reduced  to  extreme  suffering  from  long  win- 
ter marches  ;  and,  as  we  have  already  seen,  a  few  ground- 
nuts, or  beans,  or  a  little  soup,  boiled  from  the  bones  of  a 
horse,  sometimes  for  days  together  constituted  their  whole 

For  the  most  part  while  they  had  food,  Mrs.  Rowland- 
son  was  allowed  to  partake  equally  with  the  rest.  The 
greatest  cause  of  dread  and  despondency  must  have  arisen 
from  their  extreme  fickleness,  in  the  treatmenfof  their  cap- 
tives. Mingled  kindness  and  cruelty,  are  strong  marks  of 
the  untutored  mind  ;  they  proceed,  not  from  fixed  princi- 
ples and  established  motives  of  action,  but  from  the  incon- 
siderate impulse  of  the  moment.  Hence  it  was,  that  Mrs. 
Rowlandson  could  not  so  conduct  hersclf'in  every  instance, 
as  to  insure  good  will,  nor  even  to  avoid  harsh  treatment. 

There  is  one  trait  in  the  Indian  character  that  is  truly  re- 
markable.    In  no  instance  within  our  recollection  did  they 

*Mr.  Rowlandson  began  to  preach  in  Lancaster  in  the  year  1654.  The  town  was 
incorporated  in  1653.  He  continued  to  supply  the  desk  till  14th  April,1658.  "  At 
which  time  they  invited  him  to  settle  in  the  work  of  the  ministry  among  them  ; 
ann  he  accepted  their  invitation,  and  probably  was  ordained  the  same  year."  Rev. 
JVr.Harrington's  century  sermon,  preached  May  28,1753. 

Miscellanies.  149 

offer  violence  to  the  person  of  ?.  female  captive.  "  I  have 
been,"  says  Mrs.  Rowlandson,  "in  the  midst  of  those  roaring 
lions,  and  savage  bears,  that  feared  neither  God  nor  man, 
nor  the  devil,  by  night  and  day,  alone  and  in  company  ; 
sleeping  all  sorts  together,  and  yet,  not  one  of  them  ever 
offered  the  least  abuse  ofunchastity  tome  in  word  or  action. 
Though  some  are  ready  to  say,  I  speak  it  for  my  own  cred- 
it ;  but  I  speak  it  in  the  presence  of  God  and  to  his  glory." 

The  "•  narrative"  we  have  noticed  is  not  written  in  a  very 
attractive  style,  neither  does  it  contain  so  much  that  is  ro- 
mantick  in  description,  as  the  narrative  of  Mrs.  Johnson  : 
but  such  as  it  is  we  offer  it  to  our  readers,  and  if  their  pa- 
tience have  carried  them  along  with  us,  it  must  be  their  re- 
ward not  to  be  troubled  with  any  further  remarks  of  our 


Rev.  Hugh  Adams. 

Our  readers  will  recollect  that  several  curious  papers  of 
this  eccentric  clergyman,  were  published  in  the  Collections 
for  the  last  year.  Through  the  kindness  of  our  friend  at 
Portsmouth,  we  are  enabled  to  present  some  others.  In  1725, 
Mr.  Adams,  having  with  considerable  labor  prepared  an  ex- 
position of  some  of  his  religious  sentiments,  &c.  presented 
the  MS.  to  the  Governor  and  Council  for  examination  and 
for  the  purpose  of  obtainmg  license  for  its  publication.  The 
manuscript  was  referred  to  the  ministers  of  the  province, 
who  reported  to  the  Governor,  as  follows : 

"Though  we  are  loth  to  expose  the  weakness  of  our  brother,  the  Rev.  Mr.  Hugh 
Adams,  yet  inasmuch  as  he  has  so  publickly  exposed  himself,  by  addressing  to  your 
Honour  and  the  General  Assembly,  a  manuscript  so  full  of  enthusiasm  and  impert- 
inence— In  obedience  to  your  desire,  we  have  considered  the  contents  of  the  said 
manuscript,  and  have  made  the  following  remarks  thereon. 

"1.  We  are  sorry  to  see  that  Mr.  Adams  has  therein  discovered  such  an  affecta- 
tion of  finding  out  new  and  strange  doctrines  in  Divinity. 

"2.  That  he  should  so  wretchedly  pervert  the  sacred  Scriptures  to  support  his 
odd,  extravagant  notions. 

"3.  That  has  so  little  modesty,  as  confidently  to  set  up  his  single  opinion  in  many 
instances,  in  opposition  to  the  judgment  of  all  the  famous  Divines  in  the  world. 

"3.  That  he  lays  so  great  a  stress  on  his  groundless  opinions,  as  to  make  funda- 
mental  articles  of  them,  reprobating  all  those  tiiat  dissent  from  him. 

"5  That  he  shows  so  much  vain  glory  in  mentioning  many  things  as  effects  of 
his  particular  faith,  and  such  an  unchristian,  uncharitable  spirit  in  complaining  to 
the  Almighty  against  some  very  worthy  persons  for  crossing  his  unreasonable  hu- 

"On  these  and  several  other  accounts  that  might  be  mentloned.we  judge  the  above 
said  manuscript  unworthy  of  the  least  countenance  from  the  Government." 

Whereupon  the  following  order  was  passed : 
"/w  Council,  Dec.  29, 1725. — Voted,  that  the  foregoing  re- 
port of  the  Reverend  Ministers  upon  the  manuscript  therein  mentioned,  be  accept- 

150  Miscellanies, 

ed  and  that  thf  Rer.  Genocmen  have  the  thanks  of  the  Government  for  the  same. 
Ordered,  that  the  said  manuscript  be  lodged  in  the  Secretary's  oj5ce,  and  that  the 
clerk  of  the  Council  be  and  is  hereby  (iii>  ctcd  i:ot  to  give  a  copy  of  the  said  man- 
uscript or  any  part  thereof,  directly  or  indirectly  to  any  person,  on  any  pretence 
whatsoever,  without  the  leave  or  consent  of  the  General  Assembly  for  the  same  '' 
Coocuiied  Jan.  1,  1726,  by  the  House  of  Representatives. 

The  letter  which  follows,  accompanied  Mr.  Adams'  Ap- 
peal ■'in  the  name  of  Christ  Jesus,  our  Lord  Emmanuel  from 
each  sentence  of  said  Inferior  Powers  of  Church  and  State," 
with  his  reasons  for  the  appeal. 

To  Mr,  Waldron,  Secretary  or  Clerk  of  the  Council^  ^-c. 
Ingeniously  AccompUshfd  and  Beloved  Advocate! 

Wishing  to  Your  Person,  Spouse,  and  Ofrsprinj:^,  Wisdom 
and  Grace,  Mercy  and  Peace  from  GOD  The  FATHER,  Jn 
Christ  Jesus  EMMANUEL,  with  the  Happy  Comforts  of 
H'S  ilOLY  SPIRIT  ;  Ev^nThe  True  Godliness  which  hath 
Thr^  Promise  (and  in  His  Due  Time  must  have  The  Perform- 
ap-?  of  the  Covenant  Blessings) /or  The  Life  that  now  is,a:^d 
Thai  :rh'ch  ?>  to  Come,  I.Tim,  iv.  8,  Tfiigh  Adani=,The  Chief 
of  Sino":i's  (that  ever  was  Called  by  Christ  unto  Repentance) 
Senditij,  Greeting. 

Since  Th,i  Love(oiThc  PERSON  and  Gospel  Truth)of Christ 
constrainfili  wf.  having  put  my  hand  to  His  Plough  not   to  dare 
tolook  back,\e?{.  I  be  unfit  for  The  Kingdom  oi  GOD.    As  HIS 
Amhassadour  i  must  declare  unlo  You,  That  as  You've  begun 
to  be  engaged  in   the  Service  of  Christ  The  ynfinitely  Great 
THEANTHROPOS    and    SUPDEME  KI^G  of    Glory,  by 
Your  introducing  To  our  New-Hamy)shire  Government  His 
Truth  as  a  Jewel  in  the  Cabinet  of  my  Theosophical  The- 
sis,*Whereof  HIS  Providence  hath  Appointed  You  His  Stew- 
ard Keeper  the  Eleven   months  past,  So  Now  HE   likewise 
Calls  You  To  Introduce  This  my  Enclosed  Appeal,  one  day 
before  the  Rising  of  The  General  Assembly  from  this  Their 
Autumn  Session.     And  for  Your  Honourable  Fees  which  in 
This  His  Business   You  Snd  unto  The  LORD,  if  He    does 
not  Pay  you  en  hundred  fold  nozo  in  this  world,&LC.  as  in  Mark 
X.  30  ;  Then  let  me  be  vilified  as  a  false  prophet  and  Enthu- 
siast indeed ;  Otherwise  if  You've  no  faith  therein  I  will  En- 
deavour to  Pay  Your  Bill  of  Cost.     I  shall  be  Glad  to  know 
•when  I  may   find   You  at  home   and  leisure.     If  You  was 
the  first  Dictator  of  that  Persecuting  term  viz.  Enthusiastical^ 
Aspersing  my  Said  Manuscript:  1  Beseech  You  in  Love  To 
Repent  of  Your  Rashness,  and  Kiss  The  SOJ^'lest  HE  be  An- 
gry,^?, in  Psal.  ii,  12,  i  Joh.  1.  9,  1  hope  You  did  it  ignorantly 
in  unbelief  and  m,ay  obtain  mercy,  as    in  1.  Tim.  i.  13  ;  And 
likewise    to     Peruse   and    Ponder  upon     my    Last  Cora- 

f  *The  title  of  Mr-  Adams'  manuscript.] 

Miscellanies,  151 

mencement  Thesis  here  Enclosed,  and  Believe  my  Testimo- 
ny therein  to  be  Ptcgarded  as  The  Truth  ot  Christ,  as  Sure 
as  HE  Gave  His  Sign  (on  That  6th  Day  of  July  last)  from 
the  Elementary  Heaven,  in  thr  Afternoon  thereof  In  An- 
swer to  my  Extraordinary  Prayer  with  Fasting  in  my  Study 
on  that  Day,  by  Sending  Such  an  Abundance  of  rain  as  in 
1  Sam.  xii.  17,18,  Pleaded  for  then  with  JEHOVAH  (as 
forewarned  of  in  my  Letter  D -ted  June  16,  To  iVir.  Samuel 
Kneeland  Printer  at  Boston  which  I  Suppose  he  can  Shew) 
That  all  cloathed  'on  that  Day  or  any  time  else)  with  Such 
Strange  Apparel  m\^\\.  perceive  and  See  that  their  Wickedness  is 
Great  in  the  Sight  of  the  LORD,  in  their  So  Dishonouring  Christ, 
1.  Cor.  xi.  3,  4,  15  ;  and  as  sure  as  a  Perriwigged  Pastor 
and  Deacon  Died  Soon  after  they  were  in  Your  Town  by 
their  Offended  Adversary  in  a  Devout  Ejaculation  suc- 
cessively Deliveri'd  to  Christ  The  Judge,  as  in  Mat.  v.  25 ; 
And  as  Sure  as  Captain  Lovewell  and  Lieutenant  Farwell 
were  Slain  in  Battle  about  6  weeks  after  1  Declared  and 
Proterted  in  my  Sermon  before  my  Congregation,  that  I  was 
Confident  that  our  LORD  Christ  The  Heavenly  Man  of 
War  and  God  of  Armies  would  Go  forth  and  fight  against 
them  for  their  Ungratefully  Dishonouring  HIM,  by  Procur- 
ing and  Wearing  Wiggs  Of  the  Hair  of  their  Enemy  Indian 
Scalps  ;  cum  multis  aliis  Instantiis  quas  nunc  prescribere, 
nimis  longum  est.  And  I  perceive  or  fear,  that  (Except  my 
Warning  So  Given  be  Speedily  taken  by  at  least  ten  righte- 
ous Reformers  in  our  Sodom)  our  LORD  Christ  will  Appear 
again  asinlsai.  Ixiii.  1,  2,  3,  more  Terribly  before  the  next 
Commencement  to  Unshenth  The  Sword  of  the  Wilderness, 
to  Scalp  many  more  of  the  Inhabitants  of  our  Land,  till  our 
Achans  the  Wigged  Ministers  of  our  Provinces  Shall  Re- 
pent of,  or  be  Discountenanced  in  the  Babylonish  Garments 
of  their  so  Antichristian  locust-like  head,  Rev.  ix.  8,  For 
which  Cause  I  Believe  I  am  about  to  be  Called  by  Christ 
my  Heavenly  Master  publickly  to  Challenge  them  if  they 
Dare  to  Meet  me  at  Some  most  Fit  Place  and  Time  within 
these  five  months,  to  Give  an  Answer  to  me,  who  must  Ask 
reason  of  the  hove  that  (they  pretend)  is  in  them,  tho'  they  so 
Sinfully  Dishonour  Our  HEAD. 

Therefore  Dear  Sir  according  to  Your  Promise  made  in 
the  Court  Room  to  me  about  two  years  ago,  I  Beseech  and 
Obtest  you.  Now  henceforward,  to  Leave  ofi'  Your  Wigg, 
That  Christ  may  Bless  you,  and  I  may  have  no  Occasion  to 
be  an  Adversary  to  You,  but  may  be  heard  in  Praying  for 
You,  For  I  would  be, — Your  Gratefull  and  Well  Wishing 
Friend  In  Chiist,  HUGH  ADAMS 

Dover,  November  24,  1726. 

152  Miscellanies, 

Marginal  Postscript. — You  may  Communicate  this  Epistle 
to  whom  You  please  ;  For  I  must  not  be  Ashamed  to  be  A 
Witness  for  my  So  Precious  and  Lovely  Friend  Christ  Jesus 
our  LORD.  And  if  This  my  Appeal  be  not  allow'd  ;  I 
must  Publish  the  Copy  Verbatim  reserved  ;  and  Send  It 
Home  with  my  Complaint,  to  Great  Brittain  and  The  Hea- 
venly Countrey. 


After  the  city  of  Charleston  had  fallen  into  the  hands  of 
Lord  Cornwallis,  his  lordship  issued  a  proclamation,  requir- 
ing of  the  inhabitants  of  the  colony,that  they  should  no  lon- 
ger take  part  in  the  contest,  but  continue  peaceably  at  their 
homes,  and  they  should  be  most  sacredly  protected  in  prop- 
erty and  person.  This  was  accompanied  with  an  instrument 
of  neutrality,  which  soon  obtained  the  signatures  of  many 
thousands  of  the  citizens  of  South  Carolina,  among  .whom 
was  Col.  Haynes,  who  now  conceived  that  he  was  entitled 
to  peace  and  security  for  his  family  and  fortune.  But  it  was 
not  long  before  Cornwallis  put  a  new  construction  on  the  in- 
strument of  neutrality,  denominating  it  a  bond  of  allegiance 
to  the  king,  and  called  upon  all  who  had  signed  it  to  take  up 
arms  against  the  Rebels ! ! !  threatening  to  treat  as  deserters, 
those  who  refused  !  This  fraudulent  proceeding  in  Lord 
Cornwallis  roused  the  indignation  of  every  honourable  and 
honest  man.  Col.  Haynes  now  being  compelled,in  violation 
of  the  most  solemn  compact,  to  take  up  arms,  resolved  that 
the  invaders  of  his  native  country  should  be  the  objects  of 
his  vengeance.  He  withdrew  from  the  British,  and  was  in- 
vested with  a  command  in  the  continental  service  ;  but  it  was 
soon  his  hard  fortune  to  be  captured  by  the  enemy  and  car- 
ried into  Charleston.  Lord  Rawdon,  the  commandant,  im- 
mediately ordered  him  to  be  loaded  with  irons,  and,  after  a 
sort  of  a  mock  trial,  he  was  sentenced  to  be  hung  !  This 
sentence  seized  all  classes  of  people  with  horror  and  dismay. 
A  petition,  headed  by  the  British  Gov.  Bull,  and  signed  by  a 
number  of  Royalists,  was  presented  in  his  behalf,  but  was 
totally  disregarded.  The  ladies  of  Charleston,  both  whigs 
and  tories,  now  united  in  a  petition  to  Lord  Rawdon,  couch- 
ed in  the  most  eloquent  and  moving  language,  praying  that 
the  valuable  life  of  Col,  Haynes  might  be  spared  ;  but  this 
also  was  treated  with  neglect.  It  was  next  proposed  that 
Col.Hayne's  children,(the  mother  had  recently  expired  with 
the  small  pox,)  should  in  their  mourning  habiliments,be  pre- 

Miscellanies,  1 53 

sented  to  plead  for  the  life  of  their  only  surviving  parent. 
Being  introduced  into  his  presence,  they  fell  on  their  knees, 
and  with  clasped  hands  and  weeping  eyes,  they  lisped  their 
father's  name  and  plead  most  earnestly  for  his  Ufe.     (Read 
er !  what  is  your  anticipation — do  you  imagine   that   Lord 
Rawdon,  pitying  their  motherless  condition,  tenderly  embra- 
ced these  afflicted  children  and  restored  them  to    the    fond 
embrace  of  their  father  ?  No  !  !  the  unfeeling  man  was    still 
inexorable — he  suffered  even  these   little   ones  to   plead  in 
vain  !)     His  son,  a  youth  of  thirteen,  was  permitted  to   stay 
with  his  father  in  prison,  who   beholding    his   only   parent 
loaded  with  irons  and  condemned  to  die,  was  overwhelmed 
in  grief  and  sorrow.  "  Why,"  said  he,  ''my  son,will  you  thus 
break  your  father's  heart  with  unavailing  sorrow  ?     Have  I 
not  often  told  you  that  we  came  into  this  world  but   to   pre- 
pare for  a  better  ?     For  that  better  life,  my  dear  boy,   your 
father  is  prepared.     Instead    then    of  Vt^eeping,   rejoice   with 
me,  my  son,  that  my  troubles  are  so  near  an  end.     To   ^'^'■- 
row,  I  set  out  for  immortality.     You  will  accompany  me  to 
the  place  of  my  execution  j   and,  when  I  am  dead,  take  and 
bury  me  by  the  side  of  your  mother."     The  youth  here  fell 
on  his  father's  neck   crying,   "Oh,  my  father !  my  lather  ! 
I  will  die  with  you  !  I    will   die   with  you  !"     Col.  Haynes 
would  have  returned  the   strong    embrace   of  his  son  ;    but 
alas  !  his  hands  were  confined  with  irons.     "Live,"  said  he, 
"my  son,live  to  honor  God  by  a  good  life,  live  to  serve  your 
country  ;  and  live  to  take  care  of  your   brother  and   little 
sisters  !"     The  next  morning,  Col.  Haynes  was  conducted  to 
the  place  of  execution.     His  son  accompanied  him.      Soon 
as  they  came  in  sight  of  the  gallows,  the  father  strengthened 
himself  and  said — ■"  now^my  son.,  show  yourself  a  man  !    That 
tree  is  the  boundary  of  my  life,  and  of  all  my  life''s  sorrows.  B&- 
yond  that  the  zvicked  cease  from  trouhlins^  and   the   zceary   are  at 
rest.     Don't  lay  too  much  to  heart  our  separation  from  you  :    it 
will  be  but  short.     It  was  bat  lately  your  dear  mother  died.       To- 
day, I  die,  and  you,  my  son,  though  but  young,  must  shortly  follovi 
us.''"'    "Yes,  my  father,  replied  the  broken  hearted  youth,  I 
shall  shortly  follow  you  ;  for  indeed  1  feel  that  I  cannot  live 

On  seeing  therefore  his  father  in  the  hands  of  the  execu- 
tioner, and  then  struggling  in  the  halter,  he  stood  like  one 
transfixed  and  motionless  with  horror.  Till  then  he  had 
wept  incessantly,  but  soon  as  he  saw  that  sight,  the  fountain 
of  his  tears  was  staunched,  and  he  never  wept  more.  He 
died  insane,  and  in  his  last  moments  often  called  on  the  name 
of  his  father  in  terms  that  brought  tears  from  the  hardest 


154  Miscellanies. 

Baron  de  Kalb. 

"  Among  the  enthusiastic  foreigners  who  generously  espous- 
ed our  cause, and,  at  an  early  period  of  the  revolution,  resort- 
ed to  the  American  army,  1  will  name  some  whose  meritorious 
services  entitle  them  to  the  grateful  recollection  of  the  pres- 
ent and  future  generations.  Baron  de  Kalb  was  by  birth  a 
German.  ^  He  had  attained  a  high  reputation  in  military 
service,  and  was  a  Knight  of  the  order  of  merit,  and  a  Brig- 
adier General  in  the  armies  of  France.  He  accompanied  the 
Marquis  de  la  Fayp  'o  this  country,  and  having  proffered 
his  services  to  oui  Congress,  he  was,  in  September,  1777,  ap- 
pointed to  thp  jfiice  of  Major-General.  In  the  summer  of 
1780,  he  w  rs  second  iv  command  in  our  southern  army,  un- 
der Majoi'vjeneral  Gates.  When  cfrrangements  were  mak- 
ing f')r  the  batrle  at  Camden,  which  proved  so  disastrous  to 
oui  arms,  in  August,  1780,  this  heroic  officer,  it  was  said, 
vjouti'.med  Gen.  Gates  against  a  general  action  under  present 
^ircvin"' -lances.  But  that  unfortunate  commander  was  heard 
ti-'  say,  that  "Lord  Cornwallis  would  not  dare  to  look  him  in 
the  face."  And  in  the  evening  preceding  the  battle,  an  offi- 
cer, in  the  presence  of  Gen.  Gates,said,  "I  wonder  where  we 
shall  dine  to-morrow  ?"  "Dine,  sir,"  replied  the  confident 
general,  "why  at  Camden  to  be  sure,  I  would  not  give  a 
pinch  of  snuff,  sir,  to  be  insured  a  beef-steak  to-morrow  in 
Camdeuiand  Lord  Cornwallis  at  my  table."  Baron  de  Kalb 
was  decidedly  opposed  to  the  proceedings  of  Gen.  Gates,and 
frequently  foretold  the  ruin  that  would  ensue,  and  expressed 
a  presentiment  that  it  would  be  his  fate  to  fall  in  that  battle. 
In  a  council  of  war,  while  the  enemy  was  approaching,  the 
baron  advised  that  the  army  should  fall  back  and  take  a  good 
position,  and  wait  to  be  attacked  ;  but  this  was  rejected  by 
Gen.  Gates,  who  insinuated  that  it  originated  from  fear.  De 
Kalb  instantly  leaping  from  his  horse  placed  himself  at  the 
head  of  his  command  on  foot,  and  with  some  warmth  retort- 
ed, "well,  sir,  a  few  hours,  perhaps,  will  prove  who  are  the 
brave."  It  was  the  intention  of  Gen.  Gates  to  surprise  the 
enemy  in  their  encampment, while  at  the  same  time  Cornwal- 
lis had  commenced  his  march  to  surprise  his  antagonist.  The 
contending  armies  had  scarcely  engaged  in  the  conflict, 
when  our  militia  broke,  and  leaving  their  guns  and  bay- 
onets behind,  fled  with  the  greatest  precipitation.  Gen. 
Gates  immediately  applied  spurs  to  his  horse  and  pursued  as 
he  said  "to  bring  the  rascals  back,"  but  he  actually  continu- 
ed his  flight  till  he  reached  Charlotte,  80  miles  from  the  field 
of  battle."    (In  this  measure  at  the  moment  of  distress,  he 

Miscellanies.  154 

was  in  some  degree  justified,  as  his  object  was  if  possible  to 
rally  and  collect  the  militia  with  the  hope  of  making  a  stand.) 
*'The  Baron  de  Kalb,  at  the  head  of  a  few  hundred  of  coi.  i- 
nental  troops,  was  now  left  to  cope  with  the  whole  British  ar- 
my, and  he  sustained  the  dreadful  shock  for  more  than  an 
hour  ;  hundreds  of  the  bravest  men  had  fallen  around  this 
undaunted  hero,  he  himself  in  personal  conflict  was  seen  to 
parry  the  furious  blows  and  plunge  his  sword  into  many  op- 
posing breasts.  But  alas!  the  hero  is  overpowered,  having 
received  eleven  bayonet  wounds,  he  faints  and  falls  to  the 
ground.  Several  individuals  of  both  armies  were  killed, 
while  endeavouring  to  shield  his  body.  His  Aid  de  Camp 
Chevalier  de  Buysson  rushed  through  the  clashing  bayonets, 
and  stretching  his  arms  over  the  body  of  the  fallen  hero,  ex- 
claimed, "save  the  Baron  de  Kalb!  save  the  Baron  de  Kalb!" 
The  British  otlicers  interposed  and  prevented  his  immediate 
destruction,  but  he  survived  the  action  but  a  few  hours.  To 
a  British  officer,  who  kindly  condoled  with  him  in  his  misfor- 
tune, he  replied,  "I  thank  you  for  your  generous  sympathy, 
but  I  die  the  death  I  always  prayed  for  ;  the  death  of  a  sol- 
dier fighting  for  the  rights  of  man."  His  last  moments  were 
spent  in  dictating  a  letter  concerning  the  continental  troops 
which  supported  him  in  the  action,  after  the  militia  had  fled, 
of  whom  he  said  he  had  no  words,  that  could  sufficiently  ex- 
press his  love  and  his  admiration  of  their  valor." 

Gen.  Washington,  many  years  after, on  a  visit  to  Camden, 
inquired  for  the  grave  of  De  Kalb.  After  looking  on  it 
awhile,  with  a  countenance  marked  with  thought,  he  breath- 
ed a  deep  sigh,  and  exclaimed,  "so  there  lies  the  brave  De 
Kalb  ;  the  generous  stranger  wh@  came  from  a  distant  land 
to  fight  our  battles,  and  to  water  with  his  blood  the  tree  of 
our  liberty.  Would  to  God  he  had  lived  to  share  with  us  its 
fruits !"  His  exit  was  marked  with  unfading  glory,  and  his 
distinguished  merit  was  gratefully  acknowledged  by  congress, 
in  ordering  a  monument  to  be  erected  to  his  memory, 

M.    DE  Mauduit. 

The  Chevalier  Duplessis  Mauduit^  when  in  his  twentieth  year 
unsheathed  his  sword  in  the  cause  of  America,  and  first  dis- 
played his  romantic  gallantry  at  the  battle  of  Germantown. 
Perceiving  the  division  of  the  army,  to  which  he  was  attach- 
ed, severely  galled  by  a  heavy  and  destructive  fire  from 
Chew's  stone-house,  into  which  Col.  Musgrave  of  the  Brit- 
ish army  had  thrown  himself  and  regiment,  he  immediately 
brought  up  two  pieces  of  artillery  with  the  hope  of  dislodg- 

156  Miscellanies. 

ing  them,  but  seeing  that  from  the  small  size  of  the  guns,  no 
effect  was  produced,  he  proposed  to  Col.  Laurens  to  set  fire 
to  the  principal  door  of  entrance,  and  thus  obtain  access  to 
the  interior.  This  attempt  of  two  dauntless  spirits  was  un- 
successful. Laurens  being  wounded,  was  compelled  to  retire, 
Mauduit  attempted  to  gain  admission  through  a  window  on 
the  ground  floor,  which  he  had  forced  and  actually  saw  an 
officer,  who  resolutely  opposed  his  entrance,  killed  by  a 
musket  shot  evidently  intended  for  his  breast.  He  finally 
retired  slowly  without  the  slightest  injury.  In  the  defence 
of  our  fortress  at  Red  Bank,  this  chivalrous  youth  acted  a 
conspicuous  and  honorable  part.  A  powerful  detachment 
.  of  Hessians,  led  on  by  Col.  Donep,  in  full  confidence  of  their 
own  superiority,  were  so  certain  of  victory,  that  on  their 
approach  to  the  American  lines,  one  of  their  officers 
advancing  in  front  of  his  troops,  exclaimed,  "The  King  of 
England  orders  his  rebellious  subjects  to  lay  down  their 
arms ;  and  they  are  warned,  that  if  they  stand  the  battle,  no 
quarters  whatever  will  be  given."  It  was  immediately  an- 
swered— "agreed!  The  challenge  is  accepted!  There  shall 
be  no  quarter  granted  on  either  side!"  The  action  immedi- 
ately ensued,  and  the  defeat  of  the  Hessians  was  complete. 
Col.  Donop  their  commander  fell  mortally  wounded,  and  a 
large  proportion  of  his  detachment  were  slain.  But  notwith- 
standing the  threatening  denunciation  of  vengeance,  theA- 
merirans,  satisfied  with  their  victory,  instead  of  resentment, 
shewed  every  kind  attention  to  the  vanquished  enemy.  The 
unfortunate  Donop,  when  nearly  in  the  agonies  of  death, 
with  o;reat  expression  of  feeling,  said  to  M.  de  Mauduit,  "my 
titeirct.  r  is  short.  I  die  the  victim  of  my  ambition,  and  of  the 
av<j^ice  of  my  King  ;  but  dying  in  the  arras  of  honor  I  have 
no  regrets."  How  enchanting  is  the  word  Honor  ;  The  vir- 
tuops  patriot  who  dies  in  defence  of  the  precious  rights  of  man 
— the  vassal  who  obeys  the  mandates  of  a  tyrant,  and  the 
unp^-incipled  duellist  actuated  by  base  passion,  forgetting  the 
soo'hing  consolations  to  be  derived  from  pious  devotion,  all 
die  in  the  "arms  of  honor,  and  have  no  regrets !"  But  I  must 
notice  the  lamentable  and  untimely  fate  of  the  generous  Mau- 

Bring  in  the  French  service,  and  stationed  at  St.  Domin- 
go in  March,  1791.  during  ihe  dreadful  revolt  and  assassina- 
tion in  that  island,  his  friends,  alarmed  at  the  storm  ready  to 
burst  on  his  h^ad,  warned  him  of  his  danger,  and  emphatic- 
ally said — "your  regimenj;  and  the  other  troops  are  in  insur- 
rection— the  sailors  in  the  port,  and  every  miscreant  in  the 

■  Yankee  Doodle*  157 

place  have  sworn  your  destruction — believe  the  information 
we  give  you — quit  this  scene  of  hori-or — vou  cannot  other- 
wise escape  destruction!"  With  dignity  he  rpplied,  '-'I  know 
tiie  risk  that  I  run — the' danger  to  which  I  expose  niy^elf  ; 
but  honor  bids  me  remain  at  my  post.  Dtaih  is  iny  destiny, 
I  expect  it.  But,  there  stands  my  comm^tnder,  M.  ^ie  Blan- 
cheiaude,  if  he  bids  me  depart,  I  otey  ;  if  he  does  not,  I  die 
on  the  spot !''  He  then  added — "Remember,  my  frirnds, 
that  I  predict,  that  scoundrel  will  save  himseh',  leaving  me 
to  pay  the  forfeit."  Nor  was  he  mistaken,  the  general  fled 
leaving  the  brave  Mauduit  at  the  mercy  of  infuriate  assas- 
sins, to  whose  ferocity  he  became  an  immediate  victim.  It 
was  not  long,  however,  before  General  Blanchelaude  sailed 
for  France,  iDut  being  arrested  at  the  moment  of  his  arrival, 
perished  by  the  hands  of  the  execuiioner. 

"At  the  siege  of  York  the  young  Baron  de  Carendeffcz.  then 
about  the  age  of  fifteen, was  sent  inio  the  magazine  to  distribute, 
ammunition  for  the  use  of  the  French  artillery ,and,whilc  seat- 
ed on  a  barrel  of  powder,s?^\v  a  shell  from  the  enemy  fall  with- 
in two  feet  of  his  position.  Thesoldiers.expecting  immediate 
explosion,  ran  off  in  every  direction.  The  intrepid  youth 
remained  unmoved.  The  expected  catastrophe  hownver 
did  not  follow — the  mse  of  the  shell  was  in  its  flight  extin- 
guished. This  be/ing  perceived,  the  commanding  officer,  ad- 
dressing himself  to  the  youth,  who  still  retained  his  seat, 
said — "you  yo'.jng  rogue.vhy  did  you  not  fly  the  impending 
danger  ?  W'hy  not  embrace  a  cha''nce  for  life  ?"  "Because, 
captain,"  he  heroically  replied,  "my  duty  required  that  I 
should  a  distribution  of  ammunition,  and  not  desert 
my  post,] and  fly  like  a  poltroon  !" 



^'lESSRS.   Editors, 

I  have  recently  observed  a  laudable  ambition  growing  up 
in  this  State  to  examine  its  history,  and  to  search  after,  and 
^^'reasure  up,  those  anecdotal  scraps  of  other  times,  which 
are  rapidly  passing  into  oblivion.  These  literary  research- 
es, in  the  twilight  of  past  ages,  among  the  mouldering' ruins 
of  their  history,  discover  that  dawn  of  improvement  in  taste 
■md  science,  which  we  hope  erelong  may  burst  forth  in 
the  morning  of  our  literary  and  scientific  birth  as  a  nation. 
The  national  taste  is  apparently  in  the  ascending  node,  and 

358  Yankee  Doodle. 

we  confidently  anticipate  that  the  time  is  not  very  remote, 
when  we  shall  be  able  to  wipe  off  the  stain  which  I  fear  has 
been  too  justly  laid  upon  us  by  other  nations,  for  our  defi- 
ciency in  polite  literature  and  the  sciences. 

I  hold  it  to  be  the  duty  of  the  literati  of  a  nation,  indus- 
triously to  search  out  and  preserve  whatever  may  serve  to 
elucidate  its  history  or  character.  This  is  a  duty  they  owe 
to  themselves  and  to  posterity. 

The  music  of  every  nation  forms  a  particular  trait  in  its 
character  ;  and  1  believe  almost  every  nation,  whether  sav- 
age or  civilized,  has  one  or  more  peculiar  favorite  songs  and 
tunes  commemorative  of  some  remarkable  event,  or  which 
owe  their  origin  to  some  striking  incidents  in  the  national 
character  which  have  given  them  celebrity  and  perpetuity. 
Hence,  the  English  have  had  their  "God  save  the  King" — 
the  French,  their  "AiCaira"— and  the  Americans.their  ^'■Yan- 
kee DoodU:'  The  latter  is  said  to  have  had  its  origin  in  our 
revolution,  and  although  there  is  nothing  very  striking  or 
melodious  in  the  air,  yet  from  circumstances  well  known  to 
almost  every  Yankee,  it  has  ever  been,  and  still  is,  a  favour- 
ite tune.  The  story  runs,  that  the  song  entitled  Yanket 
Doodle  was  composed  by  a  British  officer  of  the  revolution, 
with  a  view  to  ridicule  the  Americans,  who,  by  the  English 
bloods  of  that  time,  by  r,'ay  of  derision,  we^e  styled  Yankees. 
It  must  be  confessed  that  the  author,  whoever  he  might 
be,  has  hit  ofl'  the  language  and  character  of  the  lower 
class  of  our  countrymen  successfully ;  but  the  tune  smce 
that  day  has  discoursed  melancholy  music  in  the  ears  of  En- 
glishmen more  than  once.  To  every  Yankee,  boy  and  man, 
who  can  whistle,humor  sing,  the  tune  is  sufficiently  familiar. 
But  the  burlesque  song,  I  believe,  is  passing  into  obli«vion.— - 
It  is  certainly  not  worth  preservation  on  account  of  an  v  vvit 
or  good  sense  which  it  possesses  ;  but  inasmuch  as  it  refers 
to  times  which  tried  men's  souls,  and  to  scenes  which  rfiust 
be  now  fresh  in  the  memory  of  every  American  who  was\^'^ 
actor,  it  may  possibly  amuse  some  of  your  readers  to  see\^ 
copy  of  the  song  as  it  was  printed  thirty-five  years  since,an4 
as  it  was  troll'd  inour  Yankee  circles  of  that  day.  Wha'- 
mutation'='  it  might  have  undergone  previous  to  that  time,  or 
whether  any  additions  or  alterations  have  been  made  since,- 
I  know  not ;  but  I  am,  however,  of  the  opinion,  that  it  has'^ 
had  as  many  commentators  and  collators  as  the  text  of, 
Shakspeare.  But  certain  it  is,  that  it  has  not  suffered  equal-, 
ly  from  the  hands  of  editors  and  critics  ;  for  it  was  next  to' 
impossible  to  make  it  worse.     The  writer  of  this  scrap  will. 

Yankee  Doodle. 


feel  under  obligation  to  any  officer  or  soldier  of  the  revolu- 
tion who  will  furnish  a  correct  account  of  the  origin  of  the 
words  and  tune,  and  if  possible  a  more  genuine  and  belter 



Father  and  I  went  down  to  camp, 
Along  with  Captain  Goodwin, 
Where  we  see  the  men  and  boy» 
-As  thick  as  HRSiy-puddin. 

2.  There  waa  captain  Washington 
Upon  a  slapping  stallion, 

A  giving  ordeis  to  his  men — 
I  guess  there  waa  a  million. 

3.  And  then  the  feathers  on  his  bat, 
They  look'd  so  larnalfina, 

I  wanted  pockily  to  get 
To  gi?e  to  my  Jemima. 

4.  And  there  they  had  a  swampin  gun 
As  large  as  log  of  maple, 

On  a  deuced  little  cart — 
A  load  for  father's  cattle  ; 

5.  And  every  time  they  fired  it  off, 
It  took  a  horn  of  powder  ; 

It  made  a  noise  like  father's  g|uD, 
Only  a  nation  louder. 

6.  I  went  as  near  to  it  myself 
As  Jaceb's  underpinning 

And  father  went  «s  near  again — 
I  thought  the  deuc&  was  in  bim. 

7.  And  there  I  see  a  little  keg, 

Its  heads  were  made  of  leathcr- 
They  knock'd  upon't  with  little  sticks 
To  call  the  folks  together. 

8.  And  there  they'd^e  away  Ukefun^ 
And  play  on  cornstock  fiddles. 

And  some  had  ribbands  red  as  blood, 
All  wound  aboutjlfi^r  middles. 

9.  The  troopers,  too,  would  gallop  up 
And  fire  right  in  our  faces  ; 

It  scar'd  me  almost  half  to  death 
To  see  them  run  such  races. 

10.  Old  uncle  Sam.  come  thereto  change 
Some  pail  cakes  and  some  onions, 

For  lasses-cakeSf  to  carry  home 
To  give  liia  wife  and  young  ones. 


160  Es.    •/  'nnatus. 

11.  BHtlcaa't  irii  yM>   •  '        see 
Tbcf  kept  Uf>  such  a  •-     '  -er  ; 
'  So  I  took  my  h"':  off— made  r.  bow, 

Aod  scamper''  b-ar-.d  to  n^  ither.  ^ 

[The  Editors  are  in  possess;  -"-pv  jf  Fanfece  iJoddie  which  con- 

tains several  verses  more  thtin  chu  .oreg^oivg.  We  will  add  theni,though 
we  are  not  certain  but  that  (ic  ?  ai'j  inierrolations,] 

After  verse  6. 

Cousin  Simon  jji;.  .  .-.   .v    ,; 

I  thought  he  would  have  N-ock'd  it,  " 

It  scar'd  me  so,  I  shrink'd  it  off. 
And  huog  by  father's  pocket. 

And  Captain  Davis  had  a  gun. 

He  kind  a  clapt  his  hand  on't, 
And  stu;;k  a  crooked  stabbing  iron 

Upon  the  liille  end  on't. 

And  thfire  I  see  a  pumpkin  shell, 

As  big-  as  mother's  bason, 
And  every  time  they  touch'd  it  off, 

TLey  scamper'd  like  thi  nation. 

After  verse  10. 

I  see  another  snarl  of  men 

A  'lip-.'^in^  graves,  they  told  me. 
So  larnat  t^og,  so  tamal  deep, 

They  tended  they  should  hold  me. 

It  scarM  me  so,  I  hook''d  it  off 

Nor  stopt  as  I  remember. 
Nor  turn'd  about  till  I  got  home, 

Lock'd  up  in  mother's  chamber. 





al  executive  officers  in  the  government  of  the  sc 
{  the  governors   and  counsellors  ;  and  of  these    the 
he  greatest  authority,  and  are  responsible  for  the  d\ 
utive   pow  '     Ci   th-ir    (■  spective  departments.     It 
/ernor  to  g  -'.      i  '.,.i  n  to  the  legislature  of  thi 

Sj^and  rec  ures  to  secure  and  promt 

;  to  appro)  e  of  all  bills  and  resoh 

i;  to  take  awsare    duly  executed 

nioisterial,  >i£cers  ;  and  to  decide 

reprieves    .  ' 

Essays  of  Cincinnatus.  101 

To  the  faithful  discharge  of  these  duties,  not  only  sound  judgment, 
prudence  and  knowledge  are  necessary,  but  strict  integrity,  and  a  mind 
devoted  to  the  pub'ic  inferest,  are  indispensable  requisites.  Talents 
without  integrity,  and  knowledge  without  love  of  cour,try,  cannot  rnake 
a  useful  chief  magistrate.  If  a  governor  does  not  perform  his  duty, 
•  whether  his  failure  proceeds  from  error  in  judgment,  negligence  and  in- 
atfentioo,  or  from  improper  motives,  it  is  the  duty  and  interest  of  the 
people  to  discard  him,  and  elect  another  to  office.  No  go^  ernor  has 
any  claim  to  a  re-election  but  (bat  which  arises  from  the  faithful  and 
prudent  performance  of  his  official  duties.  It  is  a  truth,  the  importance 
of  which  cannot  be  too  often  repeated,  that  officers  are  created  for  the 
use  and  benefit  of  the  people,  and  not  for  the  honor  and  emolument  of 
the  officer.  In  selecting  candidates  for  this  high  trust,  the  people  should 
be  influenced  by  public  conbiderations,  and  not  by  personal  friendship^ 
or  individual  interest.  If  every  elector  voted  only  for  the  man  wlioro 
he  believed  best  qualified,  we  should  have  good  governors ;  ard  such 
a  course  would  do  much  to  destroy  the  hopes  of  time-serving  selfish  pol- 
iticians,  who  consider  office  created  for  them,  and  not  for  the  people. 

To  preserve  in  the  minds  of  our  governors  a  due  sense  of  their  being 
accountable  to  the  people  for  their  official  conduct,  and  to  render  their 
continuance  in  office  dependant  on  public  opinion,  they  are  elected  for 
short  and  limited  periods  of  time.  In  ten  of  the  States  they  are  elected 
but  for  one  year,  in 'six  for  two,  in  four  for  three,  and  in  the  other  four 
States  for  four  years.  Their  election  is  either  by  the  people,  or  by 
representatives  chosen  by  the  people.  In  eighteen  of  the  Sfates,  the 
people  elect  their  governors,  and  in  six  the  legislatures  appoint  them. 

The  important  duties  which  devolve  upon  the  governor,  and  the  vari« 
ous  relations  in  which  he  is  connected  with  the  people  of  the  State  over 
which  he  presides,  require  a  more  particular  consideration.  He  is,  from 
the  very  nature  of  his  office,  bound  to  give  information  to  the  legislature 
of  the  state  and  condition  of  public  afiairs,and  to  recommend  such  meas- 
ures for  their  consideration,  as  in  his  judgment  the  public  interest  re- 
quires. The  constitutions  of  some  of  the  States  explicitly  enjoins  this  as 
a  duty  upon  the  governor,  and  in  other  States  long  established  usage 
has  confirmed  the  practice.  Thoigh  these  communications  are  useful., 
are  entitled  to  respectful  consideration,  and  usually  have  much  influ- 
ence, yet  they  are  not  obligatory  upon  the  legislature,  who  legislate  up 
on  their  own  responsibility. 

In  several  of  the  states,the  governor  has  a  qualified  negative  upon  the 
bills  and  resolves  which  the  legislature  pass.  In  New-Hampshire,  he  is 
bound  to  approve  or  disapprove  all  the  bills  and  resolves  within  five 
days  after  they  are  passed.  His  opinion  in  point  of  numbers,  is  equal 
to  that  of  one  sixth  of  all  the  members  of  each  house  ;  and  to  this  we 
must  add  the  weight  of  his  reasoning,  and  the  influence  of  his  office, 
•which  are  considerable.  This  grant  confers  great  authority  on  the  gov- 
ernor ;  but  if  he  exercises  it  properly,  it  is  as  salutary  as  it  is  powerful. 
He  may  detect  and  correct  many  cf  the  errors  which  the  heat  of  party 
and  passion  occasion,  and  to  which  all  numerous  assemblies  are  subject, 
and  render  the  laws  more  just  and  perfect.  Indeed,  the  character  of 
our  laws  very  much  depends  upon  the  character  and  conduct  of  our 
chief  magistrate.  But  if  the  principles  and  provisions  of  a  bill  arena- 
sound,  and  founded  in  mistake  and  error,  and  he  neglects  to  return  it  to 
»  the  legislature  with  his  objectioce,  or  approves  it  without  due  corsidera- 
tion,  he  is  responsible  for  much  of  the  evil  it  will  produce  in  society,- 
If  a  governor  is  either  resolved  to  approve  of  all  the  bills  and  resolves 
which  the  legislature  may  pass,  or  neglects  the  thorough  iDvestigatioPi 


162  Essays  of  Ctncinnatus, 

of  them,  or  has  not  fortitude  and  independence  to  return  snch  ns  appear 
to  him  improper  with  his  objections,  he  is  unworthy  of  that  trust.  The 
duties  of  a  goverrorvparlicularly  on  this  subject,  require  knowledge 
and  decision  of  character,  devotion  to  the  public  interest,  and  an  open, 
frank,  and  independent  course  of  proceeding.  And  his  most  effectual 
method  tfl  secure  the  confidence  and  esteem  of  the  public,  is  to  act  in 
such  a  manner  as  to  merit  it. 

In  several  n(  the  states  their  constitutions  explicitly  require  the  g:ov- 
ernor  to  take  care  thai  the  luws  are  duly  executed  ;  and  in  all  the  states  it 
is  his  duty  to  do  it.  It  is  a  duty  necessarily  connected  with  the  nature 
of  his  office.  And  as  I  have  formerly  observed,  on  another  occasion, 
the  utility  «>'  laws  depends  upon  their  execution  :  for,  without  that, 
they  are  dead  letter,  and  of  no  It  is  therefore  of  great  impor- 
lance  that  he  should  faithfully  and  dillig-ently  attend  to  this  subject ;  and 
if  there  are  obetfuctions  and  impediments  opposed  t<>  their  execution, 
which  he  has  not  authoritr  to  rf  move,  he  ought  to  state  the  facts  to  the 
legislature,  and  recommend  a  remtdy. 

The  important  t'-ust  of  appointing  officers  to  administer  the  govern- 
ment in  the  several  states  i!=  not  uniform,  but  various  In  seme  states 
the  people  elect  a  portion  of  the  judicial, ministerial,  and  militia  officers  ; 
in  other  states  their  legislature  appoint  many,  and  in  others,all  or  nearly 
al!  the  stale  officers,  fron  the  highest  to  the  lowest.  The  making  ap- 
pointments by  the  legislature,  is,  perhaps,  one  of  the  most  miproper 
modes  that  has  b*  en  adopted.  That  body  is  too  numerous,  and  from  itg 
numbers  too  irresponsible,  and  too  liable  to  be  influenced  by  the  artful 
and  designing,  to  m^ke  a  judicious  selection.  "I  lay  it  down,"  says  Ham- 
ilton, "  as  a  rule,  {h;»t  one  m^n  of  discernment  is  better  filled  to  analize 
and  estimate  the  peculiar  qualities  adapted  to  prirticulfir  offices,  than  a 
bo»U  of  men  of  equal,  or  perhaps  even  superior  discernin»nt." 

But  in  many  of  the  States  their  consti'utions  gives  great,  yet  neces- 
sary, authority  to  the  governor  in  making  appcintmeots.  In  New- 
Hampshire,  no  judge,  justice  of  the  peace,  sheriff,  catoner,  general,  or 
field  oflicer  in  the  militia,  can  be  appointed  witbjut  the  governor's  con- 
sent Yet,  in  making  these  appoinlment8,thtre  is  ?  council,  consisting^ 
of  five  rpcmbers,  associated  with  him,  and  without  the  advice  and  consent 
of  a  rnnjorrty  of  them,  he  cannot  appoint  either  of  those  t/ffirers.  It  is 
in  consequence  of  this  provision,  and  the  advice  they  are  bound  to  give 
on  a  few  other  subjects,  that  counsellors  are  considtred  as  executive  (ffi' 
cers  in  nur  government. 

fhe  questions  whether  an  executive  council  is  necessary  and  useful, 
the  modes  of  their  election,  and  the  duties  they  are  required  to  perform, 
are  s'lbjects  that  mei it  consideration,  and  ought  to  be  discussed  freely 
and  impartially.  1  shall  content  mysilf  with  staling  a  few  facts,  and 
expressinof  m  opinion  which  is  the  result  of  long  and  Ircquenl  inqiiiriea. 

According  to  the  last  editions  of  the  constitutions  of  the  several 
States,  which  I  have  seen,  there  are  nine  IStnteh  which  have  a  council, 
four  States  where  the  senate  act  as  such,  and  eleven  States  in  which 
there  is  no  executive  or  senatorial  council  whatever,  except  in  one  of 
♦hem,there  is  one  officer,  the  secretary  of  State,  in  whose  appointment 
ths  advice  and  consent  of  the  senate  is  necessary.  Ot  the  nine  States 
in  which  there  are  executive  coHncils,theie  are  seven  where  the  legisla- 
ture aopoint  the  counsellors,  and  but  two  in  which  the  people  elect 

From  these  statements  it  appears  that  near  two  thi/ds  of  all  the 
States  elect  no  counsellors,  and  that  one  si:  *h  of  thf  States  have  t-nns- 
ferred  the  duties  of  the  executive  cuuucil  to  their  seualee.    Thtse  iacl« 

Essays  of  Cincinnatus*  16  J 

shew  that  in  the  opinion  of  a  majority  of  the  S  ales,  a  council  composed 
of  men  appointed  for  that  *o/<';?«r^ose  is  not  neceisary.  The  p-(.priety 
of  this  opinion  receives  some  confirmation  from  the  fact,  that  there  is  as 
little  cause  of  complaint  a^^ainst  the  government  in  those  States  where 
there  is  no  council,  as  in  the  States  in  which  a  council  exists. 

But  before  1  proceed  to  express  my  own  or  the  opinions  of  others 
whether  an  executive  council  is  either  necessary  or  useful,  it  is  proper 
to  state  the  authority  which  the  New  Hampshire  governor  and  council 
have  io  making  nomioations  and  appointments.  The  right  of  making 
nomioatioas  is  not  vested  exclusively  in  either  the  governor  or  council : 
the  governor  has  authority  to  make  them,  and  so  have  the  council ;  but 
no  nomination  id  of  any  avail,  unless  the  governor  and  a  majority  of  the 
council  agree  to  it :  nor  can  any  appointment  be  made  witiiout  the  con- 
tent of  the  governor  and  three  of  the  council.  In  both  nominations 
and  appointments,  the  governor  and  council  have  a  mu'ual  negaiive  up- 
on e;ich  other.  The  governor  and  council  meet  together  in  the  coun- 
cil chamber,  and  there  make  both  the  nominations  i>nd  appointments. 
The  principal  objections  to  a  council  are,  that  they  conceal  the  fr^ults, 
divide  aid  destroy  the  responsibility  of  the  executive,  increase  favour- 
itism, bargaining,  and  corruption,  enfeeble  the  administration,  and  aug- 
ment the  expense  of  government. 

That  such  a  system  has  a  necessary  and  inevitable  tendency  to  produce 
these  evils,  cannot  be  denied,  by  its  ablest  advocates.  An  artful  cabal 
in  the  council  may  distract  and  enervate  the  whole  system  of  adminis- 
tration ;  and  if  no  such  cabal  exists,  the  mere  diversity  of  views  and 
opinions  may  be  suflScient 'to  render  the  executive  authority  feeble  and 
dilatory  in  its  proceedings.  But  what  is  equally  as  fat^l,  the  people 
themselves  hare  been,  and  may  again  be  divided  intT  two  great  politic- 
al parties,  and  the  governor  may  be  of  one  party  and  a  majority  of  the 
council  of  the  other;  in  thnt  state  of  things  the  spirit  of  party  will  have 
a  deleterious  influence.  The  merits  and  quaiifications  for  office  will  have 
much  less  weight  in  making  an  appointment,  than  the  mere  circum- 
stance o(  which  farty  the  candidate  is  a  member.  I  could  cite  numerous 
instances  of  this  kind  that  have  actually  occurred  ;  some  of  them  are  gen- 
erally known,  but  others  are  partially  concealed  from  the  public.  Facts 
are  stubborn  things.     I  will  relate  a  fevr. 

Oq  the  2l8t  day  of  May,  1810,  the  office  of  sheriff  in  one  of  the  counties 
became  vacant,  the  governor,  who  was  a  federalist,  nominated  a  federal- 
ist, but  a  majority  of  the  counsellors,  being  repubhcans,  refused  to  agree 
to  the  nomiaation  ;  and  no  sheriff  was  appointed  until  the  13th  of  June 
following — before  then,  a  republican  governor  and  republican  couccil 
came  into  office.  But  the  strongest  instance  that  the  council  rec-ids 
aff»rd,  of  the  viruleice  of  pirty  in  relation  to  appointments,  happened  m 
1815.  In  their  June  session  of  thit  year,  the  htiorney  general  resign- 
ed, and  the  public  interest  required  the  appouumenl  -r  a  successor.  la 
the  course  of  four  days  io  that  mouth  the  governor  nomin.>ted,  at  difier- 
€nt  times,  four  federal  gentlemen  for  that  office,  eurh  ot  whom  thr  re- 
publican counsellors  promptly  negniived;  and  within  t^esame  time  those 
three  counsellors  nominated  three  republicans  for  that  nfficc,  eacii  of 
whom  the  governor  as  readily  oegativpd.  Ol  the  seven  gentlem^-n  who 
,  were  nominated,  more  than  one  of  tliem  were  pe*  uii.-.rly  well  qualified 
for  the  office  ;  and  no  man  can  accouat  for  ti^eir  bf;i.>g  ocgal'ved,  but 
from  party  views  and  political  consideialioas,  which  iiave  no  necessary 
connexion  with  the  duties  of  an  attorney  grneral.  Duriug  the  same 
time  there  was  a  vacancy  in  -iae  of  th°  courts  >f  ciminjn  picaS,  and  tiio 
repubUcaa  couaseliois  aomiaated  a  republican  for  that  o£&ce  ;  but  the 

164        ,  Literary  Notices, 

governor  negatived  hitn.  The  two  vacant  oflScfiS,  of  attorney  g'enera! 
and  judffe,  weie  uot  considered  of  equal  importance,  and  of  course  no 
compromise  or  bargain  could  be  made  by  the  IWo  parties  of  which  the 
executive  were  composed.  But  six  months  after,  a  vacancy  happened 
in  the  office  of  judg-e  of  probate  in  one  of  the  counties,  and  when  the 
same  executive  met  in  December  of  that  year,  there  was  an  understand' 
ing  between  the  governor  and  council  :  the  goveruor  nominated  an  at- 
torney general,  and  the  republican  councillors  a  judge  of  probate,  and 
both  were  appointed  with  the  unanimous  consent  of  every  member  of 
the  executive  board.  Strange  as  these  things  appear,  they  are  facts, 
neither  distorted  or  colored,  they  are  spread  on  our  records,  and  attest, 
ed  by  the  signatures  of  all  the  members  of  the  executive  department- 

♦'  Every  mere  council  of  appointment,"  says  Hamilton,  "  however 
constituted,  Will  be  a  conclave,  in  which  cabal  and  intrigue  will  have 
fnll  scope.  Their  number,  without  an  unwarrantable  increase  of  ex- 
pense, cannot  be  large  enough  to  preclude  a  facility  of  combination. 
And  as  each  member  will  hare  his  friends  and  connexions  to  provide 
for.  the  desire  of  rautu  .1  gratification  will  beget  a  scandalous  bartering 
of  votes  and  bargaining  for  places.  The  private  attachments  of  one  man 
ini»ht  easily  be  satisfied,  but  to  satisfy  the  private  attachments  of  a  doz- 
en, or  twenty  naeo,  would  occasion  a  monopoly  of  all  the  piincipal  era- 
plovments  of  the  government  in  a  few  families,  and  would  lead  more  di- 
rectly to  an  aristocracy  or  an  oligarchy,  than  any  measure  that  could 
be  coiitrived.  Il,  to  avoid  an  accumulation  of  ofSces,  there  waii  to  be 
a  frequent  change  in  the  persons  who  were  to  compose  the  council,  this 
would  involve  the  mischiefs  of  a  mutable  administration  in  their  full  ex- 
tent. Such  a  council  would  be  liable  to  executive  iaflucnce — and  would 
not  act  immediately  under  the  public  insaection.  Such  a  council  would 
be  productive  of  an  increase  of  expense,  a  multiplication  of  the  evil* 
which  spring  from  favouritism,  and  intrigue  in  the  distribution  of  public 
bonors,  or  decrease  «f  stability  in  the  administration  of  the  government, 
and  diminution  of  the  security  against  an  undue  influence  of  the  ex- 
ecutive. ' 

The  further  conbideratioD  of  the  subject  will  be  resumed  in  the  next 


March  25,  1824. 

Polyglot  Grammar. — Proposals  have  been  issued,  by  Mr. 
Simuei  Br\rnarcl,  for  publishing  a  Polyglot  Grammar  of  the 
Hebrew,  Greok,  Latin,  English,  French,  Italian,  Spanish,  and 
German  laiigtiages:  with  copious  notes,  observations,  &c. 
Price  to  subscriiiers,  $3,  in  hoards.  Subscriptions  received 
by  Wilder  and  Campbell,  New-York. 

American  Annual  Register. — The  prospectus  of  a  new 
pe'-iodic^l  work,  to  be  called  the  American  Annual  Regis- 
ter ot  History  and  Politics,  has  been  issued  by  Messrs. 
Cumminrs,  Hilliard  &  Co.  of  this  city.  One  volume,  of 
about  900  pages,  is  to  be  published  each  year,  in  semi-annu- 
al numbers,  at  the  price  of  ^5,00.     Part  first  is  to  contain  a 

Literary  Notices,  165^ 

history  of  the  United  States  for  the  year ;  embracing  an  ac- 
count of  all  events  of  national  importance,  as  well  as  those 
relating  to  pdrticular  States — ^a  history  of  the  several  inde- 
pendent States  of  America,  South  of  the  United  States,  for 
the  year;  viz.  Mexico,  Colombia,  Buenos  Ayres,  Chili,  Pe- 
ru, and  Brazil — and  a  history  of  the  several  States  of  Eu- 
rope for  the  year. 

The  second  part  will  contain  notices  of  important  and 
curious  events,  not  forming  a  part  of  the  general  historical 
narrative.  The  appendix  will  be  occupied  with  important 
state  papers,  remarkable  trials  and  law  cases,  statistical  ta- 
bles, notices  of  inventions  and  discoveries,  &c.  It  is  un- 
derstood that  the  work  is  to  be  edited  by  Prof.  Everett,  of 
Cambridge. — Bost,  TeL 

Southern  Preacher, — A  volume  of  Sermons,  with  the 
above  title,  is  about  to  be  published  by  the  Rev.  Colin  Mc 
Iver,  of  Fayetteville,  N.  C.  selected  from  the  manuscripts  of 
ministers  of  approved  reputation,  residing  in  the  Southern 
States.  The  volume  to  contain  about  400  8vo  pages,  at 
$2,00  per  copy. — ib, 

A  biographical  sketch  of  Washington,  in  Latin,  with 
English  notes,  written  by  Francis  Glass  of  Dayton,  Ohio, 
will  soon  be  published.     Report  speaks  well  of  it. 

An  octavo  volume  has  been  recently  published  at  the 
South,  entitled,  "  T^e  Campaign  o/"  1781,  in  the  Carolinas  ; 
with  remarks  Historical  and  Critical  on  Johnson''s  life  of 

This  work  was  written  by  H.  Lee»  a  son  of  the  late  Gen. 
H.  Lee,  and  is  intended  to  vindicate  the  character  of  the 
father  from  the  reproaches  contained  in  Judge  Johnson's 
life  of  Gen.  Greene. 

It  is  not  easy  to  conceive  of  more  pointed  and  bitter  sar- 
casms, than  are  contained  in  this  Review  of  Judge  John- 
son's book.  As  the  sensibility  of  the  biographer  of  Greene 
was  so  much  excited  by  the  notice  taken  of  him  in  a  num- 
ber of  the  North  American  Review,  we  can  hardly  expect 
him  to  bear,  in  silence,-  the  load  of  obloquy  heaped  on  him 
by  Mr.  Lee.  And  should  he  venture  to  reply,  it  behoves 
him  to  be  prepared,  at  all  points,  to  meet  his  adversary,  who 
appears  to  be  a  very  porcupine  in  shooting  quills. — Sal.  Obs, 

History  of  New-York. — Messrs.  J.  V.  N.  Yates,  and  vTo- 
seph  W.  Moulton,  of  Albany,  propose  publishing  in  period- 

166  Literary   Notkts., 

ical  numbers,  a  complete  History  of  the  State  of  New- York, 
from  the  date  of  its  first  disc  overy  to  the  preseiU  time. 

"A  complete  history  of  the  State  of  New- York  is  demand- 
ed by  public  sentiment.     A  mere  breviary  of  its  earner  an- 
nals, is  extant,  (viz.  Smith's  history,)  but  nothing  ol  its  most 
important   periods   and   revolutions.     Such  a   history   is  a 
desideratum.'    As  such  it  iias  long  remained,  in  consequence 
of  the  signal,  if  not   insurmountable   difficulties,   which  the 
very  undertaking   has   hitherto  presented.      Although   the 
records  of  office    of  the  Secretary  of  State,  and  the  public 
libraries  are  rich  in  materials,  most  inviting,  aiopt  interesting 
and  instructive,   there  are  nevertheless,  periods  of  darkness 
in  our  history,  which  the  light  of  modern  experience  cannot 
illumine;  there  are  obscurities  which  can  be  removed  only 
by  the  most  laboured  research;  there  are  doubts  which  can 
alone  receive  illustration  from  documents  in  the  possession, 
or  authentic  traditions  in  the  recollection  of  persons  si)me  of 
whom  are  in  Holland  and   in  England.     Fur   instance,  the 
dark  period  of  thirty  years  between  the  first  discovery  by 
Henry  Hudson  in  1 608,  until  the  arrival  in  1 638  of  the  Dutch 
director  general,  Governor  Wouter  Van  Twiller.      There  is 
much  obscurity  in  the  events  of  1655  when  the  treaty  of 
limits,  between  the  New-England  States  and  the  then  Nevr 
Netherlands  was  adjusted.     The  revolutionary  period  (in 
Lieut.  Governor  Leisler's  time,)   from  1688  to  1691  is  one  of 
doubt  and  confusion.     And  that  between   1778  and  1783  is 
susceptible  of  great   illustration  from  the   reminiscences  of 
those  surviving  patriots  who  mmgled  with  the  master  spirits 
of  those   eventful  times.     The  origin,  progress  and  result  of 
the  controversy  between  the  now  state  of  Vermont  and  this 
state,  between  the  respective  times  when  the   cifizens  of  the 
former  claimed  and   received  territorial  emancipation   from 
the  latter,  also  requires  illustration." 

A  New  Novel,  entitled  "O'HALLORArf,  or  the  Insurgent 
Chief,  an  Irish  historical  Tale  of  1798,"  by  the  author  of 
"The  Wilderness,"  and  "The  Spectre  of  the  Forest,"  %ill 
be  published  about  the  beginning  of  May,  by  Messrs.  Ca- 
rey and  Lea. 

Fale.  of  Books. — "There  are  1000  books  published  per  an- 
num in  Groat-Britain,  on  600  of  which  there  is  a  ^  ommercial 
loss,  on  200  no  gain,  on  100  a  trifling  gain,  and  only  on  100 
any  considerable  profit — 700  are  forgotten  within  the  year, 
other  100  in  two  years,  other  150  in  three  years — not  more 
than  50  survive  seven  years,  ?-nd  scnrrply  lO  are  t^oui^ht  of 
after  20  years.    Of  the  50,000  books  published  in  the  Htk 

Literary  Notices.  167 

•cnturj,  not  50  are  now  in  estimation ;  and  of  the  80,000 
published  in  the  18th  century,  not  more  than  300  are  con- 
sidered worth  reprinting,  and  not  more  than  500  are  sought 
after  in  1823.  Since  the  first  writings,  1400  years  before 
Christ,  i.  e.  in  32  centuries,  only  about  600  works  of  writers 
of  all  nations  have  sustained  themselves  against  the  devour- 
ing influence  of  time." 

GEN.  hull's   memoirs. 

Gen.  William  Hull  has  commenced  a  series  of  numbers, 
published  in  the  Boston  Statesman,  entitled  "  Memoirs  of  the 
Cimpaign  of  the  North  Western  Army  in  1812."  His  ob- 
ject is  to  vindicate  his  character,  by  proving  from  public  doc- 
uments thait  the  misfortunes  of  that  campaign  ought  not  to 
be  imputed  to  hira,  and  that  the  reproach  which  has  been 
cast  upon  him  is  altogether  unjust.  Gen.  Hull  is  now  passed 
the  seventieth  year  of  his  age,  but  still  his  style  is  energetic 
and  lucid.  After  his  capitulation  in  Canada,  it  will  be  recol- 
lected, he  was  tried  by  a  Court  Martial,  and  condemned  to 
be  shot ;  but  was  subsequently  pardoned  by  the  President. 
He  now  comes  forward  and  asserts  his  innocence,  and  de- 
mands a  new  trial  at  the  bar  of  public  opinion.  Let  him  be 
heard,  and  if  he  shows  his  innocence,  acquit  him  of  the  im- 
putation of  crime,  and  honour  his  memory ;  but  if  the  stain 
which  has  hitherto  rested  upon  his  character  cannot  be  wip- 
ed away,  justice  will  of  course  vindicate  her  rights,  and 
the  criminal  must  bear  the  weight  of  his  guilt. — East.  Arg, 

Ledyard,  the  American  Traveller. 
"  We  understand  that  a  Geollem^n  in  this  country" — says  the  writer 
•f  an  article  in  the  last  North  American  Review — "is  collectiog' mate- 
rials for  a  hfe  of  Ledyard,  which  may  be  expected  at  no  distant  period 
to  come  before  the  public.  Of  the  man  who  rambled  in  his  boyhood 
amonar  the  Indians  on  our  frontiers  ;  who  was  the  first  to  descend  the 
Connecticut  River  in  a  canoe,  and  in  one  which  was  coDstructed  by 
his  own  hands,  and  managed  in  its  voyage  by  himself  alone  ;  who  stud- 
ied law  and  divioitv ;  who  enlisted  as  a  soldier  at  Gibraltar;  who 
went  round  the  world  with  Cook;  projected  the  first  trading-  voyage  to 
the  North  West  Coast ;  was  intimate  with  Robert  Morris  in  Phila- 
4elDhia,with  Paul  Joues  in  Paris,  with  Sir  Joseph  Banks  in  Lond  n, 
anH  Professor  Pnllas  in  Petersburgh,  who  was  the  frien».l  and  corrt-s- 
poiidenl  of  J-'^fferson  and  La  Fayette  ;  whu  was  one  season  in  Now  York, 
the  next  inSp^in  and  France,  the  nex*  in  Siberia  and  the  next  under 
the  pvnmidsof  Egypt  ;  who  was  the  first  to  open  the  field  of  Africaa 
diso'jvery,  o!  which,  during  tiie  last  thirty  six  years,  so  many  have  en- 
tered with  an  enthusiasm  an!  love  of  adventure,  which  nothing  couidl 
damp  hat  the  s^.crifioe  of  life  itself;  •'nd  who  in  his  own  languaare, 
♦trampled  half  the  globe  under  his  fi=et,' — of  such  a  m.-iO,  n'>  d^nbt 
manj  parUculais  may  be  related,  which  will  be  iuterestiug  to  bis  coui»' 

168  AntcdoUs, 

Irymen,  and  which,  at  the  same  time  they  illustr'ate  the  character, 
and  do  justice  t'-«  ^he  memory  of  a  remarkable  individual,  will  prove 
wh^t  vvon«^ers  may  be  wroug^hit  by  a  union  of  enterprise,  perseverance, 
and  resolution,  in  the  same  mind." 

The  gentleman  above  referred  to,  as  engaged  in  writing  the  life  of 
Ledyard,  is  the  Rev.  Mr.  Sparks,  whose  talents,  learning  and  energy 
of  character  are  well  known  to  the  pnblic.  Whatever  may  now  be 
learned  of  Ledyard,  he  will  certainly  collect ;  and  those  who  have  read 
his  life  of  ]Sewton,  and  his  sketches  of  Hoadley,  Abauzit,  and  others, 
in  his  valuable,  "  Theological  Tracts,"  will  expect  much  from  his  judg- 
ment and  taste  as  a  biographer. 

Increase  of  Law  Reports. — Previous  to  the  year  1804,  but  8  vols, 
of  indigenous  reported  cases  had  been  printed  in  America  ;  and  the 
lapse  of  only  one  fifth  of  a  century  has  added  to  the  number  one  hund- 
red and  ninety  volumes,  exclusive  of  many  valuible  rep»>rts  of  single 
cases.  Of  these,  eighty-nine  volumes  and  part  of  a  few  others  are  occu- 
pied with  the  decisions  of  the  State  Courts  of  Virginia,  Massachusetts, 
New-York  and  Pennsylvania. — JV'.  A.   Review. 

From  the  JV.   Y.  Statesman. 

f  They  priev'd  forHhose  whoprrish'd  in  the  cutter, 
♦'  And  also  for  the  biscuit,  cukes,  and  butttr." 

These  lines  from  Byron'b  Don  Juan,  placed,  as  they  are,  at  the  con- 
clusion of  one  of  the  most  pathetic  descriptions  of  human  suffering 
which  the  genius  of  man  ever  portrayed,  have  been  loudly  and  justly 
censured.  But  the  total -want  of  feeling  they  were  (to  give  a  charita- 
ble construction)  intended  to  hold  up  to  ridicule,  is  sometimes  exhibit- 
ed in  real  life.     An  anecdote  may  serve  as  an  illustration. 

Before  the  Connecticut  schooners  were  forbidden  the  liberty  of  car- 
rying cornbrooms,  onions  and  poultry  to  (he  West-Indies,  one  J.;e  Swaia 
resolved  to  go  to  sea  ;  and  accordingly  proceeded  to  New-London,  and 
shipped,  as  green  hand  on  board  the  Charming  JVancy,  for  Barhadoes 
and  a  market.  The  whole  of  the  family,  father,  mother,  brotheis  and 
sisters,  were  concerned  in  an  Edventure  of  fowls  committed  to  hig 
charge.  On  the  passage  home,  in  a  violent  gale  Joe  fell  overbMard,  and 
all  attempts  to  save  him  were  vain.  The  vessel  arrived  at  Ps.  L "ndon  : 
the  father  of  the  unfortunate  sailor  repaired  to  the  sea-shore  U>  meet 
his  son,  and  learn  the  result  of  the  family  speculation.  The  Charm,' 
ing  J^ancy  was  riding  at  anchor,  her  colours  streaming  mourrtuily 
from  balf  mast.  He  hailed  her  from  the  hearh—^''  HaUno,  thtre — is 
Ihatthe  Charming  J^ancy  ?"— 'Aye,  Aye,  Sir  !'  '*/«  thfre  onr  Joe  Swain 
aboard  then.  ?''  '  No  :  he's  drowned  !'  "  Drovmed  ?"  'Yes,  drowned,  I 
tell  you.'  "  Fowls  drowned  too  ?" 

At  a  tavern  a  Scotchman  and  Irishman  met  to  spend  the  night.  The 
house  being  full,they  were  compelled  to  sleep  together.  On  retiring  to 
bed,tbe  Irishman  requested  the  landlord  to  call  him  up  early  in  the  morn- 
ing The  Scotchman  being  bti Id-headed  was  h  butt  for  the  Irishman's 
ridicule.  Towards  morning,  the  Scotchman  got  up.  and  with  a  razor 
shaved  all  the  front  part  of  the  Irish  wag's  head,  and  set  off  on  his  jour- 
nf.y.  Soon  after  the  landlord  awakened  the  jTishman  :  who  on  going  to 
the  glass  cried  nut,  honne  you  have  waked  up  the  ScotcfitnaninHead  o/ine; 
ni  go  to  bed  again. " 

JUNE,   1824. 


Description  of  the  County  of  Merrimack,  in  the  State  of  JVew- 


Situation,  &c. — The  county  of  Merrimack  is  situated 
south  of  the  centre  of  the  State,  between  43  deg.  and  43 
dcg.  31  min.  north  latitude.  It  is  bounded  N.  E.  by  the 
county  of  Strafford  ;  S.  E.  by  the  county  of  Rockingham  ; 
S.  W.  by  the  county  of  Hillsborough,  and  N.  VV.  by  the 
counties  of  Cheshire  and  Grafton.  Its  greatest  length  is 
38  miles  ;  its  breadth,  at  the  broadest  part,  (from  the  S.  W. 
corner  of  Henniker  to  the  N.  E.  corner  of  Northfield)  is 
about  26  miles. — It  contains  an  area  of  505,000  acres.  The 
surface  is  uneven,  in  some  parts  rugged  and  mountainous  ; 
but  its  general  fertility,  is  perhaps  equal  to  that  of  either  of 
the  other  counties.  In  the  towns  of  Hopkinton,  Salisbury, 
C.interbury,Concord,  &c.  are  seen  many  extensive  and  well 
situated  farms,  in  the  finest  state  of  cultivation. 

Mountains  and  Rivers. — The  northerly  part  of  the 
county  is  rough  and  mountainous  ;  and  the  traveller,  while 
passing  over  the  great  roads  to  the  north,leaving  behind  him 
the  richly  cultivated  landscape,  and  plunging  into  the  woods 
and  defiles  among  the  mountains,  will  be  led  to  doubt  the 
natural  resources  of  the  soil,  and  to  inquire  why  men  should 
seek  to  dwell  in  such  bleak  situations.  But  were  he  to  turn 
to  the  right  or  left,  he  mi<ht  see  delightful  situation?,  and 
productive  farms,  and  cheerful  and  enterprising  neighbour- 
hoods, in  every  little  valley  about  the  mountains.  Kearsargt 
is  the  highest  mountain  in  this  county,  and  lies  between  the 
towns  of  Sutton  and  Salisbury  ;  its  summit  being  2461  feet 
above  the  level  of  the  sea.  It  is  composed  of  a  range  of 
hills  running  north  and  south  about  six  miles;  its  general 
aspect  is  rugged  and  craggy,  except  where  its  roughness  is 
shaded  by  the  woody  covering  that  darkens  its  sides. — 
The  north-east  and  south-west  parts  are  steep  and  precipit- 

170  Description  of  Merrimack  County, 

ous  ;  but  it  may  be  ascended  with  a  little  exertion,  from  the 
north-west  or  south-east  quarter.  Its  summit  was  formerly 
covered  with  evergreens  ;  but  it  has  been  stripped  of  these 
primitive  honors  by  the  combined  agency  of  fire  and  winds. 
It  now  presents  a  bald  rock  of  granite,  many  parts  of  which 
appear  to  be  in  a  state  of  disintegration.*  The  prospect 
from  the  summit  of  Kearsarge  is  highly  interesting,  and  well 
rewards  the  labor  of  the  patient  traveller.  The  Ragged 
Mounlaius,  so  called  from  their  appearance,  lie  N,  E.  of 
Kearsarge,  and  between  Andover  and  New-Chester,  the 
lines  of  those  tov/ns,  nnd  the  dividing  line  between  the  coun- 
ties of  Grafton  and  Merrimack  passing  over  their  summits. 
The  chain  extends  about  ten  miles  from  the  vicinity  of  Kear- 
sarge to  the  Pemigcwasset  river.  It  is  a  bleak  and  precipit- 
ous range,  and  nearly  2000  feet  high  in  its  north  points. — 
Bean's  Hill  in  Northfield,  Sunapee  mountain  in  Fishersfield, 
Catamount  in  Pittsfield,  and  the  Peak  in  Hooksett,  are  also 
noted  eminences.  A  part  of  Sunapee  lake  lies  in  Fishers- 
field ;  and  there  are  numerous  ponds  interspersed  through- 
out the  whole  territory.  The  Merrimack  river  meanders 
through  nearly  the  centre  of  the  county,  receiving  as  tribu- 
taries, the  Contoocook,  a  considerable  stream  from  the  west, 
and  the  Soucook  and  Suncook,  from  the  east.  Innumerable 
streams  of  water  spring  from  the  hills  and  mountains,  and 
watering  every  town  and  village,  furnish  also  numerous  su- 
perior sites  for  mills  aud  factories. 

History. — This  county  was  constituted  by  an  act  of  the 
Legislature  passed  July  1,  1823,  and  comprises  twenty-three 
towns — ten  formerly  belonging  to  Rockingham  county,  and 
thirteen  to  the  county  of  Hillsborough.  The  earliest  set- 
tlements made  within  its  limitsAvere  at  Concord  in  the  year 
1726.  At  that  period  the  whole  country  to  the  north  was 
a  howling  wilderness,  and  there  remained  the  remnants  of  a.'i 
tribe  of  Indians  who  were  once  noted  for  their  power,  and 
who  made  Penacook  their  principal  residence.  The  period 
at  which  each  town  was  settled,  &c.  is  given  in  the  sketches 
below — drawn  principally  from  the  Gazetteer  of  Kew-Hnrnp- 
sftire,  lately  published  by  Farmer  &  Moore,  and  to  which 
the  reader  is  referred  for  more  particular  accounts. 

Allenstown  derived  its  name  from  the  purchaser  of  Ma- 
son's claim,  and  was  first  settled  b}'  John  Wolcutt,  Andrew 
Smith,  Daniel  Evans  and  Robert  Buntin. 

*In  the  spring  of  1819,  a  mass  of  earth  and  stones  of  several  thousand  tons 
weight  was  detached  from  the  southern  declivitj'  of  tlie  mountain,  and  precipitated 
with  great  violence  into  tUe  valley  below,  sweeping  every  thing  before  it  for  the 
space  of  forty  rods. 

Description  of  Merrimack  County.  1 7  i 

Andover  was  granted  by  the  Masonian  proprietors  in  1 746, 
to  Edmund  Brown  and  59  others,  and  was  first  called  JVezu- 
Breton,  in  honor  of  the  captors  of  Cape  Breton  in  1745,  in 
which  several  of  the  grantees  were  engaged.  The  first  in-  - 
habitant  was  Joseph  Fellows,  who  moved  into  the  place  in 
1761.     The  town  was  incorporated  June  25,  1779. 

Bow  was  granted  by  the  government  of  N.  H.,  May  20, 
1727,  to  Jonathan  Wiggin,  Esq.  and  others,  and  was  origin- 
ally laid  out  9  miles  square,  comprehending  a  great  portion 
of  the  territory  now  constituting  Pembroke  and  Concord. 
The  first  settlement  commenced  in  1727,  by  some  of  the  pro- 
prietors, while  most  of  the  surrounding  country,  except 
Concord,  remained  uncultivated  several  years. 

BoscAWEN  was  granted  by  Massachusetts  in  1733,  to  91 
proprietors,  who  held  their  first  meeting,  May  2,  1733. 
The  original  name  was  Contoocook  ;  its  present  name  was 
given  in  honor  of  Edward  Boscawen,  an  English  admiral. 
This  name  it  received  when  the  town  was  incorporated  by 
N.  H.,  April  22,  1 760.  The  first  settlement  was  made  ear- 
ly in  the  season  of  1734,  by  Nathaniel  Danforth,  Andrew 
Bohonnon,  Moses  Burbank,  Stephen  Gerrish  and  Edward 
Emery. — See  Rev,  Mr.  Price's  History. 

Bradford  was  granted  by  the  Masonian  proprietors,  and 
was  first  settled  in  1771,  by  Doac.  William  Presbury,  and  his 
family.  Its  name  was  first  New-Bradford^  which  was  so 
called  from  Bradford,  Mass.,  several  of  the  early  inhabitants 
being  from  that  town.  It  was  incorporated  Sept.  27,  1787, 
and  is  mentioned  in  the  act  as  including  New-Bradford, 
Washington  Gore,  and  part  of  Washington. 

Canterbury  was  granted  by  New-Hampshire,  May  20, 
1727,  to  Richard  Waldron  and  others,  and  formerly  com- 
prehended Northfield  and  Loudon.  The  settlement  was 
made  soon  after  the  grant  was  obtained.  In  this  town  is  the 
Shakers'  Village. 

Chichester  was  granted  May  20,  1727,  to  Nathaniel 
Gookin  and  others  ;  but  the  settlement  did  not  commence 
until  1758,  when  Paul  Morrill  became  the  first  inhabitant. 

CONCORD,  the  seat  of  the  state  government,  and  the 
county  seat  of  justice,  was  granted  by  the  government  of 
Massachusetts,  January  17,  1725,  to  Benjamin  Stevens, 
Ebenezer  Eastman  and  others  belonging  to  the  county  of 
Essex.  The  settlement  commenced  in  1727,  by  Capt.  E. 
Eastman  and  his  family.  The  original  name  of  this  place 
was  PanukkogOY  Penacook.  Under  Massachusetts,  it  was 
incorporated,  in  1 733,  by  the  name  of  Rumford,  and  this 

172  Description  of  Merrimack  County, 

name  it  retained  till  it  was  incorporated  by  New-Hamp- 
shire, June  7,  1765.  It  then  took  the  name  of  Concord. 
For  further  particulars  of  the  history  of  this  town,  toi^ether 
with  notices  of  the  public  buildings,  &c.,  the  reader  is  refer- 
red to  J.  B.  Moore's  History  of  the  town  of  Concord. 

DuNBARTON  was  Originally  called  Starkstown.  It  was 
granted  in  1751,  by  the  Masonian  proprietors,  to  Archibald 
Stark,  Caleb  Page  and  others.  The  first  settlement  was 
made  about  1749,  by  Joseph  and  William  Putney,  James 
Rogers  and  Obadiah  Foster. 

Epsom  was  granted  by  New-Hampshire,  May  1 8,  1  727,  to 
Thccdore  Atkinson  and  others,  inhabitants  of  New-Castle, 
Rye,  and  Greenland.  The  settlement  commenced  a  short 
time  before  the  grant  was  made,  by  sever  il  families  from 
those  ^owns. — See  Rev.  Mr.  Curtis''  History  of  Epsom. 

FiSHERSFiKLD  derives  its  name  from  John.  Fisher,  who  af- 
ter the  grant  of  the  township  was  made  went  to  England. — 
Dr.  Belknap  says  the  town  was  originally  known  by  the 
name  of  Dantzick.  It  was  incorporated  November  27, 

Henniker,  was  Number  6,  of  several  townships  granted 
by  Massachusetts.  The  grantees  under  the  Masonian  pro- 
prietors were  James  Wallace,  Robert  Wallace  and  others  of 
Londonderry.  The  settlement  commenced  in  1761,  by 
James  Peters.  A  large  proportion  of  the  first  inhabitants 
were  from  Marlboroujrh,  Massachusetts.  It  was  incorpo- 
rated, November  10,  17G8. 

HooKSETT  is  a  new  town  taken  from  Chester,  Dunbarton 
and  Goilstown.  It  was  incorporated  in  June,  1822.  The 
name  is  derived  from  the  falls  in  Merrimack  river,  near 
which  is  situated,  the  principal  village,  for  several  years 
known  hy  the  name  of  Hooksett. 

HoPKiNTON,  originally  Number  5,  and  afterwards  Ncw- 
Hopkinton^  was  granted  by  Massachusetts,  January  16, 
1736,  to  John  Jones,  and  others,  of  Hopkinfon,  in  that  then 
province.  The  first  settlement  was  made  about  1740.  It 
was  incorporated  by  N.  H.,  January  11,  1765. 

LoupoN,  deriving  its  name  from  the  Earl  of  Loudon,  a 
Scotch  peer,  was  settled  in  1760,  by  Abraham  and  Jethro 
Batchelder,  and  Moses  Ordway.  It  was  incorporated 
January  28,1773. 

New-London  was  settled  by  Nathaniel  Merrill  and  James 
Lamb,  a  short  time  before  the  year  1776.  It  was  incorpo- 
rated June  25,  1779  :  its  former  name  was  Dantzick,  or,  ac- 
cording to  Dr.  Belknap,  Heidleburg. 

Description  of  Merrimack  County,  173 

NoRTHFiELD,  Originally  part  of  Canterbury,  was  settled  in 
1760,  by  Benjamin  Blanchard.  The  town  was  incorporated 
June  19,  1780. 

Pembroke,  originally  Suncook,  and  afterwards,  Lovewells- 
town,  was  granted  by  irlassachusetts  to  the  brave  men  who 
belonged  to  the  company  of  Capt.  Lovewell,and  to  the  heirs 
of  those  who  fell  in  the  memorable  engagement  of  Pe- 
quawkett.  The  first  settlement  was  made  in  1  729,  by  some 
of  the  survivors  of  that  engagement.  The  town  was  incor- 
porated Nov.  1,  1759. 

PiTTSFiELD  was  incorporated  March  27,  17  87,  having  been 
settled  many  years  previous,  by  John  Cram  and  others. 

Salisbury  was  originally  granted  by  Massachusetts,  and 
was  known  by  the  name  of  Bakers-town.  It  was  afterwards 
granted  by  theMasonian  proprietors,  October  25,  1749,  and 
then  called  Stevens-town^  from  Col.  Ebenezer  Stevens,  of 
Kingston.  The  number  of  grantees  was  57,  of  whom  54 
belonged  to  Kingston.  It  was  incorporated  by  charter  from 
the  government  of  N.  H.,  March  1,  1768,  when  it  received 
its  present  name.  Its  settlement  was  made  as  early  as  1750, 
by  Philip  Call,  Nathaniel  Meloon,  Benjamin  Pettengill, 
John  and  Ebenezer  Webster,  Andrew  Bohonnon,  Edward 
Eastman,  and  several  others,  principally  from  Kingston. 

Sutton,  originally  called  Perrys-toxvn,  was  granted  by  the 
Masonian  proprietors  in  1749,  to  Obadiah  Perry  and  others, 
from  Haverhill,  Newbury  and  Bradford,  Mass.,  and  Kings- 
ton, N.  H.  The  first  settlement  was  made  by  David  Peas- 
lee,  in  1767. 

Warner  was  granted  in  1735,  by  the  general  court  of 
Massachusetts,  to  Deac.  Thomas  Stevens  and  62  others,  in- 
habitants of  Amesbury  and  Salisbury  in  that  state.  It  was 
first  called  Number  1,  and  afterwards  Kew-Ameshury.  It 
was  subsequently  granted  by  the  Masonian  proprietors,  and 
was  called  Jennis-town.  It  was  incorporated  Sept.  3,  1774, 
by  the  name  of  Warner,  contrary  to  the  petition  of  the 
proprietors  who  desired  the  name  to  be  Amesbury.  The 
first  settlement  was  made  in  1762,  by  David  Annis  and  his 
son-in-law,  Reuben  Kimball,  whose  son  Daniel  was  the  first 
child  born  in  town. 

WiLMOT  is  among  the  latest  towns  incorporated  by  the 
general  court,  having  been  constituted  a  township,  June  18, 
1 807.  The  greater  part  of  its  territory  was  included  in  a  grant 
made  in  1775, by  the  Masonian  proprietors  to  Jonas  Minot, 
Matthew  Thornton  and  others.    The  name  is  derived  from 

J  7  4  Printing  "in  Xew-Hampshire, 

Dr.  Wilmot,  an  Englishman,  who,  at  one  period,  was  suppo- 
sed to  be  author  of  the  celebrated  letters  of  Junius. 

[0::?=  In  page  255,  Collections  for  1823,  will  be  found  a 
statistical  table,  presenting  the  number  of  churches,  schools, 
manufactories,  &c.  together  with  the  population  of  the  sev- 
eral towns  in  1820.  For  particular  notices  of  the  history, 
curiosities,  &c.  ot  each  town,  the  reader  is  referred  to  the 
N.  H.  Gazetteer.] 

Historical  J^otices  of  Newspapers  pvblished  in  the  State  ofJ^ew- 
The  first  newspapers  prijjted  in  this  country  made  their 
appearance  in  1704.*     The  "  Bo5/on  JVews-Lei/er"  was  the 
first  publication  of  the  kind,  and  was  commenced   April  24, 
1704,  by  John  Campbell,  a  Scotchman,  who  was  a  booksel- 
ler and  postmaster  in  Boston.    On  the  2lst  December,!  719, 
the  second  American  newspaper,  the  '■'•Boston  Gazette,''''^  was 
published  in  Boston  ;  and  on  the  following  day,   the  22d,  a 
third  made  its  appearance  in    Philadelphia.      In   1725,   the 
first  paper  was  printed  in  New-York,  and  after  this  time,  ga- 
zettes were  multiplied  in  different  parts  of  the  colonies.     In 
1754,  four  newspapers  only  were  printed  in  New-England — 
and  these  all  published  in  Boston.      They   were   published 
weekly,  usually  on  a  small   sheet,  the   average   number   of 
copies  not  exceeding  600  from  each  press.     No  paper    had 
then  been  issued  in   Connecticut  or  New-Hampshire.      At 
the  beginning  of  1 775,  there  were  five  newspapers  published 
in  Boston,  one  at  Salem  and  one  at  Newburyport.      There 
was  one  paper  published  at  this  time  in   Portsmouth,  and   it 
was  the  only  one  in  New-Hampshire.     In  the  other  colonies, 
there  were  then  printed  twenty-nine  newspapers,   making 
thirty  seven  published  in  all  the  American  colonies.      Since 
the  revolution,  printing   establishments  have  been  greatly 
multiplied  in  all  our  cities,  and   every  town  and  village  of 
any  considerable  importance  has  one  or  more  printing  hous- 
es.    A  comparison  of  the  number  of  papers  published  in  the 
United  States,  at  different  periods,  will  best  exhibit  the  rapid 
increase  of  printing,  since  the  revolution. 

*  The  first  printing;  press  in  North  America  vvas  erected  at  Cambridge  in  1638, 
more  than  40  years  before  printing  commenced  in  any  other  part  of  the  country. 

tOur  word  Gazettte  is  derived  from  the  name  of  a  Venetian  coin,  called  Gaxetttl 
—that  being  the  price  of  th&first  newspaper  published  in  Venice. 

Printing  in  Ntta-Hampshirt.  517 


published  in  the 

United  States. 

In  1775, 






;  Maine 

',[  Mass. 



















New- York 












































































District  of  Columbia 




37  369  602 

"  In  no  respect,"  says  the  learned  Dr.  Miller,  "  and  cer- 
tainly in  no  other  cntei'prizes  of  a  literary  kind,  have  the 
United  States  made  such  rapid  progress  as  in  the  establish- 
ment of  political  journals."  The  character  and  form  of 
these  publications  have  also  materially  changed  during 
the  last  century.  From  mere  vehicles  of  intelligence,  and 
public  diaries,  they  have  become  political  engines  of  im- 
mense power,  closely  connected  with  the  peace  and  pros- 
perity of  the  state.  "  They  have  become  vehicles  of  dis- 
cussion, in  which  the  principles  of  government,  the  interests 
of  nations,  the  spirit  and  tendency  of  public  measures,  and 
the  public  and  private  characters  of  individuals  are  all 
arraigned,  tried  and  decided."  They  are  the  channels  of 
intelligence  to  every  class  of  society,  and  have  greatly  in- 
creased the  general  knowledge,  and  extended  the  taste  for 
reading  and  free  discussion.  In  every  view,  the  un- 
precedented increase  of  public  prints,  forms  a  subject  of  va- 
rious speculation.  If  well  conducted,  "  they  have  a  tenden- 
cy to  disseminate  useful  information ;  to  keep  the  public 
mind  awake  and  active  ;  to  confirm  and  extend  the  love  of 
freedom;  to  correct  the  mistakes  of  the  ignorant,  and  the 
impositions  of  the  crafty  ;  to  tear  off  the  mask  from  corrupt 
and  designing  politicians  ;  and,  finally,  to  promote  union  of 
spirit  and  of  action  among  the  most  distant  members  of  an 

176  Printing  in  Kew-Hampshire, 

extended  community.  But  to  pursue  a  path  calculated  to 
produce  these  effects,  the  conductors  of  public  prints  ought 
to  be  men  of  talents,  learning,  and  virtue.  Under  the  guid- 
ance of  such  characters,  every  Gazette  would  be  a 
source  of  moral  and  political  instruction,  and,  of  course,  a 
public  blessing. 

"On  the  other  hand,  when  an  instrument  so  potent  is  com- 
mitted to  the  weak,  the  ignorant,  and  the  vicious,  the  most 
baneful  consequences  must  be  anticipated.  When  men  of 
small  talents,  of  little  information,  and  of  less  virtue,  under- 
take to  be  (as  the  editors  of  public  gazettes,  however  con- 
temptible their  character,  may  in  a  degree  be  considered) 
the  directors  of  public  opinion,  what  must  be  the  result  ? 
We  may  expect  to  see  the  frivolities  of  weakness,  the  errors 
and  malignity  of  prejudice,  the  misrepresentations  of  party 
zeal,  the  most  corrupt  doctrines  in  politics  and  morals,  the 
lacerations  of  private  characters,  and  the  polluting  language 
of  obscenity  and  impiety,  daily  issuing  from  the  press,  pois- 
oning ihe  principles,  and  disturbing  the  repose  of  society  ; 
giving  to  the  natural  and  salutary  collisions  of  parties  the 
most  brutal  violence  and  ferocity  ;  and,  at  length,  consuming 
the  best  feelings  and  noblest  charities  of  life,  in  the  flame 
of  civil  discord."* 

No  printing  press  was  erected  in  New-Hampshire  until 
1756.  In  August  of  that  year,  Daniel  Fowle,  of  Boston, 
established  himself  at  Portsmouth,  and  commenced  the  pub- 
lication of  a  journal,  entitled, 

THE  Numb.  1. 

Friday,  August,  1756. 

•«T  TT  1  •  I     Crow  and 

New-Hampshire         the  fox, 


Containing  the  Freshest  Advices,  \  I       Foreign  and  Dortrestitk. 

It  was  first  printed  from  a  long-primer  type,  on  half  a  sheet 
foolscap,  in  quarto  ;  but  was  soon  enlarged  to  half  a  sheet 
crown  folio ;  and  it  sometimes  appeared  on  a  whole  sheet 
crown.  Imprint — "Portsmouth,  in  New-Hampshire,  Printed 
by  Daniel  Fowle,  where  this  Paper  may  be  had  at  one  Dol- 
lar per  Annum  ;  or  Equivalent  in  Bills  of  Credit,  computing 
a  Dollar  this  year  at  Four  Pounds  Old  Tenor." 

Fowle  had  several  type-metal  cuts,  which  had  been  en- 
graved and  used  for  an  abridgment  of  Croxall's  Esop ;  and, 
as  he  thought  that  there  should  be  something  ornamental  in 
the  title  of  the  Gazette,  and  not  finding  an   artist  to  engrave 

^Miller's  Retrospect,  toI.  ii.  p.  25S. 

Printing  in  New-Hampshire. 


any  thing  appropriate,  he  introduccfl  one  of  these  cuts,  de 
signed  for  the  fable  of  the  crow  and  the  fox.  This  cut  was 
in  a  short  time  broken  by  some  accident,  and  he  supplied 
its  place  by  one  engraved  for  the  fable  of  Jupiter  and  the 
peacock.  This  was  used  until  worn  down,  when  another 
cut  from  th  e  fables  was  substituted;  eventually,  the  loyal 
arms,  badly  engraved,  appeared  ;  and,  at  the  same  time, 
"  Historical  Chronicle"  was  added  to  the  title.  Afterwards, 
a  cut  of  the  Kind's  arms,  decently  executed,  took  the  place 
of  the  other.  The  paper  for  January  10.  1772,  has  the  fol- 
lowing head. 

THE  Vol.  XVII. 





King's  Arms. 

C  H  R  O  N  i  C  L  E. 

Containing  the  Freshest  ADVICES 


Friday,  Jan.  10,  1772. 

I    Weeks  since  this  ^ 

No.  794  {  P^Pr^vrr  *^"'  ^ 

i  Pnbhsh'd.              I 

In  September  1764,  Robert  Fowle  became  the  partner  of 
Daniel,  in  the  publication  of  the  Gazette,  and  in  1773,  they 
separated.  In  1775,  there  was  a  little  irregularity  in  the 
publication  of  this  paper,  occasioned  by  the  war ;  but  D. 
Fowle  in  a  short  time  continued  it  as  usual.  The  Gazette 
was  not  remarkable  for  its  political  features  ;  but  its  general 
complexion  was  favorable  to  the  cause  of  the  country.  From 
the  records  of  the  General  Assembly  in  1776,  we  find  that 
Fowle  was  brought  into  some  difficulty  in  consequence  of 
some  communication  published  in  the  Gazette,  as  will  ap- 
pear from  the  following  : 

"  Upon  reading  an  ignominious,  scurrilous  and  scandalous 
piece  printed  in  the  N.  H.  Gazette  and  Historical  Chronicle, 
No.  1001,  of  Tuesday,  Jan.  9,  1776,  directed  or  addressed 
to  the  Congress  at  Exeter — Voted,  that  Daniel  Fowle,  Esq. 
the  supposed  printer  of  said  piece,  be  forthwith  sent  for  and 
ordered  to  appear  before  this  house,  and  give  an  account  of 
the  author  of  said  piece,  and  further  to  answer  for  his 
printing  said  piece,  so  much  derogatory  to  the  honor  of  this 
AssemlDly  as  well  as  of  the  Honorable  Continental  Con- 
gress, and  injurious  to  the  cause  of  liberty  now  contending 
for.  Sent  up  by  Capt.  Wait." 

178  Printing  in  Ntw-Hampsliin, 

Daniel  Fowle  was  born  in  Charlestown,  and  served  his 
apprenticeship  with  Samuel  Kneeland,  who  commenced 
ihQ'-'-  New-EnglandJournal^^'^  \n  1727,  and  published  it  at 
Beston  about  fifteen  years.  Fowle  began  printing  at  Bos- 
ton in  1740.  In  1742,  he  formed  a  connexion  in  business 
with  Gamaliel  Rogers,  and  John,  a  brother  of  Fowle,  was  al- 
so a  partner  in  the  firm.  This  connexion  continued  about 
eight  years.  In  1750,Daniel  Fowle  opened  a  new  printing- 
house,  and  kept  also  a  small  collection  of  books  lor  sale. — 
He  here  printed  numerous  works,  chiefly  pamphlets,  &c. 
mostly  for  his  own  sales. 

In  October,  1 734,  Fowle,  while  at  dinner,  was  arrested,  by 
virtue  of  an  order  of  the  house  of  representatives,  signed 
by  Thomas  Hubbard,  their  speaker,  and  taken  before  that 
house,  on  suspicion  of  having  printed  a  pam.phlet,  which 
reflected  upon  some  of  the  members.  It  was  eniitled,  "  The 
Monsttr  of  Monsters. — By  Tom  Thumb,  Esq."*  After  an 
hour's  confinement  in  the  lobby,  he  was  brought  before  the 
house.  The  speaker,  holding  a  copy  of  the  pamphlet  in 
his  hand,asked  him"Do3'^ou  know  any  thing  of  the  printing 
of  this  Book?"  Fowle  requested  to  see  it;  and  it  was  given 
him.  After  examination,  he  said  it  was  not  of  his  printing; 
and  that  he  had  not  such  types  in  his  printing  house.  The 
speaker  then  asked,  "  Do  you  know  any  thing  relating  to 
the  said  Book  ?"  Fowle  requested  the  decision  of  the  house, 
whether  he  was  bound  to  answer  the  question.  No  vote 
was  taken,  but  a  few  members  answered,  "  Yes !"  He  then 
observed,  that  he  had  "  bought  some  copies,  and  had  sold 
them  at  his  shop." 

After  a  close  examination,  Fowle  was  again  confined  for 
several  hours  in  the  lobby  ;  and  fi'om  thence,  about  ten 
o'clock  at  night,  was,  by  order  of  the  house,  taken  to  the 
"common  gaol,"  and  there  closely  confined  among  thieves 
and  murderers."!  He  was  denied  the  sight  of  his  wife,  al- 
though she,  with- tears,  petitioned  to  sec  him;  no  frietid 
was  permitted  to  speak  to  him ;  and  he  was  debarred  the 
use  of  pen,   ink  and  paper. 

*It  was  the  custom  of  tliatday  to  hawk  about  the  streets  every  new  publication. 
Select  hawkers  were  engaged  to  sell  this  work ;  and  were  directed  what  answers  to 
give  10  enquirers  into  its  origin — who  printed  it,  &c.  The  grneral  court  was  at  the 
time  in  session.  The  hawkers  appeared  on  t'lie  Exchange  with  the  pamphlet,  bawl- 
'm%  o\i\.,  "  The  Monster  of  MonsUrs  !"  Curiosity  was  roused,  and  the  bock  sold. 
Tlie  purchasers  inquirer!  of  the  hawkers,  where  the  Mons-ter  came  from  ? — all  the 
reply  was,  "/<  Jro/ipedyVo»n  the  moon  ! ''^  Several  members  of  the  general  court 
bought  the  pampiilet.     Its  contents  soon  excited  the  attention  of  the  house. 

+  Fowle  was  confined  in  the  same  room  with  a  thief  and  a  notorieus  cheat ;  and, 
in  the  nest  cell,  was  one  Wyer,  then  under  sentence  of  death  for  murder,  and  was 
soon  after  executtJ,     [Vid.  Fowle's  Total  Eclipse  of  Liberty.] 

Printing  in  New-Hampshirt,  179 

Royall  Tyler,  Esq.  was  arrested,  and  carried  before  the 
house.  When  interrogated,  he  claimed  the  right  of  silence 
— ''■  J^emo  tenelur  seipsum  accusaj-e"  was  the  only  answer  he 
made.  He  was  committed  for  contempt ;  but  was  soon  re- 
leased, on  a  promise  that  he  would  be  forth  coming  when 

The  house  ordered  their  messenger  to  take  Fowle's  broth- 
er Zechariah  into  custody,  with  some  others  ;  but  his  physi- 
cian gave  a  certificate  of  his  indisposition,  and  by  this  mean 
he  escaped  imprisonment. 

After  two  days  close  confinement,  D.  Fowle  was  taken 
to  the  keeper's  house,  and  told,  that,  "  He  might  go ;"  but 
he  refused;  observing,  that  as  he  was  confined  at  midnight 
uncondemned  by  the  law,  he  desired  that  the  authority 
which  confined,  should  liberate  him,  and  not  thrust  him  out 
privily.  He  remained  with  the  gaoler  three  days  longer  ; 
when  learning  from  a  respectable  physician,  that  his  wife  was 
seriously  indisposed — that  her  life  was  endangered  by  her 
anxiety  on  account  of  his  confinement — and  his  friends  join- 
ing their  persuasion  to  this  call  on  his  tenderness,  Fowle  was 
induced  to  ask  for  his  liberation.  He  was  accordingly  dis- 
missed; and  here  the  prosecution  ended.  He  endeavored 
to  obtain  some  satisfaction  for  the  deprivation  of  his  liberty, 
but  he  did  not  succeed  in  the  attempt. 

Disgusted  with  the  government  of  Massachusetts,  and 
having  received  an  invitation  from  several  respectable  gen- 
tlemen in  Portsmouth  to  remove  to  ihat  town,  he  accepted 
the  invitation. 

On  the  25th  May,  1776,  Benjamin  Dearborn,   to  whom 
Fowle  (aught  printing,  became  the  publisher  of  the  Gazette 
and  altered  the  title  to  the  following  : 

O     R 

New-Hampshire  Gazette. 

■'    '  '  '  -  '  ■-*'■■ 

[  Vol.  T.  ]         SATURDAY,  May  25,  1776.        [  iNo.  1.  ] 

Imprint.—"  PORTSMOUTH:  Printed  by  B  E  N- 
JAMIN  DEARBORN,  near  the  Parade,  where 
this  Paper  may  be  had  at  Eight  Shillings,  L.  M."  Dearborn 
continued  the  paper  a  few  years,  after  which  it  was  again 

180  Memoir  of  Jabez  Kimball ,  Esq. 

published  by  Fowle,*  who  made  several  alterations  in  the 
title.  In  1785,  Fowle  relinquished  ittoMelcher  &  Osborne, 
who  published  it  for  a  number  of  years.  In  January,  1788, 
it  has  the  following  title,  "  The  New-Hampshire  Gazette, 
and  the  General  Advertiser,"  with  the  Arms  of  the  State  in 
the  head  in  a  coarse  and  clumsy  engraving.  This  title  con- 
tinued without  variation  till  1793.  In  January,  1789,  the 
Arms  were  omitted.  From  this  period  to  1798,  and  prob- 
ably to  a  later  period,  it  was  published  by  John  Melcher. 
The  following  is  the  head  used  January  2,  1796. 


Published  by  JOHN  WELCHER.  Printer  io  the  State  of  JVew-Hampshire,  at  his 
Office,  corner  of  IV'arket  Street,  Portsmouth. 

Fol.  XL.-J\rumb.  2040.]    SATURDAY,  January  2, 1796.  9/.  pr.  Annum. 

This  paper  is,  at  the  present  time,  published  on  every 
Tuesday,  by  Gideon  Beck,  with  the  original  title.  We  have 
been  more  particular  in  noticing  the  New-Hampshire  Ga- 
zette, as  it  was  the  first  newspaper  printed  in  New-Hamp- 
shire, and  is  the  oldest  printed  in  New-England  ;  and  only 
two  of  those  which  preceded  it  are  now  published  in  the 
United  States. 

[7*0  be  continued.'^ 


[In  the  February  Numbei  of  our  Collections  for  the  present  year,  p.  53,  Jabez 
Kimball,  Esq.  was  mentioned  hm»n%  the  Attorneys  in  the  county  of  Cheshire. — 
We  have  lately  nii  t  with  a  Biogra|«hical  Memoirf  of  him  written  by  the  Rev. 
Professor  Popkin.of  Cambridge,  which  we  now  present  to  our  readers.] 

Jabez  Kimball  was  born  in  Hampstead,  N.  H.  Jan.  1772, 
of  respectable  parents.  He  was  an  object  of  tender  affec- 
tion ;  his  youth  was  afflicted  with  sickness  ;  and  he  was  late 
in  commencing  his  classical  studies.  But,  from  the  time  that 
he  gave  himself  to  literary  pursuits,  he  was  esteemed  equal- 
ly for  his  abilities  and  his  disposition.  Between  him  and  the 
excellent  clergyman,  who  prepared  him  for  college,  the 
Kev.  Mr.  Merrill  of  Haverhill,  existed  a  parental  and   filial 

*  The  first  number  we  have  seen  published  by  Fowle  after  this  alteration,  is 
dated  June  16,  1778.  From  this  time,  to  Sept.  15,  1778,  the  paper  is  not  number- 
ed. From  the  last  period,  a  new  series  of  numbering  commenced,  and  the  payer 
of  that  date  is  Vul.  I.  No.  30. 

f  Tills  Memoir  is  annexed  to  a  Sermon  delivered  at  Haverhill,  22d  March,  1805, 
at  the  funeral  of  Mr.  K. 

Memoir  of  Jahez  Kimball,  Esq.  181 

attachment.  He  had  a  peculiar  felicity  in  conciliating  the 
esteem  and  favor  of  all  who  knew  him,  and  who  knew  how 
to  value  genius  and  worth. 

He  was  admitted  a  student  of  Harvard  University  in  1793, 
where  he  distinguished  himself  by  his  knowledge  and  acute- 
ness,  especially  in  the  science  of  the  mind,  of  reason,  of 
morals,  of  history,  and  of  the  laws  of  nature  and  nations. 
Superior  to  weak  compliance,  consulting  his  own  judgment, 
he  united,  in  a  high  degree,  the  esteem  of  his  fellow  students 
■with  the  approbation  of  his  instructors.  His  placid  temper, 
his  natural  urbanity,  his  facetious,  instructive  conversation, 
his  frankness,  candor,  and  disinterested  kindness,  engaged 
the  one  ;  while  his  upright  conduct  and  respectful  deport- 
ment secured  the  other. 

He  received  his  first  degree  in  1797,  and  applied  himself 
to  the  study  of  the  law  under  the  Hon.  John  Prentice  of 
Londonderry.  To  this  gentleman  and  his  family, with  whom 
he  lived  in  unreserved  intercourse,  his  whole  conduct,  pro- 
fessional and  domestick,  afforded  the  highest  and  uninter- 
rupted satisfaction  ;  and  their  ardent  friendship  followed 
him  through  life  and  death.  Here  the  writer,  who  had  been 
a  tutor,  while  he  was  a.  student,  became  more  particularly 
acquainted  with  him,  residing  sometime  in  the  same  family, 
during  his  engagements  with  a  congregation  in  that  place. 
In  this  agreeable  residence,  he  enjoyed  that  continual  flow 
of  a  benevolent  heart  and  rich  understanding,  and  that  hap- 
py facult}'-  of  drawing  forth  the  powers  and  affections  of 
others,  for  which  Mr.  Kimball  was  remarkable.  He  there- 
fore can  speak  from  knowledge  and  feeling,  and  is  assured 
that  the  people  of  that  vicinity  would  add  their  cordial  tes- 

In  July,  1800,  having  completed  the  usual  term  of  legal 
studies,  he  was  appointed  a  Tutor  of  the  University  at 
Cambridge,  for  the  department  of  Natural  Philosophy,  Ge- 
ography, Astronomy,  and  the  elements  of  the  Mathematics. 
The  duties  of  this  office  he  discharged  with  ability,  upright- 
ness and  punctuality.  Without  assuming  a  dispensing  pow- 
er over  the  College  laws,  or  substituting  novel  notions  in 
their  stead,  he  executed  them,  in  what  he  conceived  to  be 
their  true  spirit,  with  inflexible  firmness  and  fidelity. 

He  resigned  his  office  in  the  University,  in  July,  1801, 
and,  after  remaining  a  few  months  in  business  with  his 
friend,  Mr.  Prentice,  settled  in  the  practice  of  the  law,  at 
Chesterfield,  in  New-Hampshire. 

182  Memoir  of  Jabez  Kimball,  Esq, 

He  now  manifested  talents  no  less  adapted  to  active,  than 
to  studious  life.  His  quick  and  deep  penetration,  added  to 
the  vigor,  activity,  and  comprehension  of  his  mind,  qualifi- 
ed him  alike  for  study  and  for  action  ;  and  formed  at  once 
the  solid  scholar  and  successful  man  of  business.  His  hab- 
its of  laborious  research  and  investigation,  united  with  un- 
shaken integrity  and  faithfulness,  made  him  an  able  and 
honest  advocate,  and  secured  to  him  ext(n«-ive  and  profita- 
ble practice  in  his  profession.  His  superior  knowledge  of 
mankind  and  of  civil  society,  connected  with  sound  princi- 
ples and  active  zeal  for  the  promotion  of  institutions  of 
learning,  religion  and  charity,  rendered  him  a  true  patriot, 
a  useful  and  beloved  citizen. 

His  prospects,  at  this  time,  were  flattering  to  his  fondest 
hopes.  With  generous  ardour  he  looked  forward  to  the 
honours  and  emoluments  of  a  liberal  profession,  to  the  un- 
interrupted delights  of  friendship,  to  all  the  tender,  refined 
joys  of  domestic  life. 

"  Oh  fallacem  hominum  spem  fragilemquefortunam  I" 

Soon  was  this  bright  prospect  darkened,  and  these  cherish- 
ed hopes  succeeded  by  heart-rending  aflfliction.  His  affec- 
tions were  bound  by  the  tenderest  ties,  which  involved  all 
his  views  of  happiness.  These  ties  were  broken — Lover 
and  friend  was  put  far  from  him — and  his  hopes  of  happi- 
ness fled  beyond  the  giave.  His  own  health  soon  declined : 
sorrow  and  sickness  became  his  companions.  He  now  desir- 
ed life  only  that  he  might  be  useful.  Never  lor  a  moment 
did  he  lose  the  ardor  of  his  benevolence,  or  his  zeal  in  pro- 
moting the  happiness  of  his  friends. 

More  fully  to  enjoy  the  society  and  attentions  of  his 
friends,  now  became  necessary  to  his  health,  and  to  avoid 
the  pressure  of  business  at  Chesterfield,  he  removed  to  Ha- 
verhill, in  1803,  still  continuing  the  practice  of  his  profes- 
sion. Here,  during  the  few  remaining  days  of  his  life,  he 
conducted  business  in  almost  constant  sickness  and  distress, 
with  resolution  and  fortitude,  and  acquired  a  large  portion 
of  public  esteem.  High,  however,  as  he  stood  in  general 
estimation,  his  intimate  friends  alone  knew  his  full  worth  ; 
and  during  this  interesting  part  of  his  life,  were  alone  ac- 
quainted with  the  real  situation  of  his  mind,  with  its  sufi^er- 
ings,  its  consolations,  and  its  hopes.  There  was,  indeed,  a 
delicacy,  a  sacredness  in  his  sentim.ents  and  feelings,  with 
which  a  stronger  did  not  intermeddle.  Even  to  his  most  in- 
timate friends,  he  had  n  degree  of  reserve  in  rcnvcrsnticn  : 
it  was  in  his  letters  only  that  he  freely  unbosomed  himself. 

First  Class  at  Harvard  College,  1642.  183 

A  tender  melancholy  pervaded  and  softened  his  mind,  while 
an  ardent  and  firm  hope  sustained  it,  and  enabled  him  to 
perform,  with  cheerfulness,  his  social  and  professional  du- 
ties. In  a  letter  to  a  confidential  friend,  about  a  year  be- 
fore his  death,  speaking  of  a  "  dear  departed  friend,"  he 
thus  expressed  himself:  "I  assure  you  I  feel  an  indescriba- 
ble melancholy  pleasure,  in  submitting  to  the  dispensa- 
tions of  Providence;  hoping  hereafter  to  enjoy  the  pre- 
sence of  that  person,  when  this  corruptible  shall  put  on  incor- 
ruption.  This  is  my  hope;  this  my  trust;  this  my  conso- 
lation. This  momentary  suspension  of  our  intercourse  has 
not,  and  I  trust  never  will  for  a  moment  suspend  my  affection, 
or  cause  the  object  of  it  to  change.  I  know  that  the  affections, 
without  an  object  on  which  to  rest,  after  wandering  over  a 
wide  range,  return  like  Noah"'s  dove,  which  found  no  rest  for 
the  sole  of  her  foot.  But  such  is  not  my  case.  I  have  a 
little  object  dependent  on  me,  as  dear  to  me  as  my  precious 

This  "  little  object,"  which  animated  all  his  exertions, 
and  now  inlierits  the  fruit  of  them,  bears  the  name,  and  was 
a  favorite  neice  of  the  inestimable  friend,  whose  memory 
was  so  dear  to  him. 

In  a  subsequent  letter,  expressing  his  belief  that  genuine 
affection  and  friendship  survive  the  present  life,  he  said  : 
"  Did  I  expect  that  death  would  efface  all  recollection  of 
near  and  dear  friends,  I  should  be  without  consolation  ;  I 
should  be  of  all  men  most  miserable.  What  is  life,  but  a 
preparation  for  a  future  world?  What  is  death,  but  quitting 
the  impurities  of  the  flesh,  and  becoming  pure  spirit?  No: 
pure,  genuine  affection  can  never  meet  with  dissolution." 

This  submission  to  the  dispensations  of  Providence,  and 
this  unshaken  confidence  in  a  future  state  of  happiness,  sus- 
tained his  spirits,  in  perfect  composure,  under  all  his  severe 
sufferings,  and  in  the  awful  moments  of  dissolution  ! 

Mr.  Kimball  departed  this  life,  March  19,  1805,  at  the 
age  of  53  years. 

First  Class  of  Graduates  at  Harvard  College,  1642. 
Benjamtn  Woodbridge  was  brother  to  Rev.  John  Wood- 
bridge  of  Andover,  Mass.,  and  was  born  in  England,  in 
1622.  After  he  completed  his  education  in  this  country,  he 
returned  to  England,  and  succeeded  Dr.  Twiss  at  Newbury, 
where  he  gained  a  high  reputation  as  a  scholar,  a  preacher, 
a  casuist,  and  a  Christian.     After  he  was  ejected  in  1662,hc 

184  First  Class  at  Hanard  College,  1642. 

continued  to  preach  privatelj.  He  died  at  Inglefield  in 
Berk's,  November  1,  1684,aged  62,  and  was  buried  at  New- 
bury. He  received  the  degree  of  Doctor  in  Divinity  from 
the  University  of  Oxford. 

George  Downing  went  into  the  army,  and  was  scoutmas- 
ter-general of  the  English  army  in  Scotland.  He  was  after- 
wards in  great  favour  with  Cromwell,  who  sent  him  ambas- 
sador to  the  States :  and  upon  the  restoration  he  turned  with 
the  times,  and  was  sent  or  kept  by  the  King  in  the  same  em- 
ploy, had  the  merit  of  betraying,  securing  and  sending  over 
several  of  the  regicides  (he  had  been  captain  under  one  of 
them.  Col.  (">kcy,)  vv^as  knighted,  and  in  favour  at  court,  and 
died  in  1684.  His  character  runs  low  with  the  best  histori- 
ans in  England  ;  it  was  much  lower  with  his  countrymen  in 
New-Efigland  ;  and  it  became  a  proverbial  expression  to 
say  of  a  false  man  who  betrayed  his  trust,  that  he  was  an 
arrant  George  Downing.  Oliver  Cromwell,  when  he  sent 
him  agent  or  ambassador  to  the  States,  in  his  letter  of  cre- 
dence says,"Gcorge  Downing  is  a  person  of  eminent  quality, 
and,  after  a  long  trial  of  his  fidelit}',  probity  and  diligence 
in  several  and  various  negotiations,  well  approved  and  valu- 
ed by  us.  Him  we  have  thought  fitting  to  send  to  your 
Lordships  dignified  with  the  character  of  our. agent,  &c." 
(Milton's  letters.)  In  his  latter  days,he  is  said  to  have  been 
very  friendly  to  New-Eng]and,and  when  the  colony  was  up- 
«n  the  worst  terms  with  King  Charles  the  Second.  An  ar- 
ticle of  news  from  England  in  1671,  says,  "Sir  George  Dow- 
ning is  in  the  tower,  it  is  said  because  he  returned  from  Hol- 
land where  he  was  sent  ambassador  before  his  time.  As  it 
is  reported,  he  had  no  small  abuse  ofi'orcd  him  there.  They 
printed  the  sermons  he  preached  in  Oliver's  time,  and  drew 
three  pictures  of  him.  1.  Preaching  in  a  tub,  over  it  was 
wrote.  This  I  roas.  2.  A  treacherous  courtier,  over  it, 
This  I  am.  3.  Hanging  on  a  gibbet,  and  over  it,  This  I 
shall  be. 

"  Downing  was  sent  to  make  up  the  quarrel  with  the 
Dutch,  but  coming  home  in  too  great  haste  and  fear,  is  now 
in  the  prison  where  his  master  lay  that  he  betrayed."  MS. 
letter,  Lond.  March  4,  1671-2.  By  his  master,  no  doubt, 
Okey  is  intended.  His  son  was  one  of  the  tellers  in  the 
Exchequer  in  1680.  Sir  George  died  in  1684.  He  was 
brother-in-law  to  Governor  Bradstreet,  and  kept  up  a  cor- 
respondence with  him. 

John  Bulkley  was  son  of  Rev.  Peter  Bulkley,  D.  D.  the 
first  minister  of  Concord,   Mass.,   who  was  of  a  very  re- 

First  Class  at  Harvard  College^  1642.  !85 

apectable  family,  and  had  been  much  esteemed  for  his 
learning  and  piety  in  England.  After  he  graduated,  he 
went  to  England,  and  settled  at  Fordham,  in  Essex,  and  af- 
ter his  ejectment  ip  1662,  practised  physic  in  England. 

William  Hubbard  was  the  historian  of  New-England, 
and  of  the  early  wars  with  the  aboriginals.  He  was  born 
in  1621,  and  settled  about  the  year  1657,  as  colleague  with 
Rev.  Thomas  Cobbet,  at  Ipswich.  He  died  September  14, 
1704,  aged  83.  He  was  a  man  of  learning,  and  of  a  can- 
did, benevolent  mind.  John  Danton,  in  his  journal  in  Mas- 
sachusetts, speaks  of  him  as  "  learned  without  ostenta- 
tion," and  as  •'  a  man  of  singular  modesty ;  of  strict  mo- 
rals," and  as  having  done  "  as  much  for  the  conversion  of 
the  Indians,  as  most  men  in  New-England."  His  History  of 
New-England  lay  in  manuscript  till  1815,  when  it  was  pub- 
lished by  the  Massachusetts  Historical  Society,  and  consti- 
tutes two  volumes  of  their  Collections. 

Samuel  Bellingham  ranks  as  the  fifth  graduate.  He 
received  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Medicine  at  Leydcn.  He 
appears  to  have  been  living  when  the  Magnalia  was  written 
and  survived  all  of  the  first  class,  excepting  Rev.  Mr.  Hub- 
bard, of  Ipswich. 

John  Wilson  was  son  of  Rev.  John  Wilson,  the  first  min- 
ister at  Charlestown  and  Boston.  Dr.  Mather  says,  that 
when  "  he  was  a  child,  he  fell  upon  his  head  from  a  loft 
four  stories  high,  into  the  street,  from  whence  he  %vas  taken 
up  for  dead,  and  so  battered  and  bruised  and  bloody  with 
his  fall,  that  it  struck  horror  into  the  beholders."  After  he 
graduated,  he  settled  at  Medfield,  and,  says  Dr.  Mather, 
"  continued  unto  old  age,  a  faithful,  painful,  useful  minister 
of  the  gospel." 

Henry  Saltonstall  is  supposed  by  Gov.  Hutchinson  ta 
have  been  a  grandson  of  Sir  Richard  Saltonstall.  Like  sev- 
eral of  the  early  graduates,  he  went  home  after  leaving  college, 
and  received  a  degree  of  Doctor  of  Medicine  from  Padua, 
and  also  from  Oxford,  and  was  a  fellow  of  New  College  in 
that  University. 

Tobias  Barnard.  Of  him  the  writer  possesses  no  infor- 

Nathaniel  Brewster  was  settled  in  the  ministry  in  Nor- 
folk, England. 


186  Major-General  Montgomery, 


Richard  Montgomery,  a  major-general  in  the  army  of  the 
United  Stales,  was  born  in  the  north  of  IreUnd  in  the  year 
1737,  Repossessed  an  excellent  genius,  which  was  ma- 
tured by  a  fine  education.  Entermg  the  army  of  Great- 
Britain,  he  successfully  fought  her  battles  with  Wolfe  at 
Quebec,  in  17S9,  and  on  tlie  very  spot,  where  he  was  doom- 
ed to  fall,  when  fighting  against  her  under  the  banners  of 
freedom.  After  his  return  to  England,  he  quitted  his  regi- 
ment in  1  772,  though  in  a  fair  way  to  preferment.  He  had 
imbibed  an  attachment  to  America,  viewing  it  as  the  rising 
seat  of  arts  and  freedom.  After  his  arrival  in  this  country, 
he  purchased  an  estate  in  New- York,  about  a  hundred 
miles  from  the  city,  and  married  a  daughter  of  Judge  Liv- 
ingston. He  now  considered  himself  as  an  American. 
When  the  struggle  with  Great-Britain  commencsd,  as  he 
was  known  to  have  an  ardent  attachment  to  liberty,  and 
hail  expressed  his  readiness  to  draw  his  sword  on  the  side 
of  the  colonies,  the  command  of  the  continental  forces  in  the 
northern  department  was  entrusted  to  him  and  general 
Schuyler  in  the  fall  of  1775.  By  the  indisposition  of 
Schuyler,  the  chief  command  devolved  upon  him  in  Octo- 
ber. He  reduced  fort  Chamblee,  and  on  the  third  of  Novem- 
ber captured  St.  Johns.  On  the  twelfth  he  took  Montreal. 
In  December  he  joined  colonel  Arnold,  and  marched  to 
Quebec,  The  city  was  besieged,  and  on  the  last  day  of  the 
year  it  was  determined  to  make  an  assault.  The  several 
divisions  were  accordingly  put  in  motion  in  the  midst  of  a 
heavy  fall  of  snow,  which  concealed  them  from  the  enemy. 
Montgomery  advanced  at  the  head  of  the  New- York  troops, 
along  the  St.  Lawrence,  and  having  assisted  with  his  own 
hands  in  pulling  up  the  pickets,  which  obstructed  his  ap- 
proach to  one  of  the  barriers,  that  he  was  determined  to 
force,  he  was  pushing  forwards,  when  one  of  the  guns  of  the 
battery  was  discharged,  and  he  was  killed  with  his  two  aids. 
This  was  the  only  gun  that  was  fired,  for  the  enemy  had 
been  struck  with  consternation,  and  all  but  one  or  two  bad 
fled.  But  this  event  probably  prevented  the  capture  of  Que- 
bec. When  he  fell,  Montgomery  was  in  a  narrow  passage, 
and  his  body  rolled  upon  the  ice,  which  formed  by  the  side 
of  the  river.  After  it  was  found  the  next  morning  among  the 
slain,  it  was  buried  by  a  few  soldiers,  without  any  marks  of 
distinction.  He  was  thirty-eight  years  of  age.  He  wa^  a 
roan  of  great  military  talents,  whose  measures  were  taken 
with  judgment  and  executed  with  vigor.     With  undisciplin- 

Major-General  Montgomery.  187 

cd  troops,  who  were  jealous  of  him  in  the  extreme,  he  yet 
inspired  them  with  his  own  enthusiasm.  He  shared  with 
them  in  all  their  hardships,  and  thus  prevented  their  com- 
plaints. His  industry  could  not  be  wearied,  nor  his  vigil- 
ance imposed  upon,  nor  his  courage  intimidated.  Above 
the  pride  of  opinion,  when  a  measure  was  adopted  by  the 
majority,  though  contrary  to  his  own  judgment,  he  gave  it 
his  full  support.  By  the  direction  of  Congress  a  monument 
of  white  marble  of  the  most  beautiful  simplicity,  with  em- 
blematical devices,  was  executed  by  Mr.  Cassiers  at  Paris, 
and  it  is  erected  to  his  memory  in  front  of  St.  Paul's  Church, 
New- York. — His  bones  have  been  conveyed  from  the  spot 
where  he  fell,  to  New- York,  and  re-interred  with  due  solem- 
nities. The  following  lines  were  written  by  a  New-Hamp- 
shire poet,  on  the  occasion  : 


There  came  down  the  Hudson,  one  bright  summer's  even, 
Not  a  chieftain  from  war,  nor  a  spirit  from  heaven, 
For  the  warrior  expired  as  the  brave  wish  to  die. 
When  danger  was  threat'ning  and  glory  was  nigh. 
But  the  corpse  of  that  warrior,  the  bones  of  the  brave, 
The'  forty  years  buried,  came  down  the  dark  ware. 

There  came  down  the  Hudson,  at  closing  of  day, 

Montgomery's  bones  in  their  funeral  array ; 

All  dark  was  his  coflfin,  all  lonely  his  shroud. 

And  the  weepers  around  him  were  mourning  aloud ; 

They  mourn'd  for  the  chieftain,  who  struggled  ot  old, 

Whose  body  had  crumbled,  whose  bosom  was  cold. 

In  the  times  that  have  faded  he  fought  at  Quebec, 

But  the  quicksands  of  battle  there  made  him  a  wreck, 

By  the  walls  of  Quebec,  where  he  met  with  his  doom, 

The  tiighminded    Englishmen  gave  him  a  tomb  ; 

But  his  country   have  summon'd  his  bones   down  the  wave. 

In  the  land  of  the  freemen  to  find  them  a  grave. 

Shretadness. — When  General  Lincoln  went  to  make  peace 
with  the  Creek  Indians,  one  of  the  chiefs  asked  him  to  sit 
down  on  a  log  ;  he  was  then  desired  to  move,  and  in  a  few 
minutes  to  move  still  farther ;  the  request  w.ts  repeated  till 
the  General  got  to  the  end  of  the  log.  The  Indian  said,  "Move 
farther."  To  which  the  general  replied,  I  can  move  no  far- 
ther." "Just  so  it  is  with  us,"  said  the  chief;  "you  have 
moved  us  back  to  the  water,  and  then  ask  us  to  move  farther." 



"  The  Million  Purchase.^'' 

"  Anno  1683,  a  large  tract  of  land,  called  the  million  pur- 
chase, both  sides  of  Merimack  river,  above  Souhagen  river, 
was  granted  by  the  sachems  of  Wcymaset,  or  lower  river  In- 
dians, and  the  Penjcook,  or  upper  river  Indians,  to  Jonathan 
Tyng,  of  Dunstable,  for  valuable  considerations.  This  tract 
of  land  extended  upon  the  west  side  of  Merimack  river,  from 
the  mouth  of  Souhagen  river,  where  it  falls  into  Merimack 
river,  six  miles  and  a  half  up  said  Souhagen  or  Souhegonack 
river,  thence  N.  20  deg.  westward, 10  miles,thence  in  a  direct 
line  northward  as  far  as  the  most  southerly  end  or  part 
(meaning  I  suppose  the  production  westward  of  a  line  from  the 
southerly  end  of  said  pond)  of  the  great  pond  or  lake  com- 
monly called  Wenapesioche  lake  ;  extended  upon  the  east 
side  of  Merimack  river  from  Brcnton's  land  or  farm  (in 
Litchfield)  six  miles  in  breadth  eastward,  and  thence  running 
in  a  direct  line  northward  unto  and  as  far  as  the  most  south- 
erly end  or  part  of  Wenepasioche  lake  ;  neither  of  these 
west  or  east  lines  to  come  nearer  to  the  river  of  Merimack 
than  six  miles;  an  Indian  plantation  of  thi-ee  miles  square 
is  reserved.  These  lands  were  convey'd  in  several  parcels, 
and  at  sundry  times  to  certain  persons  by  transfers.  Anno 
1684,  1685  and  1686  ;  of  which  transfers  some  were  ac- 
knowledged before  the  magistrates  of  the  administration  of 
the  old  Colony  of  Massachusetts-Bay,  and  some  before  these 
of  K.  James  I IV  reign.  After  thrse  conveyances  and  trans- 
fers were  confirmed  by  Robert  Tufton  Mason,  proprietor  of 
New-Hampshire,  April  15,  1G86,  so  far  as  falls  within  the 
royal  grant  of  New-Hampshire,  at  a  quitrent  of  IO5.  st.  per 
an.  when  demanded  ;  they  were  regulated  into  20  equal 
shares,  viz. 

"  Joseph  Dudley,  Charles  Lidget,  John  Usher,  Edward 
Randolph,  John  Hubbard,  Robert  Thompson,  Samuel 
Shrimpton,  William  Stoughton,  Richard  Wharton,  Thomas 
Henchman,  Thaddeus  Macarty,  Edward  Thompson,  John 
Blackwell,  Peter  Bulkeley,  William  Blathwayt,  Jonathan 
Tyng,  Daniel  Cox,  and  three  other  persons  to  be  hereafter 
named  and  agreed  upon  ;  no  benefit  of  survivorship  ;  to  be 
divided  as  soon  as  may  be,  and  each  share  may  take  up 
5090  acres  at  discretion  for  the  present ;  these  grants  and 
regulations  were  also  coHfirmed  July  12,  1686,  (and  entered 
November  9th  following)  by  Joseph  Dudley,  President,  and 

Miscellanies.  189 

by  the  Council  of  his  Majesty's  territory  and  dominion  of 
New-England,  in  America  ;  with  an  addition  of  the  town- 
ship of  Concord,  Chelmsford,  Groton,  Lancaster,  Stow  and 
Dunstable,  and  12  miles  more  of  land.  This  claim  was  in  a 
manner  revived  about  28  years  since,  but  soon  dropt  ;  it  is 
now  again  revived  by  an  advertisement  in  the  Boston  Ga- 
zette of  June  21,  1748.  These  lands  at  present  are  in  the 
jurisdiction  of  New-Hampshire,  and  must  be  claim'd  in  that 
province." — Douglass. 

Singular  and  Amusing  Extracts  from  the  Council  Minutes  ^of  the 
Colony  of  JYene-  York. 

March  18,  1664. — Ordered,  Indians  not  to  drink  strong  liquor. 

September  30,  1664. — John  Decker,  banished  out  of  the  Gov- 
einment  for  having  gone  to  Albany  to  stir  up  the  Dutch. 

Deceifiber  22,  1664. — A  warrant  against  Hendrick  Thompson 
(the  cow-keeper)  of  Jamaica,  for  having  used  scandalous  and 
opprobrious  speeches  both  against  his  Majesty's  Royal  Person 
and  his  good  subjects. 

January  6,  1668. — News  of  peace  transmitted  to  Albany. 

February  7,  1668. — A  warrant  against  Adam  Bower,  for  hav- 
ing uttered  evil  and  scandalous  speeches. 

August  21,  1668. — Release  (by  the  Governor)  to  Ralph  Hall 
and  Mary  his  wife  for  a  recognizance  they  entered  into  at  the 
assizes  on  a  charge  of  witchcraft. 

October  20,  1668. — Orders  to  apprehend  perscas  travelling  on 
the  Sabbath. 

Decembers,  1668. — Proclamation  for  the  observing  a  gener- 
al day  of  Humiliation  throughout  his  Royal  Highness'  dominions. 

December  16,  1668. — Prices  of  grain,  winter  wheat  4s  and  6d 
per  bushel — Summer  wheat  4s — Rye  Ss  and  6d — Indian  corn  2s 
and  6d. 

April  1,  1669. — The  Governor  allows  a  horse  race  at  Hem- 
stead  for  the  better  breed  of  horses,  &c. 

May  28,  1669. — Rev.  Mr.  Vabrinus  had  displeased  the  magis- 
trates of  Albany,  in  interfering  in  a  marriage  there.  He  is  sus- 
pended from  his  ministerial  functions  ;  but  the  Governor  par- 
dons him  of  the  rest — allows  him  to  celebrate  the  restoration  of 
his  Majesty,  provided  he  keeps  within  the  bounds  of  moderation. 

July  8,  1671. — Order  of  council  en  John  Booth's  complaint  of 
the  hard  measure  of  levying  upon  his  goods  to  pay  the  minister 
whom  he  says  had  denied  to  administer  the  "  Sacrament  of 
Baptism  to  his  children."  The  minister  answers  that  "  for  his 
life  he  cannot  be  compelled  thereto."  The  Council  order  a  let- 
ter to  be  written  to  the  minister  and  communicated  to  the  inhab- 
itants— that  more  charity  and  moderation  be  used  torxards  his  neis;h' 
hours  for  the  future. 

190  Miscellanies. 

September  26,  1671. — Aa  order  of  the  Governor  on  all  the 
Physicians  to  attend  a  poor  woman  that  lays  lame  in  Pearl- 
street,  New-York.  "  She  is  called  the  old  ferryman's  wife  of 

January9  ,  1672. — An  order  prohibiting  handling  with  the  In- 
dians at  Schenectady  ;  Stating  that  it  may  prove  a  great  preju- 
dice to  the  town  of  Albany. 

March  21,  1672. — The  Governor  orders  the  town  of  Hemp- 
sted  to  pay  its  Schoolmaster. 

July  6,  1672. — Declaration  of  War  between  England  and 
Holland  read  in  Council. 

September  6,  1672. — Schenectady  allowed  a  town  court  to  try 
matters  to  the  amount  of  100  guilders. 

October  14,  1672. — Daniel  Suttiu  discharged  from  prison  at 
this  extraordinary  time  of  his  Royal  Highness''  birth-day,  and  a 
new  election  of  Mayor  and  Aldermen. 

November  1,  1672. — Proclamation  against  Richard  Lattin  for 
uttering  malicious  and  traitorous  words  against  his  'Royal  High- 
ness, the  Duke  of  York  ;  and  also  vile  and  abusive  speeches 
against  the  Governor. 

November  19,  1672. — John  Cooper  bound  over  for  evil  words 
against  the  Government. 

November  20,  1672. — Permission  to  John  Cooper  to  giv« 
the  Indians  "  a  gill  of  liquor,  now  and  then." 

February  16,  1675. — A  warrant  against  Peter  Ellet :  "who 
doth  pretend,  and  hath  reported,  to  have  seen  sights  or  visions 
in  this  cit}'  and  fort,  which  tends  to  the  disquiet  and  disturbance 
of  his  Majesty's  Subjects  in  those  parts." 

Augusta,  1675. — Encouragement  to  settlers  from  Europe,  60 
acres  for  each  fme  man — 50  for  his  wife — 50  for  each  child — 
and  50  for  each  servant. 

May  12,  1676. — A  warrant  against  a  woman  for  leaving  herhus- 
hand,  "  being  deluded  away  by  one  Thomas  Case  and  that 
she  acts  in  a  daneing  qxiaking  manner^  with  silly  and  i»nsignificant 

July  26,  1676. — An  order  against  all  drunken  Indians — "  and 
if  any  be  seen  coming  drunk  out  a  house,  that  house  shall  be  fin- 
ed ;  and  if  the  house  be  unkiiown,  and  the  Indian  be  found  in 
the  street,  the  whole  street  shall  be  fined."  No  butcher  to  be 
a  currier,  shoemaker,  or  tanner  ;  and  no  tanner  to  be  either 
currier,  shoem.iker  or  butcher. 

August  17,  1676. — Resolved,  That  Albany  shall  have  no  more 
privileges  than  this  place,  (New-York.) 

At  a  council,   May  19,  1677,  whether   attorneys  are  thought 
useful  to  plead  in  courts  or  not  ?     Its  thought  not,  but  to  be  as  at 
Nevis,  Jamaica,   ^c.    Whereupon  Resolved   and    Ordered^  That 
pleading  attornies  be  no  longer  allowed  to  practice   in  the  gov 
ernment,  but  for  the  depending  causes. 

Miscellanies.  191 

December  27,  1678. — Mittimus  for  Jacob  Williams,  for  hav- 
ing written  and  clamored  scurrilously  against  the  magistrates  and 
government  of  this  place. 

Ancient  Criticisms, — Dr.  William  Douglass,  in  his  Histor- 
ical Summary,  published  in  1 749,  makes  the  following  criti- 
cism upon  the  writings  of  Mather,  Neal,  &;c. 

Mankind  are  not  only  to  be  further  informed,  but  ought 
also  upon  occasion  to  be  undeceived  ;  for  this  reason,  and 
not  as  a  snarling  critic,  I  have  subjoined  the  following  an- 
notation, concerning  some  of  the  most  noted  writers  of  New- 
England  affairs  ;  at  present  I  shall  mention  only  two  or 
three  of  those  that  are  generally  read.  I  find  in  general, 
that  without  using  judgment,  they  borrow  from  old  credu- 
lous writers,  and  relate  things  obsolete  for  many  years  past, 
as  if  in  the  present  state  of  the  country. 

Capt.  Cyprian  Southack's  land  map  of  the  eastern  North 
America  is  as  rude  as  if  done  by  an  Indian,  or  as  if  done  in 
those  ages  when  men  first  began  to  delineate  countries  ;  it 
gives  no  information,  but  has  no  other  bad  effect,  than  turn- 
ing so  much  paper  to  waste.  But  his  large  chart  of  the  coast 
of  Nova-Scotia  and  New-England,  being  one  continued  er- 
ror, and  a  random  performance,  may  be  of  pernicious  con- 
sjequence  in  trade  and  navigation  ;  therefore  it  ought  to  be 
publicly  advertised  as  such,  and  destroyed  wherever  it  is 
found  amongst  sea  charts. 

OKimixon's  (he  died  Anno  1742)  British  Empire  in  Amer- 
ica, 2  vol.  8vo..  Lond.  1708.  He  generally  writes,  as  if 
copying  from  some  ill-founded  temporary  newspaper.  Dr. 
C.  Mather  says,  that  Oldmixon  in  5G  pages  has  87  false- 
hoods. He  prefixes  Mather's  silly  map ;  and  confesses  that 
he  borrowed  many  things  from  Cotton  Mather's  Magnalia  ; 
leaving  out  the  puns,  anagrams,  miracles,  prodigies,  witches, 
speeches  and  epistles:  Mather's  history  he  calls  a  miserable 
jargon,  loaded  with  many  random  learned  quotations, 
school-boy  exercises,  Roman-like  legends,  and  barbarous 
rhymes.  Neal  writes,  the  colony  of  Connecticut  surrender- 
ed their  charter  1688,  and  have  holden  no  courts  since. 
N.  B.  Upon  Sir  Edmund  Andross'  arrival  1686,  as  gover- 
nor of  the  dominions  of  New-England,  &c.,  they  dropt  the 
administration  according  to  their  charter  ;  but  their  char- 
ter not  being  vacated  by  any  legal  trial,  upon  the  Revolu- 
tion they  were  allowed  to  prosecute  the  administration,  and 
to  hold  courts  as  formerly.  400  students  in  Cambridge, 
New-England — his  account  of  the  Indian  religions,  or  rather 

192  Miscdlanus. 

worship,  is  false  and  ridiculous — the  Indians  live  commonly 
to  150  years — Pljmouth-Bay  is  larger  than  Cape-Cod,  and 
has  two  line  Islands,  Rhode-Island  and  Elizabeth-Island — 
New-England  is  bounded  west  by  Pennsylvania — Dorches- 
ter is  the  next  town  to  Boston  for  bigness — at  Boston  there 
is  a  mint.  N.  B.  Perhaps  he  meant  the  mint  1662,  assum- 
ed in  the  lime  of  the  troubles  and  confusions  in  England, 
An  indefinite  number  of  more  errors,  ihe  repetition  ol  them 
would  be  conlulation  sufficient. 

Neal's  history  of  New-England,  2  vol.  8vo.,  Lond.  1720. 
He  is  much  upon  the  history  of  the  low  ecclesiastics,  bor- 
rowed from  the  noted  leather's  Magnalia  Christi  America- 
na. He  gives  a  tedious  silly  ridiculous  conjecture  account 
of  the  settling  of  North  America,  from  Scythia  and  Tartary, 

and  the  southern  parts  from  China Natick  is  an  Indian 

town,  consisting  of  two  long  streets,  each  side  of  the  river  ; 
as  if  he  were  describing  one  ot  the  large  Dutch  voting  towns, 
with  a  river  or  canal  running  through  it.  N.  B.  This  In- 
dian town  at  present  consists  only  of  a  few  straggling  wig- 
wams.— Orange  Fort  of  Albany  is  80  miles  up  Hudson's 
river — The  Indian  government  is  strictly  monarchical.  N. 
B.  The  Indians  of  a  tribe  or  clan,  live  together  like  friend- 
ly, but  independent  neighbors  ;  their  senators  or  old  men, 
have  no  coercive  or  commanding  power  over  their  young 
men,  all  they  can  use  is  only  persuasion.  Quebec  has  5 
churches  and  a  cathedral.  N.  B.  Only  one  parochial  church, 
which  also  serves  as  a  cathedral,  and  a  conventual  chapel  in 
the  lower  town.  The  great  fresh  water  lakes  behind  New- 
England,  are  constantly  froze  over  in  winter  from  Novem- 
ber ;  which  occasion  the  long  and  hard  winters  of  New- 
England.  N.  B.  These  lakes  are,  upon  a  small  storm  of 
wind,  tempestuous,  and  never  frozen  over ;  and  because  of 
their  soft  vapor,  not  much  snow  lies  within  12  or  20  miles 
distance  from  these  lakes. — The  whale  fishing  is  almost 
neglected  in  New-England  ;  Newfoundland  has  almost  en- 
grossed it.  N.  B.  In  Newfoundland'they  make  only  a  small 
quantity  of  liver  oil.  The  clergy  of  New-England  are  not 
renowned  for  humanity  and  politeness.  The  French  in 
New-England  are  very  numerous.  The  conveniency  of 
fishing  renders  Cape  Cod  populous  as  most  places  in  New- 
England.  N.  B.  At  present  Cape  Cod  called  Province 
town,  may  consist  of  two  or  three,  settled  families,  two  or 
three  cows,  and  6  to  10  sheep.  To  enumerate  the  ether  er- 
rors and  blunders  of  this  performance,  -would  be  copying  of 
it;  but  it  will  not  bear  such  a  new  impression. 

Miscellanies.  1 93 

[Flora  papers  of  the  Rev.  Hugh  Adams.— See  page  152.] 

At  Portsmouth.^  The  Chief  Toviin^  within  His  Majestrfs  Province  of 
JVeza-Hainpshire.,  In  Mew-England.  November  24,  1726. 

Previously  Rendering  my  Thanks  To  The  HonourabJe  Gov- 
ernment, and  To  The  Reverend  Ministry  of  the  said  Province, 
for  Their  perusal  of  my  Manuscript  little  book,  Entitled,  A  Theo- 
sophical  Thesis,  &c  :  Nevertheless,  having  hearM  their  Judg- 
ment which  they  have  Passed  upon  the  same  ;  In  The  NAME 
of  Christ  Jesus  our  Lord  EMMANUEL,  I  Appeal  from  Each 
Sentence  of  said  Inferior  Powers  of  Church  and  State,  unto  The 
Perusal  and  Judgment  Of  The  Superior  Pov*^ers  of  His  Majesty 
King  George,  and  His  Council,  i.  e.  Of  the  Lords  Spiritual  ia 
Special,  In  The  Realm  Of  Great-Brittain,  To  Judge,  Whether 
said  Book  may  (or  not)  Have  An  Imprimatur,  Licence,  or  Per- 
mission for  Publication  by  an  Impression,  as  A  Thesis,  That  Any 
Divine,  or  Other  Gentleman  of  Learning,  may  Have  Opportu- 
nity by  his  or  their  Antithesis  (if  capable)  to  Answer  and  Refute 
It  from  The  Holy  Scriptures,  The  Only  Standard  Rule  for  Trial 
of  Ciiristian  Doctrine  1  Seeing  Common  Fame  hath  already 
misrepresented  and  falsified  intollerably  many  Paragraphs  there- 
in, at  the  second  or  third  report  for  want  of  the  Sight  thereof ; 
as  if  the  Author  were  become  an  Arrian,  or  Platonist.  There- 
fore, humbly  Referred  so  by  The  Appellant — 

Minister  of  The  Gospel  of  CHRIST,  and  Pastor  of  A  Church  in 
Dover,   In   said  Province,  ai^^  a  Loyal  Subject  of  his  Rightful! 
Soveraign  King  George. 

The  Reasons  of  this  my  Appeal,  are  both  from  the  Necessity 
and  the  Equity  thereof  First  Reason,  is  from  the  Necessity 
urging  it,  in  Regard  for  the  Truth  of  CHRIST  our  Supreme 
LORD  and  Heavenly  King  of  Kings.  To  the  Illumination  of 
HIS  BLESSED  SPIRIT  by  the  Light  of  HIS  Word  in  my  Con- 
science. For  the  Edification  of  the  Beloved  Souls  of  All  my 
Fellow  Christians,  that  they  may  Grow  in  Grace  and  in  the 
Knowledge  of  our  Lord  Christ  Jesus,  and  in  the  Comfort  of  HIS 
Love.  And  the  Opposition  the  Truth  in  that  little  book  hath 

I.  In  Regard  for  the  Truth  of  Christ,  Because  as  He  Himself 
is  the  Only  Mediatorial  Truth.  Job.  xiv.  6.  1  Tim.  ii.  5  ;  so  His 
Doctrinal  Truth,  which  is  the  Right  Interpretation  of  His  Word 
in  the  Scriptures,  (as  in  part  set  forth  in  the  said  little  book  I 
Avouch  to  be)  The  Present  Truth  Wherein  ye  should  be  Estab- 
lished, as  in  2  Pet.  i.  12,  Wherein  also  ye  ought  to  Walk,  ii.  Joh. 
4,  iii.  Joh.  1,  3,  4,  i.  e.  Progressively  ;  Which  Therefore  upon 
our  Perill  we  must  Buy  and  not  Sell,  as  in  Prov.  23.  23. 

II.  In  Regard  to  my  own  Conscience,  being  so  fully  Perswaded 
iih  my  o~jcn  mind,  having  such  a  sacred  Licence  for  this  Liberty, 

194  Miscellanies. 

as  in  Rom.  14.  5,  According  to  the  Written  Word  of  Christ,  the 
only  Rule  for  my  Direction  in  that  book  professM. 

III.  In  Regard  for  the  General  Edification  of  the  Protestant 
Catholick  Church,  Necessitated  by  Divine  Precept  (i.  Cor.  14, 
35,  12,  26)  and  Example,  as  in  2  Cor.  10,  8,  13,  10. 

IV.  The  Necessity  arising  from  the  Opposition  against  the 
Truth  in  that  book  it  hath  suffered.  1.  By  our  Lieut.  Gover- 
nour's  Negativing  the  Author's  First  Appeal  to  the  Superior 
Government  and  Ministry  of  the  Massachusets  Province  ;  and  also 
my  second  Appeal  to  the  Bishop  of  London.  2.  Because  of  the 
Mittimus  to  Imprisonment  in  the  Secretary's  Office  of  said  Prov- 
ince, which  (Voted  by  both  Houses  of  the  Government)  was  the 
penalty  to  be  sustained  by  the  said  little  book. 

Second  Reason,  is  from  the  Equity  of  this  Appeal.  Because, 
as  the  said  Book  is  so  much  of  the  Author's  Labour  in  the  Word 
and  Doctrine,  as  a  scribe  instnicied  unto  the  Kingdom  of  Heaven 
(as  in  Mat.  13.  52,)  bringing  forth  out  of  his  treasure  things  new  and 
old ;  when  'twas  not  acceptable  :  he  ^vas  Desireous  to  know, 
Why  not  also  returnable  to  him  again,  as  part  of  his  own  proper 
goods  ?  And  Because  the  Liberty,  Right  and  Law  of  an  Appeal 
is  of  such  a  Sacred  Antiquity  and  Divine  Original,  that  the  Ap- 
pellant must  now  Claime  it  for  his  Inviolable  Priviledge  as  a 
Christian,  and  as  a  Leige  Subject.  Demanded,  from  that  Exem- 
plary Scripture  Warrant,  in  Acts  25.  9,  11,  28,  19,  Wherein 
the  Holy  Apostle  Paul  said  to  Festus  the  Governour  of  Cesarea, 
&c.  /  Appeal  unto  Cesar,  as  Constrained  so  to  Do. 

Besides,  the  Custome  of  Allowing  said  Priviledge  In  All  Brit- 
tish  Governments  untill  Now.  And  Finally,  Because,  as  the 
Patriarch  Joseph,  (by  His  Envious  brethren)  w^s  Stript  of  His 
Coat  of  Diverse  colours,  and  sold  into  Egyptian  bondage,  Gen.  37. 
23,  ?8,  by  means  of  the  Trafficking  of  the  mocking  Ishmaelites  ; 
And  as  Tamar,  the  Daughter  of  King  David,  after  the  Rape  com- 
mitted on  her  by  her  brother  Amnon,  had  htr  Garment  of  Diverse 
colours  rent,  and  -with  Jlshes  on  her  Head  went  on  crying  to  her 
Royal  Father/or  Help,  as  in  2  Sam.  13.  18,  19,  21  ;  so  my  said 
little  book  of  Truth  hath  been  in  proportion  constructively  Abus- 
ed, and  Now  as  one  of  the  Two  Witnesses  Prophesying  in  Sack' 
cloth,  Rsv.  xi.  3,  Black  as  Sackcloth  of  hair.  Rev.  vi.  14,  Doth  it's 
Obeysance  and  Saith,  as  in  2  Sam.  14.  4,  Help,  O  King  !  So  Rea- 
soneth  and  must  Pray,  the  Appellant — 

The  Explicatory  Postscript 
Consistethof  the  Following  Remarks  and  Proposal. 

First.  In  Submissive  Respect  for  His  Honour  our  Lieut.  Gov- 
ernour aforesaid,  I  must  Declare  my  charitable  belief.  That  the 
Reasons  swaying  Him  for  Negativing  m^  said  Inferior  Appeals, 
were  these,  viz. 

1.  Reason,  The  Majority  of  the  Gospel  Ministry  in  our  said 
Province,  concurring  in  their  Condemnation  of  my  said  little 

Miscellanies.  195 

b«ok  as  Enthusia?tical  and  utterly  to  be  Discountenanced  ;  Eight 
to  One  being  odds  (or  unequal)  at  Disputation,  when  two  or 
three  of  them  at  the  same  instant  were  Clamouring-  against  me 
before  Him  at  their  Convention  :  His  Honour  might  lorget,  how 
One  Afan  had  the  SPIRIT  of  Truth  in  His  Prophecy,  whilst 
400  flattering  Prophets  of  King  Ahab  (opposing  that  One)  were 
rather  Enthusiastical,  (1  Kings^£2.  6,  7,  8,  £3,)^ as  the  other  De- 
vout King  Jehoshaphat  Perceived  in  his  Wisdom. 

2.  Reason,  His  Honour,  probably,  supposM  it  not  proper  to 
allow  of  either  of  the  other  Appeals,  Because  the  other  Prov- 
ince was  a  Charter  Government ;  But  New-Hampshire  more  Im- 
mediately under  the  Crown.  And  because  the  Bishop  of  London 
as  yet  hath  no  Ecclesiastical  Jurisdiction  by  one  Conformed 
Minister  or  Church  in  said  New-Hampshire  Government  ;  and 
and  so  would  take  no  cognisance  thereof. 

3.  Reason,  His  Honour  being  such  a  Father  to  the  said  Minis- 
ters of  New-Hampshire,  perhaps  thinks  it  His  Duty  so  to  Regard 
them  from  that  Divine  Charge  in  Mai.  2.  7,  rather  than  the  Ap- 
pellant Author,  whose  outward  Appearance  is  not  [for  mode  or 
grandeur]  Comparable  with  the  least  of  them  ;  Who  Neverthe- 
less in  the  Name  and  Strength  of  CHRIST  would  be  glad  of  an 
Opportunity  to  Withstand  them  as  to  the  /ace,  Gal.  2.  ll,i.  e.  suc- 
cessively, decently  and  in  order,  in  the  most  Publi'ck  Place  and 
Concourse  that's  possible,  for  the  Defence  of  the  Gospel  contained 
in  that  little  book,  as  contemptible  as  'tis  in  their  eyes. 

The  Second  Remark  is  this.  When  my  brethren  in  the  Minis- 
try [whose  Wiggs  had  been  uacurl'd  by  it]  had  return'd  my  said 
little  book  to  the  Government  with  their  Sentiments  of  it's  Con- 
tents :  I  perceived  it's  Marble  Paper  Covering  of  Diverse 
colours,  was  stript  off  to  it's  naked  skin  of  parchment,  and  their 
solicitations  [I  suppose]  urg'd  it  so  enviously  to  be  sold  into  such 
Confinement,  that  it  might  not  come  abroad  to  Gall  their  Wigged 

Third  Remark.  If  the  Contents  of  that  Book  at  last  be  found 
the  Truth  as  it  is  in  Jesus,  Ephe.  iv.  21,  Then  'tis  interpreta- 
tively  a  Rape  committed  upon  Her,  to  miscall  Her  error  and 
Enthusiasai  ;  wherein  also  is  something  like  the  hand  of  mur- 
dering Joab  perceived,  who  would  have  Her  to  be  burn'd  under 
the  Gallows.  But  CHRIST,  the  Supreme  Judge,  Hath  Hear'd' 
my  Complaint  so  as  to  Imprison  him  in  his  pains  and  Sickness 
of  so  long  continuance  unto  his  Death,  except  he  Repent  ;  O 
that  he  may  ! 

Objection.  But  Who  will  be  at  the  Cost  to  bring  the  Appeal 
to  an  Hearing  ?  Answer.  Can  we  reasonably  or  unreasonably 
suppose,  the  Royal  Defender  of  the  Faith,  our  Protestant  Sove- 
raign  so  mercenary,  as  to  Desire  any  Earthly  Present  or  Gift, 
for  Hearing  the  Appeal  of  such  a  Cause  of  Christ,  wherein  the 
Appellant,  one  of  His  Majesty's  Loyal  Subjects,  does  no  other 
Crime,  but  obey  that  se  Sacred  Order  in  Jude,  verse  3,  Earnest-- 

196  Miscellanies* 

ly  Contend  for  the  Faith  "Si'hich  was  once  [so  of  old  often]  delivered 
unto  the  Saints. 

To  Consider  and  Judge,  Whether  the  Chief  Contents  of  that 
little  book  be,  or  not,  a  Very  Considerable  Part  of  that  Faith 
Doctrinally,  as  Proved  therein  only  by  the  Scripture  Law  and 
Testimony  ?  ' 

Therefore,  I  Believe,  That  if  the  Secretary  of  New-Hamp- 
shire, by  Order  of  Government,  may  faithfully  Enclose  the  said 
little  book,  tirst,  in  this  small  Winding  Shrowd  of  Appeal  :  and 
Next  with  the  Judgment  both  of  the  Government  and  Ministry 
of  New-Hampshire  ;  All  Enclosed  in  a  Letter  of  Declaration  of 
the  Case,  sealed  up  and  Directed  by  Superscription,  To  His 
Majesty  King  George  in  Great-Brittain,  &,c  :  And  for  it's  Passage, 
Committed  [tho'  as  a  Prisoner]  unto  the  tirst  most  faithful  Mas- 
ter of  a  Ship  that  can  be  heard  of  Directly  Bound  Thither  ;  And 
when  Arrlv'd,  to  be  Deliverd  to  the  Agent,  or  into  the  Post 
Office  :  Then  1  doubt  not,  but  [as  experienced  in  2  Tim.  i.  12,] 
our  Supreme  LORD  Christ  Jesus  EMMANUEL,  the  Prince  of 
the  Kings  of  the  Earth,  in  His  Providence  Will  overrule,  to 
Bring  it  to  that  Royal  and  Divine  Hearing,  without  much  pecu- 
niary cost  to  the  poor  Appellant  Author  ;  Who  is  hereby  Oblig- 
ed, as  a  Witness  for  Christ  and  a  Loyal  Subject,  to  be  ready, 
personally  to  Wait  upon  His  Majesty  and  His  Most  Honourable 
Council  of  Lords  Spiritual  in  Special,  Whenever  occasionally 
sent  for,  if  THE  LORD  of  Heaven  and  Earth  may  Graciously 
spare  the  life  of,  and  be  with  His  Servant — 


From  Johnson's  History  of  Kew-England,  printed  in  London^ 

in  1654. 
"The  tnird  Church  of  Christ  gathered  under  this  Govern- 
ment [Massachusetts]  was  at  Dorchester,  a  frontire  Town 
scituated  very  pleasantly  both  for  facing  the  Sea,  and  also 
its  large  extent  into  the  main  land,  well  watered  with  two 
small  Rivers;  necre  about  this  Towne  inhabitted  some  few 
ancient  Traders,  who  were  not  of  this  select  band,  but  came 
for  other  ends,  as  Morton  of  xMerry-mount  who  would  faine 
have  resisted  this  Avorke,  but  the  provident  hand  of  Christ 
prevented.  The  forme  of  this  Towne  is  almost  like  a  Ser- 
pent turning  her  head  to  the  Northward ;  over  against 
Tompson's*  Island,  and  the  Castle,  her  body  and  wings  be- 
ing chiefly  built  on,  are  filled  somewhat  thick  ot  Houses, 
onely  that  one  of  her  Wings  is  dipt,  her  Tayle  being  of 
such  large  extent  that  Shee  can  hardly  draw  it  after  her. 
Her  houses  for  dwelling  are  about  one  hundred  and  forty  ; 
Orchards  and  Gardens,  full  of  Fruit-trees,  plenty  of   Corjfie 

*  David  Thompson,  the  first  settler  at  Pascataquack  [Portsmouth]  in  1623. 

Miscellanies,  197 

Land,  although  much  of  it  hath  been  long  in  tillage,  yet 
hath  it  ordiftarily  good  crops,  the  number  of  trees  are 
near  upon  1500.  Cowes  and  other  Catteli  of  that  kinde 
about  450.  Thus  hath  the  Lord  been  pleased  to  increase 
his  poore  dispersed  people,  whose  number  in  this  Flock  are 
neare  about  150,  their  first  Pasior  called  to  feede  them  was 
the  Reverend,  and  godly  Mr.  Maveruck."  [Rev.  John 

The  Dark  Day. — May  19th,  1780,  v/as  distinguished  by 
an  uncommon  darkness,  which  prevailed  in  every  part  of 
New-England.  The  degree  to  v^hich  it  arose  was  ditferent 
in  different  parts.  In  most  places  it  was  so  great,  that  peo- 
ple were  unable  to  read,  to  dine,  or  manage  their  domestic 
business,  without  the  light  of  candles. — The  extent  of  this 
darkness  was  very  remarkable.  To  the  Eastward,  it  reach- 
ed many  leagues  beyond  the  sea  coast.  To  the  Southward, 
it  covered  all  the  south  shores  of  New-England.  To  the 
Westward,  it  extended  beyond  the  bounds  of  Connecticut, 
Albany,  and  Vermont.  Towards  the  North,  it  covered  the 
Province  of  Maine,  New-Hampshire,  Vermont,  and  was  ob- 
served all  along  the  river  St.  Lawrence.  And  in  most  places, 
its  duration  was  from  12  to  15  hours. — The  appearance  was 
extremely  gloomy.  Every  thing  seemed  to  be  tinged  with 
a  yellowish  color.  Candles  were  lighted  up  in  the  houses  ; 
birds  became  silent ;  domestic  fowls  retired  to  roost ;  and  the 
cocks  crowed  around  as  at  day  break. — Every  body 
was  astonished  at  this  unsommon  appearance,  and  many 
were  alarmed  to  an  high  degree  :"And  there  was  no  end  to 
the  conjectures,  fears  and  fancies,  that  prevailed  at  that  time. 
It  was  found  from  many  observations,  that  the  atmosphere 
was  charged  in  an  high  degree  with  an  uncommon  quantity  of 
smoke  and  vapor,  occasioned  by  large  and  extensive  fires, 
for  several  weeks  before.  For  some  days  before,  the  at- 
mosphere had  been  so  loaded  with  the  smoke  and  vapor, 
as  to  darken  the  sun  and  moon,  and  to  render  all  distant  ob- 
jects of  a  dull  and  hazy  appearance.  With  a  gentle  rain 
these  vapors  were  found  to  be  slowly  descending,  in  amazing 
quantities;  mingled  with  the  rain  in  their  descent,  they 
weakened  and  absorbed  the  rays  of  light,  and  involved  eve- 
ry  object  in  apparent  obscurity  and  darkness. 

The  Green  Bay  Tree  of  Connecticut. — It  is  a  curious  fact, 
that  the  stump  of  the  live  oak,  from  which  the  stern-post  of 
the  frigate  Constitution  was  cut,  is  now  to  be  seen  in  St. 

1 9S  Miscellanies. 

Simon's  Island,  in  Georgia.  About  the  time  the  Constitution 
took  the  Guerriere  a  small  GreenBayTree  sprung  up  from  the 
centre  of  the  stump,  and  may  be  seen  now  flourishing  in  that 
situation.  To  the  perpetual  honor  of  Connecticut  be  it  re- 
membered, that  the  Constitution,  when  she  captured  the 
Guerriere,  was  commanded  byCapt.  Hull,  a  native  born  citi- 
zen of  that  State.  What  makes  this  victory  more  memora- 
ble, is,  that  it  was  the  first  that  was  obtained  by  this  coun- 
try, since  she  became  a  nation.  The  Bay  Tree,  which  is  a 
species  of  Laurel,  with  which  the  ancients  used  to  crown 
their  conquerors,  may  in  this  instance  be  deemed  embhm- 
atical  of  the  imperishable  honors  conferred  upon  Connecti- 
cut by  one  of  her  Sons  and  Heroes. — Conn.  Courant. 

In  the  last  number  of  the  Edinburgh  Review  we  find  some 
interesting  remarks  on  a  late  work  by  Dr.  Meyrick  on  An- 
cient Armour.  Much  labor  and  research  appear  in  the  work, 
and  the  reviewers  speak  of  it  as  containing  a  great  deal  of 
curious  information  relating  to  the  manners,  wages  and  sports 
of  the  inhabitants  of  Britain,  back  to  the  times  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxons,  and  elucidates  many  obscure  and  disputed  passages 
in  their  old  dramatic  writers. 

From  among  the  derivations  quoted  in  the  Review,  we 
have  selected  the  following  as  some  of  the  most  satisfactory. 
In  the  early  ages,  men  derived  some  of  their  ideas  of  ofTensive 
and  defensive  weapons  from  birds,  beasts,  fishes,  &c.  The 
Greeks  and  Romans  sometimes  disposed  their  shields  in  as- 
saulting a  town  so  that  they  overlapped  each  other  like  the 
scales  of  a  tortoise-,  an  artificial  boar,  armed  with  iron,  Avas 
formerly  recommended  in  England  for  sea  fights ;  the  bat- 
tering ram  is  well  known,  and  the  prickly  cat  was  success- 
fully used  in  the  defence  of  castles.  Dag  once  signified  a 
pistol,  and  pistolese  a  dagger ;  and  scymetar  is  said  to  have 
been  corrupted  into  semi  targe  and  supplied  with  a  totally 
different  meaning.  One  great  error  is  mentioned,  which  has 
long  passed  current  in  heraldry,  which  is,  that  the  ancient 
arms  of  England  were  two  Leopards.  Instead  of  this,  how- 
ever, it  is  now  stated  that  "  William  the  Conqueror  and  his 
two  sons  had  taken,  not  two  Leo-pards  but  two  Leos-pards 
or  Lions  passant  guariant ;  one  being  the  device  of  Norman- 
dy, and  the  other  that  of  Poitou." 

Artillery  15  said  to  have  bf  en  derived  from  the  Latin  word 
for  ar/,  which  in  barbarous  times  was  applied  to  denote  a 
machine  ;  Pantaloons,  fvompianta  hone,  i.e.  "  plant  the  Lion," 
the  cry  of  the  standard-bearers  of  the  Venetia»  army,  who 
wore  tight  hose. — .Y.  Y,  Advertiser. 



.VoW/t  American  Review. — This  journal,  which  acquired  a  com- 
manding influence  under  the  control  of  Professor  Everett,  has 
passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Rev.  Jarbd  Sparks,  late  minister  at 
Baltimore.  Prof.  Everett  is  undoubtedly  one  of  the  first  schol- 
ars of  our  country,  and  in  the  beauty  and  polish  of  his  criticisms, 
has  perhaps  few  equals.  But  it  should  be  recollected,  that  Mr. 
E.  was  not  the  sole  conductor  of  the  work,  and  that  the  same 
writers  now  continue  to  aid  Mr.  Sparks,  who  formerly  assisted 
Mr.  Everett. — We  have  been  surprised  to  see  in  some  respectable 
prints,  disparaging  notices  of  the  last  No.  of  the  Review.  The 
opinion,  however,  is  not  general  that  "  its  glory  is  departed,"  or 
that  it  suffers  aught  from  the  change. — We  are  pleased  td  state 
that  its  circulation  is  increasing  in  this  State,  and  perhaps  we 
need  not  attempt  a  more  convincing  argument  in  favor  of  its 
merit  and  growing  popularity. 

American  Novels. — The  American  novelist,  Mr.  Cooper,  it  is  - 
said,  has  projected  a  series  of  semi-historical  tales,  to  be  entitled 
Legends  of  the  Thirteen  Republicks,  connected  with  the  revolution. 
The  first,  which  he  is  engaged  upon,  is  to  be  called  Lionel  Lin- 
coln., the  scene  Boston  and  vicinity — to  contain  sketches  of  the 
battles  of  Lexington  and  Bunker's  Hill.  We  trust  he  will  not 
arouse  the  living  combatants  respecting  events  at  Bunker's  Hill. 
He  will  find  it  difficult,  (though  genius  may  spurn  the  term,)  to 
tread  with  sufficient  softness  over  ground  so  hallowed  without 
waking  the  sentinels  who  are  watchful  of  the  particular  fame  of 
each  distinguished  hero.  There  was  on  the  part  of  the  Ameri- 
cans a  universal  heroism,  which  can  permit  no  dividing — of 
hardly  any  distinction. 

An  esteemed  correspondent  at  Washington  has  forwarded  us  the 
prospectus  of  "  a  new  and  original  periodical  work,"  the  title  of 
which  is  to  be  "  Tke  Practical  Manipulator  ;  or  Atnerican  Deposi- 
tory of  Arts  and  Sciences'^'' — to  be  published  at  New-York,  by  Mr. 
Richard  Wilcox,  Engineer,  &c.  This  gentleman  is  the  inventor 
of  a  new  system  of  naval  and  military  tactics — which,  if  adopted 
by  the  country, will  as  he  avers  save  millions  in  expenditure,  and 
prove  of  incalculable  advantage  to  the  nation.  He  proposes,  in- 
stead of  the  more  common  weapons  of  war,  to  call  to  his  aid,  by 
chemical  agencies,  "  a  fiery  defender,"  and  instead  of  treating  an 
enemy  as  is  customary  with  grape  and  canister,  bombs  and  other 
noisy  messengers,  to  give  them  at  once  a  taste  of  Sodom  and  Go- 
morrah— he  would  actually  destroy  them  with  a  storm  of"  liquid 
fire  !"  The  outline  of  his  system,  which  is  now  published,  is 
ingenious,  and  the  inventor  has  the  countenance  and  encourage- 
oaeat  of  distinguished  and  scientitk  men.     Dr.  Mitchell,  we  per- 

200  Literary  Kotices. 

ceive,  after  noticing-  the  peculiarities  of  the  new  S3'Stem,  "  re- 
commends the  aforesaid  Richard  Wilcox^vrnu  his  whole  pyro-tech- 
NicAL  APPARATUS,  to  the  War  and  JVavy  Departments.'''' 

Worcesfer''s  Elements  of  Geography. — In  the  2d  vol.  of  the 
Collections,  page  61,  the  second  Edition  of  Worcester's  El- 
ements of  Geography  was  noticed.  We  have  lately  exam- 
ined the  Stereotype  Edition  just  published,  and  with  much 
pleasure  have  perceived  the  various  alterations  which  have 
ijeen  made  in  the  arrangement  of  the  work,  and  the  mass 
of  valuable  information,  condensed  and  introduced  into  that 
part  assigned  to  Comparative  Geography.  We  are  assured 
that  future  impressions  will  retain  the  present  arrangement ; 
"  the  more  permanent  matter  being  so  separated  from  the 
more  changeable,  that  the  necessary  alterations,  in  order  to 
accommodate  the  information  to  a  recent  date,  may  be  made 
without  changing  the  general  structure  of  the  book."  The 
The  Atlas  is  considerably  improved,  and  contains  a  new  map 
of  the  Eastern  and  Middle  States.  There  are  a  number  of 
neat  engravings  added  to  the  Elements. 

We  consider  the  work  in  its  present  state  as  the  best  com- 
pend  of  Geography  for  the  use  of  public  and  private  schools, 
which  has  appeared  in  our  country.  Connected  with  the 
"  Sketches  of  the.  Earth  and  its  Inhabitants,  zvith  one  hundred 
Engravings,''^  it  forms  a  system  of  Geographical  instruction 
which  cannot  fail  to  be  acceptable  to  all  who  are  desirous  of 
having  an  acquaintance  with  the  most  important  and  inter- 
esting topics  unfolded  in  the  pleasing  and  useful  science  of 

The  sixth  No.  of  the  "  Boston  Journal  of  Philosphy  and  the 
Arts,''''  has  just  issued  from  the  press,  and  completes  the  first  vol- 
ume. We  have  perused  it  with  much  satisfaction  ;  and,  we  learn 
from  the  preface,  that  with  a  degree  of  zeal  highly  honorable  to 
the  Editors,  they  intend  proceeding  with  a  second  volume,  al- 
though we  regret  to  add,  the  number  of  subscribers  is  but  barely 
sufficient  to  meet  the  expenses  of  publication. 

Dr.  Southey,  the  Laureat  of  England,  is  about  to  publish 
Jl  Tale  of  Paraguay,  in  1  vol.  12mo. 

A  new  "  Memoir  of  the  Life  and  Character  of  the  Right  Hon. 
Edmund  Burke,  with  an  estimate  of  his  talents  and  writings,"  is 
announced  in  the  London  journals. 

The  author  of  "  Recollections  of  the  Peninsula,  fcc."  we  un- 
derstand, has  in  the  press  a  new  work  entitled  ••'  Scenes  and  Im- 
pressions in  Egypt  and  in  Italy." 

JULY,  1824. 




It  is  generally  admilted,  that  a  knowledge  of  the  law  is 
acquired  with  more  difficulty  in  New-England  than  in  any 
oihfrparlot  the  world.  We  have  always  been  a  free  peo- 
ple, and  the  laws  of  a  free  Slate  must  he  such  as  are  adapted 
to  the  protection  of  the  various  interests  to  which  freedom 
gives  rise.  The  first  settlers  of  New-England,  though  they 
had  good  reason  to  be  dissatisfied  with  a  part  of  the  English 
system,  and  came  here  to  avoid  its  penalties,  were  yet 
strongly  attached  to  the  common  law,  under  w^hich  they 
were  born  and  educated.  They  did  not  leave  it  behmd 
them.  They  brought  it  with  them  ;  for  they  were  much  too 
wise  to  suppose,  thai  they  were  able  to  construct  a  new  and 
better  system  for  themselves.  At  that  time,  it  was  not 
suj-posed  they  had  the  right — they  certainly  had  not.  leisure 
for  the  dry  and  difficult  work  of  codification.  1  hey  had  the 
wilderness  to  subdue  ;  and  what  was  a  much  more  danger- 
ous and  laborious  v\ork,  the  savages  of  that  wilderness  to 
conciliate  and  christianize,  or  to  subdue  and  conquer.  The 
first  settlers  of  this  State  seem,  for  the  first  seventeen  years, 
j(from  1623  to  i640)  to  have  considered  the  law  of  England 
as  the  law  of  this  land  •  and,  during  that  period,  no  founda- 
tion was  laid  for  any  law,  statute  or  common,  of  our  own. 
This  State  (if  it  could  then  with  any  propriety  be  called 
such)  consisted  of  four  (own?  only,  Dover,  Portsmouth,  Ex- 
eter, and  Hampton,  which  seems,  from  the  first,  to  have  at- 
tached itself  to  Massachusetts. 

Exeter  was  settled  under  a  purchase  from  the  Indians,  by 

a  sect  of  christians  embracing  peculiar  and  unorthodox^  (how 

strange  the   revolution.-'  of  opinion  !  those  who  pronounced 

them  so  would  be  heterodox  now)  acknowledging  no  depend- 


202  J^ew-Hampshire  Laze. 

ance  on  Massfichusetts,  and  deriving  no  title  from  the  Crown. 
Dover  and  Portsmouth  were  settled  under  a  title  acquired 
from  the  Crown,  hut  they  had  few  if  any  features  of  a  body 
politic.  The  proprietors,  at  whose  expense  these  settle- 
ments were  began,  seem  for  a  lime  to  have  entertained  the  , 
impracticable  idea  of  settling  a  wilderness  by  agents  and 
laborers,  who,  when  the  work  was  done,  should  become 
tcn:»nts  and  pay  rent.  They  did  not  consider,  that  a  land- 
lord three  thousand  miles  off  can  collect  no  rent;  and  fur- 
ther, that  the.  tenants  could  not  afford  to  pay  any. 

Exeter,  it  is  sud,  in  1638,  formed  a  combination,  chose 
rulers,  and  enacted  laws  in  a  popular  assembly.  Dover  and 
Poitsmouth,  about  the  same  time,  attempted  the  same  thing; 
but  no  traces -)f  this  early  legislation  remain.  A  little  ex- 
perience was  sufficient  to  satisfy  the  three  towns,  that  they 
were  too  weak  to  govern  themselves.  In  1641,  they  united 
themselves  wiih  Massachusetts,  which  had  then  been  settled 
little  more  than  ten  years,  and  which  had  laws  and  courts 
©fits  own.  Durinsc  the  40  years  union,  those  legal  customs 
and  usages  which  distinguished  New-England  from  the  other 
British  colonies  originated.  Tiiosc  customs  and  usages  now 
form  an  essential  and  important  part  of  the  common  law  of 
this  State;  and  to  determine  now  what  they  were  then, 
is  a  matter  of  no  little  difficulty.  We  know  that  they 
must  be  learned  from  the  perusal  of  the  state  papers  of 
that  day — the  histories  of  the  time — the  judicial  records — 
the  '  body  of  libertips,'  as  ^ey  then  called  their  fundamen- 
tal laws — the  statutes  and  ordinances  enacted  from  time  to 
time,  and  which,  though  they  have  long  since  ceased  to  have 
any  binding  force  as  statutes,  still  retain  their  influence  as 
essential  parts  of  our  common  law.  We  must  study  more- 
over the  genius  of  the  ppople — their  religious  sentiments, 
and  their  prpjudicps  and  opinions  on  all  subjects  connected 
with  law  and  government. 

There  is  no  douf)t  that  a  considerable  part  of  the  English 
common  law  was  adopted.  But  it  is  not  easy  to  draw  the 
line  betwpon  what  was  taken  and  what  rejected.  The  first 
settlers  adopted  all  that  tht-y  deemed  suitable  to  their  con- 
dition and  circumstances  ;  but  it  requires  much  knowledge 
to  determine  now  what  was  suitable  then.  During  our  union 
with  Massachusetts,  which  then  comprehended  the  territory 
of  Maine,  a  great  number  of  statutes,  or  ordinances,  as  they 
were  more  generally  called,  were  enacted.  Those  which 
had  been  made  durmg  'he  first  ten  years,  were  revised  by 
the  wise  men,  clergymen  and  laymen,  and  were  sent  forth 

New-Hampshire  Law,  203 

rather  for  the  consideration  of  the  people,  and  by  way  of 
experiment,  than  as  statutes,  for  thry  were  all  limited  to 
three  years.  They  were  continued  to  1648,  when  they  were 
again  revised,  and  wiih  the  addition  of  such  as  had  been 
passed  in  the  interval,  were  established  and  published.  A 
new  edition  was  published  ten  years  afterwards,  and  a  third 
in  1671. 

New-Hampshire  was  separated  from  Massachusetts  (much 
against  the  inclination  of  its  inhabitants)  by  the  royal  proc- 
lamation, in  1G79,  and  had  a  legislature  of  its  own  in  1680. 
A  body  of  laws  was  enacted  in  the  course  of  the  first  year. 
It  seems  that  these,  when  sent  home  for  the  royal  approba- 
tion, were  disallowed  in  the  lump.  They  were  probably 
copied  from  those  of  Massachusetts  ;  and  it  is  well  known 
that  that  colony  v/as  no  favorite  with  ihe  court  of  'hat  jjen- 
teel  but  worthless  monarch,  Charles  the  II.  All  the  laws  of 
vYezo-England  breathed  a  spirit  of  freedom,  and  indeed  bore 
no  marks  of  that  dependance  which  distant  provinces  are 
supposed  to  owe  to  the  parent  State.  Two  years  afterwards, 
another  body  of  laws  was  enacted.  Neither  of  these  codes 
was  ever  printed,  and  we  hav  no  rrcords  of  this  pf-riod 
in  the  Secretary's  office.  The  loss  of  these  statutes  is  hard- 
ly to  be  regretted.  Where  they  were  copied  from  those  of 
Massachusetts,  we  have  the  originals,  and  where  they  difler- 
ed,  they  were  a  dead  letter.  The  Massachusetts  old  char- 
ter was  vacated  and  annull'^d  by  a  proceeding  in  the  Eng- 
lish chancery,  in  1684.     We  had  no  charter  to  beannulled. 

The  interval  between  the  death  of  Charles  11.(1686) 
and  the  revolution  in  1688,  when  James  the  II.  reigned, 
and  when  his  minions  Andross,Cranfield  and  Barefoote  gov- 
erned here,  is  a  blank  in  the  history  of  our  laws  and  juris- 
prudence. It  was  a  time  of  suffering,  and  not  of  law  making, 
a  time  when  men  and  not  laws  governed. — During  these  evil 
times,  when  "  evil  men  bore  sway,"  New-Hampshire  united 
herself  again  to  Massachusetts,  and  remained  under  the  pro- 
tection of  her  wing  till  the  cloud  had  passed  over.  She 
seems  to  have  resunipd  her  separate  station  soon  after  the 
new  charter  of  Massachusetts  came  over  in  the  spring  of 
1692  ;  a  Governor  and  council  were  appointed  for  this  State, 
and  the  privilege  granted  of  choosing  a  house  of  assembly. 
There  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  law  of  New-Hampshire 
and  Massachusetts  was  in  the  fundamentals  the  same  at  this 

It  was  a  remarkable  circumstance,  that  a  people  who  had 
been  governed  generally  as  freemen,  and  who  were  by  no 

204  Xeto-H'Wip shirt  Law, 

means  illiterate,  should  at  the  distance  of  nearly  seventy 
years  from  the  first  settlerai-nt,  be  entirely  destitute  of  what 
is  called  written  law.  In  1697,  the  Earl  of  Bellamont  was 
appointed  Governor  of  NLVv-Hainpshire  and  Massachusetts, 
and  this  practice  of  appointing  one  Governor  for  the  two 
provinces  continued  until  1741. 

iMany  statutes  were  enacted  after  1692  in  this  State.  A 
considerable  portion  of  them  were  not  allowed  by  the  King 
in  Council ;  but  it  is  believed  that  things  went  on  pretty  much 
as  they  did  during  our  union  with  Massachusetts.  When 
the  same  Governor  presided  over  both  provinces,  it  may 
naturally  be  supposed  that  the  statutes  would  be  nearly 
the  same,  and  such  was  the  fact. 

An  edition  r  f  our  statutes  was  published  at  Boston  in  1 71  &, 
by  Bartholomew  Green,  in  60  pages  folio,  in  1 71 8,  72  pa- 
ges w(  readdf  d.  The  next  year  (1719.)  24  pages  were  ad- 
ded, and  in  the  course  of  the  next  succeeding  eight  years, 
16  pages  more  :  this  last  completed  the  volume  of  172  pages. 
These  composed  the  bulk  of  our  statute  law  at  the  revolution 
in  1775. 

An  edition  of  our  statutes  was  printed  in  1760,  by  Daniel 
Fowle,  who  had  four  years  before  set  up  the  first  printing 
prf'ss  in  this  state.  This  edition  seems  not  to  have  been 
deemed  authentic;  for  in  1771,  a  complete  edition  of  the  stat- 
utes in  force  was  printed. 

In  January,  1776,  a  temporary  form  of  civil  government 
was  established  in  this  State,  on  the  recommendation  of 
Congr  r;S.  Doubts  were  entertained  by  some  whether  by 
the  a>sumption  of  an  independent  government  in  January, 
1776,  ;uid  the  declaration  of  independence  in  July  of  ihe 
same  year,  the  acts  and  laws  in  force  before  these  events, 
were  not  thereby  abrogated.  To  remove  these  doubts,  a 
statute  was  passed  April  9,  1777,  re-establishing  the  gen- 
eral system  of  laws. 

A  constitution,  intended  to  be  permanent,  was  framed,  and 
came  into  operation  in  June,  1784.  This  was  revised,  and 
the  revision  took  full  eft'ect  in  June,  1 793. 

The  statutes,  after  the  revolution,  (1776)  were  printed  in 
/o/?'o  form  till  1789,  when  a  collection  was  made  in  o(7cn;o, 
by  order  of  the  Legislature,  of  all  the  puf)lic  and  some  of 
the  private  laws  made  since  the  revolution.  This  did  not 
meet  the  wishes  of  the  public,  and  between  that  ?nd  1792, 
the  whole  body  of  the  statutes,  ancient  and  modern,  were 
revised  and  published  in  a  volume  in  the  latter  j^ear.  (1  792.) 
A  new  edition  of  this  work,  with  the  subsequent  acts,  was 

J^ew-Hampshire  Law,  205 

published  in  1797,  and  a  larger  and  more  copious  edition 
in  1805.  In  1815,  a  volume  was  published  bj  order  of  the 
Legislature,  containing  all  the  statutes  in  force,  and  such  of 
the  rep»  aled  laws  as  were  deemed  necessary  to  be  known, 
for  they  still  govern  the  decisions  in  all  cases  happening 
while  they   were  in  force. 

During  the  course  of  the  last  year,  a  second  volume  was 
published,  cont;;ining  all  the  statutes  pass«  d  since  1815, 
with  an  appendix  of  useful  state  papers. 

The  union  of  the  States  into  a  confederac}'  creatf  d  a  new 
body  of  legislators — I  mean  thf  old  Congress.  1  heir  acts 
and  liws,  mixed  with  the  journal  of  the  proceedings,  are  in 
•13  volumes.  In  1789,  the  new  Constitution  of  the  United 
Staffs  came  into  operation,  and  the  la  ws  ot  the  United  Slates, 
with  the  constitution  and  the  treaties  made  under  it,  are  now 
puilishedin  13  volumes. 

So  that  the  laws,  to  which  the  good  people  of  this  State 
are  subject,  are — 

I.  The  Constitution  of  the  United  States  5  the  laws  of 
Congress  mado  in  pursu/mce  thereof,  and  all  treaties  made 
undf-r  the  authority  of  the  United  Stales.  These  are  the 
supreme  law  of  the  land,  and  control  the  constitution  and 
laws  of  the  Stifle  where  they  difter.  They  bind  the  Legis- 
lature, and  what  is  still  more,  the  people  in  their  collective 

If.  The  Constitution  of  this  State.  This  controls  the  stat- 
ute and  common  law  ot  the  State,  and  repeals  the  common 

in.  The  statutes  and  resolves  enacted  and  made  by  the 
Legislature.     This  controls  and  repeals  the  common  law. 

IV.  The  common  law.  or  the  usages  and  customs.  The 
basis  of  this  law  is  freedom,  for  it  springs  from  the  volun- 
tary consent  of  the  people.  Whoever  makes  the  statutes, 
the  peo{)le  make  the  common  law. — Our  common  law  may 
be  reterred  to  three  sources. 

1.  Such  parts  of  the  common  law  of  England  as  were 
deemed  suitable  to  our  condition. 

2.  Usages  which  insensibly  grew  up  in  the  country  when 
we  were  in  a  manner  neglected  by  the  parent  State,  and 
almost  independent  of  it.     1630 — 1660. 

3.  The  statutes,  orders  and  ordinances  which  were  fram- 
ed by  the  Legislature  before  1690,  and  which  no  longer 
bind  as  statutes,  but  which  still  retain  their  influence,  be- 
cause thev  were  agreeable  to  the  genius,  manners  and  hab- 
its of  the  people,  and  therefore  they  were  wise  and  good 

(  206  ) 




According  to  the  intimation  at  the  close  of  my  last  paper,  I 
now  proceed  in  the  further  consideration  of  the  exi-cuiive  coun- 
eil.  We  all  know  that  bad  appointments  have  been  made,  but 
few  know  who  was  the  prime  agent  that  made  them.  The  gov- 
ernor lays  the  blame  to  the  council  in  one  case  ;  he  says  he  was 
overruled  by  them  ;  and  in  another,  the  council  were  so  divided, 
that  nothing  better  could  be  done.  The  council  recriminate,  and 
charge  the  evil  upon  the  governor  ;  they  accuse  him  in  one  in- 
stance, with  being  obstinate  and  unyielding,  and  in  another,  with 
being  so  fickle  and  uncertain  that  no  other  appointment  couJd  be 
made.  Though  it  is  apparent  that  there  has  been  mismanage- 
ment, yet  the  governor  and  council  assign  so  many  plausible  rea- 
sons in  their  lavor,  and  the  facts  are  so  often  concealed,  that  it 
is  sometimes  difficult  to  decide  to  whom  the  evil  should  be  char- 
ged. Cases  of  this  kind  have  actually  happened,  and  we  have 
recently  witnessed  in  the  journals  of  the  day,  the  friends  of  a 
governor  attempting  to  exonerate  him  from  the  blame  of 
certain  appointments,  upon  the  ground  that  he  was  obliged  to 
submit  to  the  will  of  the  council.  Though  this  plea  cannot 
justify  the  governor,  it  proves  that  an  executive  council  has  a 
direct  tendency  to  divide,  weaken,  and  destroy  the  responsibili- 
ty of  the  executive  department.  An  artful,  intriguing  council 
will  make  a  feeble,  accommodating  governoi  subservient  to  their 
will ;  and  a  cunning,  designing  governor  will  make  a  weak  coun- 
cil a  cloak  to  shield  him  against  public  censure  for  all  the  bad 
appointments  he  makes. 

As  the  governor  has  an  absolute  negative  upon  the  council,  no 
man  can  be  appointed  to  office  without  his  consent ;  of  course  he 
is  responsible, and  ought  to  be  so  considered,  for  all  the  appoint- 
ments made  by  the  executive  department.  It  is  a  breach  of 
trust  for  a  governor  to  consent  to  the  appointment  of  a  man  whom 
he  considers  unfit  for  office  ;  and  whenever  he  is  guilty  of  such 
misconduct,  the  attempt  to  screen  himself  from  public  censure, 
by  imputing  the  blame  to  the  council,  is  evidence  of  a  feeble  in- 
tellect, or  disingenuous  disposition,  and  perhaps,  both.  I  am  sen- 
sible the  governor  may,  in  relation  to  an  important  appoint- 
ment, be  placed  in  a  situation  that  is  not  only  difficult,  but  such 
as  would  embarrass  and  perplex  the  wisest  and  purest  mind.  To 
illustrate  this  point,  I  will  state  a  case  that  has  occurred.  Our 
superior  court  consists  of  three  justices,  two  of  whom  must  at- 
tend to  make  a  quorum  ;  one  of  them  dies  or  resigns,  and  the 
health  of  one  of  the  remaining  judges  is  so  bad  as  to  render  it 
uncertain  whether   he  will  be  able  t©   attend ;  to  guard   against 

Essays  of  Cincmiiatus.  207 

the  evil  and  expense  of  delaying  justice  for  half  the  year,  it  is 
necessary  to  appoint  another  judge.  If  the  council,  in  such  a 
case,  insist  upon  the  appointment  of  a  man  who  is  really  unquali- 
fied for  that  hi^h  trust,  it  is  the  duty  of  the  governor  to  withhold 
his  consent.  If  they  refuse  to  appoint  a  man  whom  the  governor 
deems  well  qualified,  and  nominate  one  who  has  fewer  qualifica- 
tions for  that  office,  the  state  of  things  may  be  such,  as  to  justify 
him  in  yielding  his  consent  to  an  appointment  which  he  would  not 
have  otherwise  made.  This  has  actually  happened, and  may  again; 
and  it  is  not  only  a  strong  objection  to  an  executive  council,  but 
renders  the  chief  magistrate  responsible  tor  an  act  which  the 
necessity  of  the  case  required  him  to  perform. 

In  making  appointments,  the  members  of  the  council  have 
often  private  views  and  selfish  objects  to  effect,  which  though 
concealed  from  the  governor,  are  hostile  to  the  public  interest. 
They  may,  and  in  fact  have,  made  bargains  with  each  other  : 
you  support  my  friend^  and  I  will  yours.  Instances  could  be  cited 
where  two  counsellors  have  declared  A.  was  not  fit  for  a  partic- 
ular office,  and  two  other  counsellors  made  a  declaration  that  B. 
was  not  qualified  for  another  office  ;  and  yet  all  four  of  those 
counsellors  a  few  days  after  agreed  to  appoint  them  both.  How 
can  a  governor  safely  trust  the  advice  of  such  men  ?  and  how 
can  the  people  expect  they  will  serve  them  faithfully  ?  "  A 
council,"  says  Hamilton,  ''to  a  magistrate,  who  is  himself  respon- 
sible for  what  he  does,  are  generally  nothing  better  than  a  clog 
upon  his  good  intentidns  ;  are  often  the  instruments  and  accom- 
plices of  his  bad,  and  are  always  a  cloak  to  his  faults." 

The  council,  in  making  appointments,  have  too  often  discov- 
ered an  undue  attachment  to  their  ])ersonal  friends  and  connex- 
ions, and  a  spirit  of  patronage  and  favoritism,  equally  hostile  tcr 
individual  merit  and  to  the  interest  and  security  of  the  public. 
Nor  have  they,  in  the  distribution  of  offices,  been  unmindful  of 
themselves.  In  May,  1809,  when  there  were  butyour  counsel- 
lors, and  on  the  very  day  when  their  office  expired,  they  appointed 
two  of  their  number  sheriffs  of  the  counties  to  which  they  be- 
longed, and  another  of  them  judge  of  a  court.  1  have  known 
the  election  of  a  counsellor,  in  one  of  the  counties,  made  solely 
with  a  view  to  effect  the  appointment  of  a  particular  man  to  be 
sheriff  of  that  county.  Where  such  a  spirit  of  selfishness  and 
local  interest  prevails,  we  cannot  expect  the  public  interest  will 
be  their  principal  object  in  making  appointments. 

The  expcnce  of  the  council  is  an  object  that  on  this  occasion 
ought  not  to  be  omitted.  Their  first  session  commences  with 
the  meeting  of  the  legislature,  and  always  co'itinues  as  long  and 
sometimes  longer  :  and  when  there  is  a  second  session  of  the 
legislature, the  council  attend,and  besides  these,they  usui^lly  have 
two,  and  sometimes  more  sessions  each  y^ar.  Their  fees  for  trav- 
el and  attendance  make  a  consid(  rable  item  in  our  expenditures, 
and  of  course  increase  the  amount  of  our  annual  taxe«. 

208  Essays  of  Cincinnalus, 

In  every  point  of  view  in  which  I  have  been  able  to  consider 
the  council,  and  from  a  careful  examination  of  their  proceed- 
ings, I  am  convinced  our  system  of  g-overnment  would  be  not 
only  more  simple  and  less  expensive,  but  more  secure  and  per- 
fect, without  a  council  than  it  is  with  one.  The  responsibility 
would  then  rest  solely  on  the  governor,  and  he  would  have  no 
means  to  evade  its  authority.  One  man  can  he  more  effectually 
watched  than  numbers  ;  and  when  acting  alone  he  cannot  have 
so  great  a  mass  of  influence  as  when  associated  with  others. — 
The  state  is  not  so  large,  but  that  a  man  qualified  for  governor 
would  have  the  means  of  appointing  those  who  are  best  qualified 
for  office  :  and  if  he  did  not  appoint  such,  he  would  know  and 
feel  that  it  was  owing  to  his  own  negligence,  or,  what  is  worse, 
to  the  influence  of  improper  motives. 

"  The  sole  and  undivided  responsibility  of  one  man,"  says 
Hamilton,  "  will  naturally  beget  a  livelier  sense  of  duty,  and  a 
more  exact  regard  to  reputation.  He  will,  on  this  account,  feel 
himself  under  stronger  obligations,  and  more  interest'^d  to  inves- 
tigate with  care,  the  qualities  requisite  to  the  stations  to  be  filled, 
and  to  prefer  with  impartiality  the  persons  who  may  have  the 
fairest  pretensions  to  them.  He  will  h<\ye  fewer  personal  attach- 
ments to  gratify  than  a  body  of  men  who  may  be  each  supposed 
to  have  an  equal  number,  and  will  bo  so  much  the  less  liable  to  be 
misled  by  the  sentiments  of  friendship  and  affection.  There  is 
nothing  so  apt  to  agitate  the  passions  of  mankind  as  personal 
considerations,  whether  they  relate  to  ourselves,  or  others,  who 
are  to  be  the  obji^cts  of  our  choice  or  preference.  Hence  in 
every  exercise  of  the  power  of  appointing  to  offices  by  an  as- 
sembly of  men,  we  must  expect  to  see  a  full  display  of  all  the 
private  and  party  likings  and  dislikes,  partialities  and  antipathies, 
attachments  and  animosities,  which  are  felt  by  those  who  com- 
pose the  assembly  The  choice  which  may  at  any  time  happen 
to  be  made  under  such  circum-^tances,  will  of  course  be  the  re- 
sult either  of  a  victory  gained  by  one  party  over  the  other,  or 
of  a  compromise  between  the  panics.  In  either  case,  the  in- 
trinsic merit  of  the  candidate  will  too  often  be  out  of  sight.  In 
the  first,  the  qualifications  best  adapted  to  uniting  the  suffrages  of 
the  party  will  be  more  considered  than  those  which  fit  the  per- 
s.)n  for  the  station.  In  the  last,  the  coalition  will  commonly  turn 
upon  some  interested  equivalent.  Give  vs  the  man  we  wish  for 
this  office^  and  you  shall  have  the  one  you  wish  for  that.  This  will 
be  the  usual  condition  of  the  bargain.  And  it  will  rarely  happen 
that  the  advancement  of  the  public  service,  will  be  the  object 
either  of  party  victories,  or  of  party  negociations."  The  same 
distinguished  statesman  in  another  place  observes,  that  he  rarely 
met  with  an  intelligent  man  from  any  of  the  states^  who  did  not  ad- 
mit^ as  the  result  of  experience.,  that  the  nnity  of  the  executive  was 
one  of  the  best  distinguishing  features  in  government. 

Essays  of  Cincinnatus*  209 

Though  I  consider  our  executive  couacil  unnecessary,  and  that 
it  occpisions  more  avil  than  gr^od  to  society,  yet  it  may  be  doubt- 
ful whether  it  would  be  prudent  to  vest  the  governor  with  the 
sole  i.uthority  of  making  the  appointments.  The  system,  which 
appears  to  me  would  produce  the  most  good  and  exclude  the 
greatest  evil,  would  be,  to  give  the  sole,  exclusive  right  of  nom- 
ination to  the  governor,  but  that  he  should  not  make  appoint- 
ments without  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  senate,  except  when 
a  vacancy  should  happen  in  the  recess  of  the  senate  ;  he  should, 
in  such  cases  appoint,  and  the  person  so  appointed  should  hold 
his  oflSce  to  the  end  of  the  next  session.  This  system  the  United 
States  have  adopted,  and  experience  has  proved  its  wisdom  and 
usefulness.  If  the  governor  then  made  a  bad  nomination,  the 
blame  would  rest  on  him  alone  ;  but  if  he  nominated  a  person 
well  qualified  for  office,  and  the  senate  refused  their  assent  to 
his  appointment,  the  blame  would  not  tall  on  him,  but  them.  If 
an  ill  appointment  should  be  made,  r.o  man  could  be  at  a  loss  to  de- 
termine on  whom,  and  to  what  degree,  the  opprobrium  and  dis- 
grace of  it  should  be  inflicted;  it  would  fall  upon  the  governor 
for  making  the  nomination,  and  on  the  senate  for  advising  and 
consenting  to  it.  The  duties  and  responsibility  of  each  would 
be  marked  with  precision,  and  neither  would  be  able  to  impute 
their  errors  to  the  misconduct  of  the  other. 

The  power  of  the  senate  to  negative  nominations,  would 
check  the  favoritism  of  the  governor  ;  make  him  more  cautious 
and  vigilant  in  nominating  men  to  office  ;  and  it  would  relieve 
the  people  from  the  charge  of  supporting  an  executive  council. 
Though  the  retrenchment  of  expence  is  not  the  greatest  benetit 
of  such  a  system,  it  is  too  considerable  to  be  neglected.  The  av- 
erage annual  expense  of  the  council  for  three  years  in  succes- 
sion, an  account  of  which  I  have  before  me,  was  seven  hundred 
and  ten  dollars.  If  to  this  sum  we  add  the  annual  payments,  and 
compound  interest  at  the  rate  of  six  per  cent,  from  the  times  of 
paymentjin  less  than  sixty-six  years  the  auiiual  interest  would  then 
be  equal  to  the  present  state  tax  raised  for  the  support  of 
every  branch  of  our  government.  Should  the  council  be  discon- 
tinued, and  no  such  fund  formed,  the  money  would  be  left  in  the 
hands  of  our  citizens,  as  well  as  the  expence  of  collecting  it,  and 
to  those  who  are  prudent  and  frugal  would  be  equally  profitable  to 
them.  It  is  with  a  state  as  an  individual ;  its  ease  and  prosperity 
are  moredependanton  the  expenditure,  than  on  the  acquisition  of 
money.  And  in  a  country  where  the  charge  of  government  is  in- 
creasing^ it  is  an  object  worthy  of  the  statesman,  to  reduce  the  ex- 
penditure of  public  money  wherever  it  can  be  done  without  im- 
pairing public  security. 


May  6.  1824. 


(  210  ) 

BY    AN    OLD    SOLDIER. 

A  few  weeks  since,  Messrs.  Editors,  I  accidentally  met  witfc 
a  stray  number  of  your  Collections.  It  was  the  first  I  had  seeDf 
though  I  recollect  to  have  heard  the  pnbiication  frequently  spok- 
en of  in  terms  of  approbation.  I  do  assure  you,  that  I  heartily 
commend  your  plan,  and  wish  you  to  send  me  two  complete  sets 
of  the  work.  Direct  to  me  at  *  *  *  *,  and  when  the  next 
"  pension  day"  comes  round,  the  Old  Soldier  will  not  forget  you. 
1  send  fur  two  copies,  though  I  shall  perhaps  find  time  to  read 
but  one  ;  for  my  intention  is  not  to  be  behind  my  younger  neigh- 
bors in  works  of  charity  and  benevolence  and  public  spirit. 
Wow  in  all  the  little  busy  village  where  I  live,coDtainiDg  two  or 
throe  hundred  inhabitants,  under  the  special  protectiou  of  two 
.or  three  lawyers,  half  a  dozen  justices  and  physicians,  and  one 
"  old  continental" — there  is  not  a  single  literary  work  taken  or 
read,  excepting  one  copy  of  the  Miss.  Herald^  which  our  honest 
deacon  subscribed  for  a  year  or  two  ago,  and  soon  after  stopped, 
but  which  still  comes  to  him,  to  his  special  annoyance.  News- 
papers there  are  at  every  man's  door  :  some  take  them — some 
receive,  and  a  few  read  them.  Some  take  half  a  dozen  of  different 
kinds — others,  to  shew  their  spirit,  take  .is  many  of  one  kind  ! 
Now  I  am  disposed,  not  merely  to  patronize  your  useful  miscel- 
lany, but  to  send  you  occasionally,  a  story  of  old  times,  told  in 
my  hemoly  way,  which,  if  you  pleiise,  you  may  publish,  cor- 
recting and  supplying  my  errors  and  omissions.  I  am  growing 
old,  gentle  sirs;  but  the  cheerfulness  of  age  is  as  rich  in  its  con- 
solations, as  was  the  strength  of  youth  and  manhood  in  hopes 
and  prospects.  And  as  hardly  any  thing  is  more  pleasing  to  an 
old  man  than  to  talk  of  times  and  scenes  that  are  past,  I  pre- 
sume you  will  not  object  to  listening  now  and  then  to  the  stories 
of  an  OLD  SOLDI ER. 


Jonathan  Ril'^y  was  a  sergeant  in  the  —  regiment,  had  served 
under  Gen.  Amherst  in  the  old  French  war,  and  was  with  the 
provincials  at  the  taking  of  Havana.  This  man  was  often  se- 
lected for  dangerous  and  trying  situations,  and  his  uniform  cour- 
age and  presence  of  mind  ensured  him  success.  He  was  at 
length  placed  on  a  recruiting  station,  and  in  a  short  period  enlist- 
ed a  great  number  of  men.    Among  his  recruits  was  Frank  Lilly, 

Tales  of  the  Rfvolntion.  211 

a  boy  about  16  years  of  age,  a  weak  and  puuy  lad,  who  would 
not  perhaps,  have  passed  muster,  were  we  not  greatly  iri  want  of 
men.  The  soldiers  made  this  boy  the  butt  of  their  ridicule,  and 
many  a  sorry  joke  was  uttered  at  his  expense.  They  told  him 
to  szvear  his  legg^  in  other  words  to  get  them  insured.  Yet  there 
was  something  about  him  interesting,  and  at  times  he  discovered 
a  spirit  beyond  his  years.  To  this  boy,  for  some  unknown 
cause,  Riley  became  greatly  attached,  and  seemed  to  pity  him 
from  the  bottom  of  his  heart.  Often  on  our  long  and  fatiguing 
marches,  dying  almost  from  want,  harrass'd  incessantly  by  the 
enemy,  did  Riley  carry  the  boy's  knapjiack  for  miles,  and  many 
a  crust  tor  the  poor  wretch  was  saved  from  his  sca/ity  allowance. 
But  Frank  Lilly's  resolution  was  once  the  cause  of  saving  the 
wh(de  detachment.  The  American  army  was  encamped  at 
Elizabethtown.  The  soldiers  stationed  about  four  miles  from 
the  main  body,  near  the  bay  that  separated  the  continent  from 
Staten-Island,  forming  an  advance  picket  guard,  were  chosen 
from  a  southern  regiment,  and  were  continually  deserting.  It 
was  a  po*t  of  some  danger,  as  the  young  ambitious  British  offi- 
cers, nr  experienced  sergeants,  often  headed  parties  that  ap- 
proached the  shore  in  silence  during  the  night  and  attacked  oar 
outposts  Once  they  succeeded  in  surprising  and  capturing  an 
olfjcer  and  twenty  men,  without  the  loss  of  a  man  on  their  part 
Gen.  Washingtou  determined  to  relieve  the  forces  near  the  bay, 
and  our  regiment  was  the  one  from  which  the  selection  was 
made.  The  arrangement  of  our  guard,  as  near  as  I  can  recol- 
lect, was  as  follows  : 

A  body  of  250  men  were  stationed  a  short  distance  inland.  In 
advance  of  these  were  several  outposts,  consisting  of  an  offi- 
cer and  thirty  men  each.  The  sentinels  were  so  near  as  to 
meet  in  their  rounds,  and  were  relieved  in  every  two  hours  — 
It  chanced  one  dark  and  windy  night,  that  Lilly  and  myself  were 
sentinels  on  adjoining  posts.  All  the  sentinels  were  directed  to 
fire  on  the  least  alarm,  and  retreat  to  the  guard,  where  we  were 
to  make  the  best  defence  we  could,  until  supported  by  the  de- 
tachment in  our  rear.  In  front  of  me  was  a  strip  of  woods,  and 
the  bay  was  so  near  that  I  could  hear  the  dashing  of  the  waves. 
It  was  near  midnight,  and  occasionally  a  star  to  be  seen  through 
the  flying  clouds.  The  hours  passed  heavily  and  cheerlessly 
away.  The  wind  at  times  roared  through  the  adjoining  woods 
with  astonishing  violence.  In  a  pause  of  the  storm,  as  the  wind 
died  suddenly  away,  and  was  heard  only  moaning  at  a  distance,  I 
was  startled  by  an  unusual  noise  in  the  woods  before  me.  Again 
I  listened  attentively,  and  imagined  that  1  heard  the  heavy  tread 
of  a  body  of  men,  and  the  rattling  of  cartridge  boxes.  As  I  met 
Lilly,  I  informed  him  of  my  suspicions.  All  had  been  quiet  in 
the  rounds,  but  he  would  keep  a  good  watch  and  fire  on  the  least 
alarm.  We  separated,  and  I  had  marched  but  a  few  rods,  when  I 
heard  the  following  conversation.    "  Stani."    The  an8wer  was 

2l2  Tales  of  the  Revolution, 

from  a  speaker  rapidly  approaching,  and  in  a  low  constrained 
voice.  "  Stand  yourself,  and  you  shall  not  be  injured.  If 
you  fire,  you  are  a  dead  man.  It'  you  remain  where  you  are, 
you  shall  not  be  harmed.     If  you  move,  I  will  run  you  throug-h." 

Scarcely  had  he  spoken,  when  1  saw  the  flash,  and  heard  the 
report  of  Lilly''s  gfun.  1  saw  a  black  mass  rapidly  advancing,  at 
which  1  tired,  and  with  all  the  sentinels  retreated  to  the  guard, 
cons  st'Hg  of  thirty  men  commanded  by  an  ensign.  An  old  bara 
had  served  them  for  a  guard-house,  and  they  barely  hnd  time  to 
turn  out,and  pai'ade  in  the  road,  as  the  British  were  getting  over 
a  fence  within  six  rods  of  us,  to  the  number  of  eighty,as  we  sup- 
posed. We  tired  upon  them,  and  retreated  in  good  order  to- 
wards thf!  detachment  in  the  rear.  The  enemy,  disappointed  of 
their  exuected  prey,  pushed  us  hard,  but  we  were  soon  rein- 
forced, and  they  in  their  turn  were  compelled  to  retreat,  and  we 
followed  tiiem  at  their  heels  to  the  boats.  We  found  the  next 
morning  that  poor  Krank  Lilly,  after  discharging  his  musket,  was 
followed  so  cli  se  by  the  enemy  that  he  was  unable  to  get  over  a 
fence,  and  he  was  run  through  with  a  bayonet.  It  was  apparent, 
however,  that  there  had  been  a  violent  struggle.  Ftut  in  tront  of 
his  post  was  a  British  non-commissioned  oflicer,  one  of  the  best 
formed  men  I  ever  saw,  shot  directly  through  the  body.  He 
died  in  great  agonies,  as  the  ground  was  torn  up  with  his  hands, 
and  he  had  literally  bitten  the  dust.  We  discovered  long  traces 
of  blood,  but  never  knew  the  extent  of  the  enemy's  loss.  Poor 
Riley  took  Lilly's  death  so  much  to  heart  that  he  never  after- 
wards was  the  man  he  previously  had  been.  He  became  indif- 
ferent and  neglected  his  duty.  There  was  something  remarkable 
in  the  manner  of  his  death.  He  was  tried  tor  his  life,  and  sen- 
tenced to  be  shot.  During  the  trial  and  subsequently,  he  dis- 
covered an  indifference  truly  astonishing.  On  the  day  of  his  ex- 
ecution, the  fatal  cap  was  drawn  over  his  eyes,  and  he  was  caus- 
ed to  kneel  in  front  of  the  whole  army.  Twelve  men  were  de- 
tailed for  the  purpose  of  executing  him,  but  a  pardon  had  been 
granted,  unknown  to  Riley,  in  consequence  of  his  age  and  servi- 
ces ;  they  had  no  cartridges.  The  word  "  ready"  was  given, 
and  the  cocking  of  guns  could  be  distinctly  heard.  At  the  word 
"  fire,"  Riley  fell  dead  upon  his  face,  when  not  a  gun  had  been 

It  was  said  that  Frank  Lilly  was  the  fruit  of  one  of  Riley's  old 
love  affairs  with  a  beautiful  and  unfortunate  girl.  There  vva3  a 
sad  story  concernitig  her  fate,  but  I  am  old  now  and  have  forgot- 
ten it.  OLD  SOLDIER. 

JVote  by  the  JEtZr^ors.— We  recollect  to  have  seen  tlio  preceding  story  in  some 
newspaper  published  a  few  years  since,  witli  a  little  variation.  It  is  stili  worth 
re-))riminn^  ;  and  we  insert  it  with  t!  e  greater  tlieerlulness,  knowing  (hat  the 
"  Old  Soldier"  can  furnish  many  original  anecriotes  of  his  own  connected  wiih 
events  of  the  Revolution. 

(  213  ) 

AUNT    RA(  HEl's    CURSE. 

The  good  prople  of  the  Old  Colony  have  from  time  im- 
memorial been  more  or  less  influenced  by  the  predictions 
and  warnings  of  some  old  syi)il,  who  pretended  to  peep  into 
fate  through  the  bottom  ot  a  lea-cup,  and  discern  the  move- 
mems  of  the  heavens  by  the  settling  of  her  coffee  grounds. 

One  of  these  beldams  had  lor  many  years  inhabited  a 
hovel,  which  had  before  been  distinguished  in  the  more  dig- 
nified use  of  a  fish  house,  seated  near  the  extremity  of  a 
promontory,  which  overhung  the  centre  of  Plymouth  Bay. 
The  ease  with  which  she  could  derive  subsistence  from  the 
shores,  and,  in  the  season,  from  neighboring  fish  flakes,  had 
probably  induced  the  Pythoness  to  ej.tablish  herself  in  so 
dreary  a  domicile,  and  the  profit  which  she  dei-ived  in  pre- 
dicting fair  winds  and  favorable  weather,  did  much  towards 
conciliating  the  affection  of  the  owner  of  her  otherwise  un- 
promising habitation. 

So  long  and  so  successfully  had  Rachel  foretold  to  the 
inquiring  seamen  the  weather  of  the  coming  day,  (an  art 
which  those  who  live  on  the  seaboard  know  to  be  easily  ac- 
quired) that  they  almost  felt  that  she  had  an  influence  in  the 
fulfilment  of  her  own  predictions,  and  not  one  was  ever 
known  to  calculate  a  voyage  into  the  outer  bay,  without 
consulting  "  Aunt  Rache''''  upon  the  morrow's  weather,  nor 
on  their  return  did  they  neglect  to  leave  a  portion  of  their 
takings^  for  a  reward  to  her  who  had  predicted,  or  perhaps 
procured,  their  success. 

There  were,  indeed,  a  few  in  the  village,  who  affiected  to 
deride  the  talents  of  Rachel,  and  sneer  at  those  who  were 
influenced  by  her  predictions  ;  but  it  is  said  that  even  these, 
the  minister,  school-master,  and  physician,  were  always  able 
to  find  an  excuse  for  delaying  any  expedition,  the  event  of 
which  she  might  have  pronounced  ag-nnst.  And  I  myself 
recollect  when  a  certain  ordination  lacked  one  of  its  council 
by  the  officious  boldness  of  the  prophetess  of  the  storm. 

The  pleasure  which  Rachel  found  in  the  solitude  of  night, 
in  watching  the  flux  of  the  sea  as  it  cast  its  intrusive  wave 
further  and  further  upon  the  sand,  served,  if  indeed  any 
thing  was  necessary,  to  add  tc>'  the  awe  with  which  her 
neighbors  contemplated  her  character. 

She  was  met  in  one  of  her  midnight  rambles  by  a  party 
preparing  for  an  early  departure  for  the  outer  Bay  fishing, 
who   anxiously   ioquired  the  probability  of  the  morrow'e 

Q14  NcTU'England  Superstitions^ 

weather.  "Fair,"  said  she,  "  fair — to-roorrow  sees  neither 
rain  nor  wind  ;  the  minister  must  have  less  corn  in  his  field, 
lo  make  his  prayers  available."  "  But  Aunt  Rachel,  (they 
always  put  the  last  syllable  to  brr  ncime  when  thf^y  spoke 
to  her  at  nighl.)  «ioVou  sec  yon  cloud  in  the  west  ?"  '^  What 
have  I  to  do  with  west  or  south  ?"  said  she.  "  I  have  prom- 
ised fair,  though  yon  might  have  chosen  a  better  day  than 
Friday,  considering  yo\i  take  but  i-ne  voyage  in  a  year." 
Just  then  a  large  vessel  hove  in  sight.  By  the  pale  light  of 
the  moon,  it  was  impossible  to  d'stmguish  the  class  to  which 
she  belonged.  "  She  will  come  in,"  said  Rachf-l,  "  and  for 
no  good — we  do  not  hear  the  sound  of  church  bells  at  mid- 
night for  nothing."  "  But  that  was  Plymouth  clock  striking 
twelve,"  said  one  of  the  company.  "Do  we  hear  clocks," 
said  she,  "four  miles  against  the  wind  ?  and  Plymouth  clock, 
too,  a  wooden  rattle,  with  scarcely  more  work  in  it  than  the 
windlass  of  jonder  chebacco  boat  ?" 

Before  the  party  had  prepared  fur  their  departure,  the 
vessel,  a  large  brig,  had  come  to,  and  anchored  near  the 
shore.  This  vessel,  owned  in  that  place,  and  loaded  with 
sugar  by  a  Boston  merchant,  had  put  in  the  harbor  to  effect 
some  trifling  repairs  to  her  spars.  One  only  of  the  crew 
was  a  native  of  the  village,  and  he,  on  the  following  day, 
conducted  his  messmates  to  Rachel's  hovel,  to  inquire  into 
the  prospects  of  their  voyage. 

"  John  Burgis,"  said  the  auguress  to  her  townsman,  as 
the  party  crossed  her  threshold,  "  have  you  done  well  in 
entering  the  Betsey  ?  The  poor  man's  curse  is  on  her. 
Think  yon  the  vessel  paid  for  in  exchange  notes  will  make 
a  voyage  ?"  "  But,  Aunt  Rachel,"  interrupted  the  sailor, 
evidently  wishing  a  better  reception  for  his  comrades,  "we 
did  not  build  her."  "  If  you  would  not  have  her  fortune, 
flee  her  company.  And  is  it  for  this,  John,  (continued  the 
old  woman)  is  it  for  this  that  your  father,  the  Deacon,  has 
prayed,  that  your  mother  has  wept,  that  the  blessing  of 
the  minister  was  given  to  your  departure,  lo  be  found  with 
wretches  like  these,  land  sharks,  moon  cursers  !"  "  Avast 
there,  old  granny,"  said  one  of  the  strangers,  "  give  us  none 
of  your  slack,  or.  we'll  put  a  stopper  upon  your  gab."  A 
beam  of  fire  seeii'ed  to  flash  from  the  old  woman's  eyes  as 
she  rose  from  her  bench,  and  threw  down  the  coarse  table 
on  which  she  had  been  leaning.  "  You  are  known,"  said 
she  ;  "  there's  not  a  mother's  son  of  you  that  was  not  swad- 
dled in  the  ruins  of  a   wreck."     "  D d  hag  !"  said  the 

oldest — but  interruption  was  vain  ;    the  worst  feelings  ©f 

J^ew-Englttnd  Superstitions,  215 

Rachel  were  roused,  and  her  most  painful  recollections  ex- 
cited ;  the  voluoility  of  her  tongue  expressed  the  intensity 
of  herfeeling!».  •'  There's  not  a  moon,  curser  of  you  all  that 
has  not  braved  the  north  easier  to  fix  a  light  upon  a  pole 
to  mislead  th*  pilot,  and  wreck  his  ship  for  depredation, 
when  you  would  not  wet  a  foot  to  save  a  seaman's  life.  And 
who,  you  children  of  devils  incarnate,  who  but  your  fathers 
and  mothers  fastened  a  hnt^rn  to  a  horse's  he.^d,  and  thus 
in  a  storm  wrecked  the  brig  upon  your  cursed  sands  that 
left  me  childless  and  a  widow?  May  he  who  rid^f.  upon 
the  pale  horse  be  your  guide,  and  you  be  of  the  number 
*  who  follow  with  him.'" 

The  last  imprecation  scarcely  rrachod  thp  ears  of  the 
objects  of  her  curse.  They  went  to  their  v.sseU  and  medi- 
tated a  revenge  every  wi^y  worthy  uf  the  conduct  Rachel 
had  charged  them  with. 

The  next  morning  about  10  o'clock,  the  villagers  wrre 
alarmed  by  a  strong  light  at  or  near  the  wharf.  Jn  less 
than  twenty  minutes  every  inhahifant,  bu:  the  infant  ^nd 
decrepid,  was  at  the  place,  and  Rachel,  half  wfapptci  in 
the  remains  of  an  old  sail,  which  had  served  as  i^  b<  d  cur- 
tain, was  seen  rushing  from  her  burning  hovei.  No  lan- 
guage can  do  justice  to  the  looks  and  gestures  of  this  inrnri- 
ated  wretch.  She  ran  round  the  scene  of  confl-^gration  wi'h 
the  actions  of  a  fury.  Her  grey  hair  was  flying  in  the 
wind,  and  as  she  stood  between  the  strong  light  of  the  bl;ize 
and  the  spectators,  its  upturned  points  seemed  tipt  with  liv- 
ing flame. 

The  next  morning  the  brig  prepared  for  sailing,  and 
many  of  the  inhabitants,  either  to  sf  e  th-^  ruins  of  Rjrhel's 
hut,  or  to  watch  the  vessel's  departure,  flocked  to  the  wharf, 
although  it  was  Sunday. 

The  brig  go;  under  way,  with  a  fine  wind  against  the  tide,- 
and  as  she  made  her  way  smoothly  down  the  channel,  the 
attention  of  the  spectators  was  invited  to  R  ichel.  S}>e  had 
seated  herself  upon  a  rork,  which  elevated  its  top  consider- 
ably above  the  wav^s,  although  it  was  entirely  surrounded 
bv"  the  tide.  The  hollow  moan  which  she  had  uttered,  was 
lost  in  the  rushing  of  the  waves  upon  the  pebbly  shore ;  and, 
indeed,  she  had  scarcely  been  noticed  in  the  bustle  of  pre- 
paring the  vessel.  When  she  was  observed,  the  owner  of 
th6  vessel  attpmpted  to  offer  her  some  consolation  for  the 
loss  of  her  house — she  replied,  without  once  withdrawing 
her  eyes  from  the  receding  vessel,  "  You  need  not  comfort 
me — every  barn  could  i;ive  me  shelter,  if  I  should  need  it; 
but  in  three  days  I  shall  be  tenanted  in  the  narrow  house 

216  Ntw-England  Superstitions^ 

which  yonder  wretches  cannot  burn.  But  you!  who  shall 
console  you  for  the  loss  of  your  brig  ?  Think  you  she  can 
swim  loaded  with  the  curses  of  the  poor,  and  my  curses 
which  have  never  yet  been  vain  ?"  '•  She  has  passed 
Brown's  Island,''^  said  the  owner,  evidently  atjjpcted  by  the 
vehemence  of  her  manner,  "  and  that  is  the  worst  shoal  in 
the  Bay."  Rachel  grew  more  furious  as  the  brig  passed  in 
safety  any  point  or  shoal  which  was  considered  peculiarly 
dangerous,  and  as  the  breeze  freshened,  her  matted  hair 
floated  out  like  streamers  upon  the  wind,  iier  long  bony 
arms  were  extended  with  imprecating  gestures,  and  she 
appeared,  as  she  poured  out  her  mal^^dictions  on  the  au- 
thors of  her  calamities,  like  the  evil  spirit  of  the  ocean  chid- 
ing forth  the  storms  as  mmisters  of  htr  vengeance. 

When  the  vessel  had  passed  Beach  Point,  the  last  obstruc- 
tion to  navigation  in  the  harbor,  and  forming  the  extreme 
southern  Cape,  which  protected  the  whole  Bay,  the  owner, 
relieved  from  the  anxiety  which  the  difficulty  of  the  nav- 
igation naturally*  inspired,  and  which,  perhaps,  the  ravings 
of  Rachel  increased,  turned  to  the  old  woman,  and  again 
offered  to  console  her  for  the  loss  ol  her  house,  and  even 
tendered  the  use  of  another  habitation  ;  but  she  was  raving 
in  all  the  impotence  of  disappointed  madness,  her  yoice  was 
inarticulate,  she  foamed  at  the  mouth,  and  howled  in  the 
most  demoniac  accents.  Her  face,  and  swollen  eyes,  that 
seemed  almost  starting  from  their  sockets,  were  bent  upon 
the  single  object  of  her  curses,  when  suddenly  her  voice 
ceased,  and  she  leaned  forward  in  the  very  ecstasy  of  ex- 
pectation. The  eyes  of  the  company  following  the  bent  of 
hers,  were  fixed  on  the  brig  ;  her  s  uls  were  shivering  in  the 
wind,  and  all  seemed  hurry  and  confusion  upoii  the  deck. 

In  a  few  moments  she  slowly  sunk  from  the  view  of  the 
spectators,  and  nothing  of  her  was  to  be  seen  but  a  part  of 
her  top-gallant  mast  standing  above  the  waves. 

Rachel  pitched  forward  into  the  water  as  she  saw  the 
vessel  sink,  and,  as  people  were  engaged  in  preparing  boats 
to  go  to  the  vessel,  she  died  unnoticed. 

The  brig,  which  had  struck  upon  a  sunken  and  unknown 
rock,  was  afterwards  raised  with  the  loss  of  nearly  her 
whole  cargo  and  one  man,  the  very  one,  it  is  said,  who  had 
put  fire  to  the  house. 

The  body  of  Rachel  was  found,  and  buried  on  the  spot 
where  her  house  had  stood.  The  rock  on  which  the  vessel 
struck  is  now  called  Rachel's  Curse — and  the  grave  on  the 
promontory  serves  to  this  day  as  a  land-iuark  for  the  qhanr 
Oel. — Phil.  Union, 



In  looking  over  an  old  file  of  ihe  Albany  Statesman,  edited 
by  N.  H.  Carter,  Esq.  we  met  with  the  following  interest- 
ing note,  respecting  the  origin  ot  the  tune  Yankee  Doodle — 
the  words  of  which  were  published  in  the  Collections  for 
Ma  J, 

It  is  known  as  a  matter  of  history,  that  in  the  early  part 
of  1753,  great  exertions  were  made  by  the  British  ministry, 
at  the  head  of  which  was  the  illustrious  Elarl  of  Chathnm, 
for  the  reduction  of  the  French  power  in  the  provinces  of 
the  Canadas.  To  carry  the  object  into  effect,  Genera!  Am- 
herst, referred  to  in  the.  letteisof  Junius,  was  appointed  to 
the  command  of  the  British  army  in  North  Western  Ameri- 
ca ;  and  the  British  colonies  in  America  were  called  upon 
for  assistance,  who  contributed  with  alacrity  their  several 
quotas  of  men,  to  effect  the  grand  object  of  British  enter- 
prise. It  is  a  fact  still  jn  the  recollection  of  some  of  our 
oldest  inhabitants,  that  the  British  army  lay  encamped,  in 
the  summer  of  1755,  on  the  eastern  bank  of  the  Hudson,  a 
little  south  of  the  city  of  Albany,  on  the  ground  now  be- 
longing to  John  I.  Van  Rensselaer,  Esq.  To  this  day,  ves- 
tiges of  their  encampment  remain  ;  and  after  a  lapse  of  sixty 
years,  when  a  great  proportion  of  the  actors  of  those  days 
have  passed  away  like  shadows  from  the  earth,  the  inquisi- 
tive traveller  can  observe  the  remains  of  the  ashes,  the  pla- 
ces where  they  boiled  their  camp  kettles.  It  was  this  army, 
that,  under  the  command  of  Abercromhie,  was  foiled,  with 
a  severe  loss,  in  the  attac  k  on  Ticonderoga,  where  the  dis- 
tinguished Howe  fell  at  the  head  of  his  troops,  in  an  hour 
that  history  has  consecrated  to  his  fame.  In  the  early 
part  of  June,  the  eastern  troops  began  to  pour  in,  company 
after  company,  and  such  a  motley  assemblage  of  men  never 
before  thronged  together  on  such  an  occasion,  unless  an  ex- 
ample may  be  found  in  the  ragged  regiment  of  Sir  John 
FalstafF,  of  right  merry  and  facetious  memory.  It  would, 
said  my  worthy  ancestor,  who  relates  to  me  the  story,  have 
relaxed  the  gravity  of  an  anchorite,  to  have  seen  the  de- 
scendants of  the  Puritans,  marching  through  the  streets  of 
our  ancie-nt  city,  to  take  their  station  on  the  left  of  the  Brit- 
ish army — some  with  long  coats,  some  with  short  coats,  and 
others  with  no  coats  at  all,  in  colours  as  varied  as  the  rain- 
bow, some  with  their  hair  cropped  like  the  army  of  Crom- 
well, and  others  with  wigs  whose  curls  flowed  with  grace 

218  Origin  of  Yankee  Doodle. — Anecdote. 

around  their  shoulders.  Their  march,  their  accoutrements, 
and  the  whole  arrangement  of  the  troops,  furnished  matter  of 
amusement  to  the  wits  of  the  British  armj.  The  musick 
played  the  airs  of  two  centuries  ago,  and  the  totit  ensemble^ 
upon  the  whole,  exhibited  a  sight  to  the  wondering  strangers 
that  they  had  been  unaccustomed  to  in  their  own  land. 
Among  the  club  of  wits  that  belonged  to  the  British  army, 
there  was  a  physician  attached  to  the  ^taff,  by  the  name  of 
Doctor  Shackburg,  who  combined  with  the  science  of  the 
surgeon,  the  skill  and  talents  of  a  mueician.  To  please 
brother  Jonathan,  he  composed  a  tune,  and  with  much  grav- 
ity recommended  it  to  the  offii  ers,  as  one  of  the  most  cele- 
brated airs  of  martial  musick.  The  joke  took  to  the  no 
sm^ll  amusement  of  the  British  corps.  Brother  Jonathan 
exclaimed  it  was  nation  fine^  and  in  a  few  days  nothing  was 
heard  in  the  provincial  camp  but  the  air  of  Yankee  Doodle. 
Little  did  the  author  or  his  coadjutors  then  suppose,  that  an 
air  made  for  the  purpose  of  levity  and  ridicule,  should  ever 
be  marked  for  such  high  destinies  ;  in  twenty  years  from 
that  time,  our  national  march  inspired  the  hearts  of  the  he* 
roes  of  Bunker  Hill,  and  less  than  thirty.  Lord  Cornwallis 
and  his  army  marched  into  the  American  lines  to  the  tune  of 
Yankee  Doodle. 


Anecdote. — Riches  m.ay  be  entailed,  and  nobility  may  be- 
come hereditary.  Wit  and  wisdom  can  never  be  made  their 
looms.  There  are  few  names  more  respectable  among  the 
patriarchs  of  Massachusetts,  than  Governor  Dudley  and 
Judge  Sewall ;  yet  the  former  had  a  daughter,  who  cou*!d 
scarce  keep  out  of  fire  and  water,  and  the  latter  a  son  of 
equal  abilities.  The  prudence  of  the  old  gentlemen  inter- 
married these  wiseacres.  In  due  time  after  the  marriage, 
Judge  Sewall,  then  sitting  at  the  council  board  in  Boston,  re- 
ceived a  letter  informing  him  that  his  daughter-in  law  was 
delivered  of  a  fine  son  ;  he  communicated  the  billet  to  the 
Governor,  who  after  perusing  it,  observed,  with  an  arch  se- 
verity, "  brother  Sewall,  I  am  thinking  how  we  shall  con- 
trive to  prevent  this  grandson  of  ours  from  being  as  great  a 
fool  as  his  father."  "  I  believe,"  retorted  Judge  Sewall, "I 
believe  we  must  not  let  him  suck  his  mother." 

(  219  ) 



Benjamin  Thompson,  though  not  a  native  of  this  town, 
pConcord]  spent  several  years  of  usefulness  in  the  place. 
He  was  born  at  Woburn,  Massachusetts,  March  26,  1753. 
His  father  died  while  he  was  very  young,  leaving  him  to  the 
care  of  a  guardian.  He  received  a  common  school  educa- 
tion, and  was  placed  first  with  Dr.  Hay,  a  physician  of  Wo- 
burn, where,  during  the  intervals  of  study,  he  amused  him- 
self in  making  surgical  instruments,  &c.,  which  he  finished 
in  a  handsome  style.  He  was  next  placed  as  clerk  in  a 
store  at  Salem.  His  aversion  to  this  business  was  soon 
manifested,  and  he  was  oftener  found  with  a  penknife,  file 
and  gimblet  under  the  counter,  than  with  his  pen  and  books 
in  the  counting-room.  He  was  fond  of  the  study  of  chem- 
istry, and  enthusiastic  in  his  devotion  to  mechanics  and 
mathematics.  At  Salem,  he  undertook  to  prepare  some  fire 
works,  or  rockets.  While  pounding  the  ingredients,  it  was 
supposed  a  particle  of  sand,  treacherously  concealed  in  the 
mass,  caused  a  scintillation,  and  the  whole  exploded  in  his 
face  and  bosom.  The  injury  which  he  experienced  was 
severe,  and  added  to  a  temporary  loss  of  sight,  the  skin  of 
his  face  and  bosOm  was  taken  away  with  the  bandages. 
Such  an  apprentice,  it  might  easily  be  perceived,  would  not 
answer  the  purposes  of  a  merchant. 

Young  Thompson  continued  his  studies  and  philosophical 
inquiries  with  diligence.  Among  other  things,  he  attempted 
to  solve  that  great  desideratum— perpefwa/  motion.  After 
residing  at  Salem  and  Boston  about  two  years,  he  returned 
to  his  mother  in  Woburn,  hi«  fiiends  receiving  him  with  un- 
welcome pity,  impressed  with  a  belief  that  he  would  never 
fix  his  mind  upon  any  regular  employment,  by  which  he 
could  gain  a  support. 

Through  the  kindness  of  a  friend,  Thompson  was  admit- 
ted to  the  philosophical  lectures,  commenced  at  Cambridge 
about  the  year  1769  ;  this  was  a  rich  feast  to  him,  and  he 
zealously  improved  his  opportunity,  making  rapid  advances 
in  his  favorite  studies.  In  1772,  he  commenced  school- 
keeping  in  Bradford,  Massachusetts  ;  and  soon  after  rcmov- 
ed  to  this  town.  He  taught  school  here  with  success  ;  and 
afterwards  married  Mrs.  Sarah  Rolfe,  widow  of  B.  Rolfe, 
Esq.  and  daughter  of  the  first  minister  of  Concord,  by  whom 
he  had  one  daughter,  lately  living  in  France.     Pleased  with 

220  Count  Rumford, 

parade  and  the  beau  monde,  and  enjoying' from  the  good' 
nes--  ot  n.iturp  all  the  personal  reconimendaiions,  whicti  at- 
tract the  adnjiraiion  of  the  world,  he  never  appeared  at  pub- 
lic eniertaiiimenis,  or  in  iashionable  circles,  without  being 
rcspef  tfully  noticed.  In  an  excursion,  which  he  made 
from  Concord  to  Portsmouih,  with  liis  lady,  lo  be  present  at 
a  military  review  or  some  holiday,  his  genteel  a])pearance! 
and  manly,  impres'^ive  address  allractf  cl  liu-  observation  of 
many,  and  among  oihers  he  was  parlicularjy  noticed  by 
the  governor,  VVentworth,  who  invited  hirn^to  his  party,  and 
never  spoke,  of  Mr.  Thompson  liul  with  deJight.  The  civil 
an  J  friendly  manner,  in  which  he  had  thuA  been  treated  by 
the  Governor,  was  not  mere  etiquette,  as]  was  sufficiently 
manifested  a  little  time  afterwards,  by  having  the  ofl'er  of  a 
Major's  commission.  This  mark  of  esteem  and  confidence; 
was  pendiarly  gratifying  to  Mr.  Thompson,  as  hQ  possessed 
a  genius  and  taste  for  military  operations. 

Mr.  Thompson  lived  with  his  wife  about  twQ  years  ; 
when  the  revolution  commencincf,  and  being  a  staunch 
friend  of  the  government,  he  was  obliged  to  quit  his  family 
and  rural  residence;  and  he  retii-ed  uithin  the  lines  of  the 
British  army.  In  Ociolier,  1775,  he  went  to  Rhode-Island; 
embarked  for  Boston  harb<jr  ;  and  in  January  following, 
sailed  for  England.  On  arriving  in  London,  he  was  intro- 
duced to  Lord  Germaine,  (afterwards  Lord  Sackville)  then 
presiding  at  the  h^ad  of  the  American  department,  who  con- 
ceived a  warm  friendship  for  him.  In  his  office,  he  enjoy- 
ed an  honorable  post,  until,  nearly  at  the  close  of  the  con- 
test, he  was  sent  over  to  New  York  ;  raised  a  regiment  of 
dragoons;  obtained  the  provmcial  rank  of  lieutenant  colo- 
nel, and  became  entitled  to  half-pay,  w'aich  he  received  till 
his  death,    t 

After  his  return  to  England,  in  1781.  the  King  conferred 
upon  him  the  honor  of  knighthood.  This  event  was  a  pre- 
lude to  public  honors  eUew  here.  Sir  Benjamin  Thonipson 
had  become  acquainted  with  the  minister  of  one  of  the  most 
re'^pectable  German  princes.  This,  together  with  his  grow- 
ing £;reatness,  induced  his  Serene  Highness  the  Elector 
Palatine,  reigning  Duke  of  Bavaria,  to  invite  hitn  into  his 
service,  and  honorable  terms  were  proposed  to  him.  He 
applied  for,  and  obtained  the  King's  permission  to  proceed 
to  Mimii,h.  Here  he  soon  obtained  considerable  influence 
in  public  affairs — was  instrumental  in  the  introduction  of 
various  reforms  in  the  police — and  enjoying  the  confidence 
and  patronage  of  the  Prince,  he  had  an  opportunity  to  re- 

Count  Rumford.  221 

duceto  practice  his  schemes  of  economy  and  public  improve- 
Djent.  He  was  soon  rai.srd  to  the  highest  mililary  rani<,  and 
created  a  Count  of  the  Empire.  The  remembrance  of  his 
native  land,  and  of  his  youthful  enjoyments  in  this  town, 
induced  him  to  add  to  his  title  that  of  Rumford.  Mendicity 
had  become  a  ))ublic  calamity  in  many  of  ihr.  German  cities, 
and  threatened  the  most  alarming  ronsequences.  Conceiv- 
ing the  project  of  applying  a  remedy,  and  iiaving  taken  the 
proper  mcnsures,  Count  Kumlbrd,  at  a  given  day  and  hour, 
accompanied  by  several  military  officers,  and  a  body  of 
troops,  issued  orders  lor  seizing  all  the  beggars  at  Munich;' 
and  being  df^termined  to  obviate  the  possibility  of  disgrace, 
attached  to  such  a  measure,  he  began  by  arresting  the  first 
propfM- object  with  his  own  hands.  No  sooner  had  he  done 
this,  than  the  officers  and  m«n,  without  making  any  scruple 
or  dilRculty  whatever,  cleared  the  streets  with  promptness 
and  success  ;  but  at  the  same  time  with  all  imaginable  good 
nature — so  that  in  the  course  of  a  single  day,  not  a  beggar 
was  to  be  seen  in  the  whole  range  of  the  metropolis.  But 
to  sweep  away  the  whole  mendicant  tribe,  would  have  done 
nothing  effet  tual.  had  not  houses  of  industry  been  opened 
for  their  constant  employment,  and  wholesome  viands  been 
procured  them.  His  scheme  succeeded  admirably.  By 
active  exertions,  he  introduced  vai'ious  manufactui-es,  and 
thus  affording  employment  to  the  poorer  classes,  prevented 
a  renewal  ol  former  scenes  of  indolence,  suffering  and  vice. 
Wherever  he  went,  his  schemes  for  the  public  advantage 
wpve  well  received  ;  and  his  fame,  as  a  philosopher  and 
philiinthropist,  continued  to  increase.  He  received  many 
favors  from  the  sovereij^ns  of  the  continent.  The  Elector 
Palatine  created  him  a  Count,  and  procured  for  him  the 
ordf  r  of  St.  Stanislaus,  from  thr  King  of  Poland  ;  made  him 
a  knight,  cham.berlain,  privy  counsellor  of  state,  lieutenant- 
general  in  his  service,  as  Duke  ot  Bavaria,  colonel  of  his 
regiment  of  artillery,  and  commander-in-chief  of  the  grneral 
staff  of  his  army.  He  "^'as  also  honored  by  all  the  learned 
societies  of  Europe,  and  of  his  native  country.  But  these 
high-sounding  titles  were  mere  baubles,  when  compared  to 
his  just  fame  as  a  philosopher.  He  made  liberal  b(  quests 
to  different  institutions  in  his  native  country  ;  and  died  at  his 
country  seat  of  Auteuil,  France,  where  he  had  spent  the 
latter  years  of  his  life,  in  1814.  An  eloquent  eulogy  on  his 
character  was  read  before  the  Institute  of  France,  by  M. 
Cuvier,  Jan.  9.  1815,  in  which  a  just  view  is  taken  of  his 
various  discoveries  in  science,  and  of  his  personal  exertions, 
and  his  fame. 

^22  Dr.  Ezra  Carter, 

Little  did  liis  friends,  who  witnessed  with  sorrow  his  ju- 
venile pranks,  his  disregard  of  any  regular  business,  antici- 
pate his  future  fame.  Little  did  the  scholars  who  attended 
to  his  instructions  in  this  village  in  1773-4,  and  who  were 
sometimes  amused  with  his  athletic  exercises,  and  his  odd 
experiments — dream  that  their  master  was  to  be  clothed 
with  the  stars  of  princes,  and  acquire  a  fame  that  should  be 
lasting  and  honorable.  While  coniemplatmg  his  character, 
we  do  not  stop  to  inc|uire  the  motives  which  induced  him  to 
abandon  the  cause  of  his  native  country;  but  reflect,  that, 
though  driven  from  her  shores,  and  grown  illustrious  amongst 
her  enemies,  he  yet  bequeathed  to  her  institutions  his  estate, 
to  her  citizens  his  fame. — Moort's  Annals  of  Concord,  A*.  H, 


Dr.  EzraCartf.r,  of  Concord,  N.  K.  died  Sept.  17,  1767, 
at  the  age  of  48.  He  was  a  native  of  South-Hampton,  in 
this  Slate;  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Ordway,  of  Salisbury, 
Mass.  and  settled  in  this  place  about  1  740.  He  was  a  good 
scholar,  though  not  liberally  educated — a  skilful  practition- 
er, and  a  man  universally  beloved.  Soon  after  his  removal, 
here,  he  was  honored  hy  the  inhabitants  with  civil  tiusts, 
which  he  executed  with  zealous  fidelity.  It  is  to  be  regret- 
ted that  of  Dr.  Carter,  as  well  as  of  others  who  lived  at  a 
later  day,  so  few  particulars  can  be  collected.  Enough, 
however,  is  known  to  warrant  the  assertion,  that  few  men 
excelled  him  in  a  benevolent  spirit  and  good  humored  exer- 
tions to  promote  the  peace  and  welfare  of  society.  He  was 
a  man  of  wit  and  pleasantry,  and  when  called  to  visit  the 
sick  and  desponding,  never  failed  to  administer,  with  his  re- 
medies for  the  body,  a  cordial  to  the  mind.  Dr.  Carter, 
though  frequently  menaced  by  ihe  Indians,  never  suffered 
from  their  attacks.  About  the  time  of  the  Bradley  massa- 
cre, he  had  gathered  into  winrows  his  hay  then  cut,  on  the 
plat  of  ground  extending  on  the  west  of  the  street,  near  the 
site  of  the  Capitol.  During  the  night,  several  Indians  secre- 
ted themselves  in  the  hay,  intending  to  surprise  the  Doctor 
on  the  following  morning.  Providentially,  a  storm  of  rain 
commenced  early  in  the  morning  and  continued  for  several 
days  with  little  abatement,  during  which  the  Indians  retired. 
After  peace  was  restored,  the  Indians  informed  the  doctor  of 
their  meditated  attack,  and  that  conceiving  the  Great  Spirit 
to  have  sewt  the  rain  for  his  shelter,  they  dared  not  remain. 
On  the  10th  of  November,  of  the  same  year,  (1746)  a  Mr. 
Estabrooks  came  for  the  doctor  to  visit  a  patient.     Through 

Gov.  Belcher.  223 

some  difficulty  in  catching  his  horse,  the  doctor  did  not  im- 
mediately follow  Estabrooks.  In  a  very  short  time,  the 
alarm  was  given  that  Estabrooks  was  killed,  and  a  party  pro- 
ceeding on  the  road  after  him,  found  his  body  near  the  path. 
This  was  one  of  the  last  acts  of  Indian  hostility  in  this  sec- 
tion of  the  country.  On  a  certain  occasion,  Dr.  Carter  was 
called  to  visit  a  sick  family  in  Bow.  Added  to  their  other 
sorrows,  poverty  had  thrown  around  them  her  tatters  and 
rags.  Disease  is  ever  loth  to  quit  such  company.  The 
family  were  a  long  time  sick — the  doctor  was  their  con- 
stant attendant — and  on  their  recovery,  the  poor  man 
felt  new  troubles  coming  upon  him.  "How,  doctor,"  said 
the  unhappy  man, "am  I  to  pay  you  for  all  your  kindness, 
your  attention  and  medicine  ?  You  see  here  a  large  family, 
destitute  of  every  thing,  save  the  bare  necessaries  of  life." 
"I  have  been  faithful  to  you,"  replied  the  doctor,  "and  am 
I  not  entitled  to  a  reward  ?"  "  You  are,  doctor,  oh,  you 
are  !"  said  the  trembling  wife,  "  but  do  wait  a  little — we 
can't  pay  you  now."  "  1  can  inform  you,  my  good  friends," 
said  the  inexorable  physician,  "  that  I  am  knowing  to  your 
having  property  enough  to  satisfy  my  demands — and  more- 
over, that  1  shall  have  it  before  leaving  the  house."  The 
poor  family  were  thunderstruck — they  knew  that  no  friend- 
ly feelings  subsisted  between  the  proprietors  of  Rumford 
and  Bow — but  had  always  heard  the  doctor  applauded  as  a 
man  of  benevolence  and  mercy.  They  knew  not  what  to 
do.  At  this  moment,  away  scampered  a  llock  of  kittens 
across  the  room,  which  the  doctor  seeing,  caught  one  of  them 
and  put  it  in  his  pocket.  "  I  told  you  I  should  have  my 
pay,  (said  the  doctor) — I  have  got  it. — Good  bye,  and  God 
bless  you !"  Many  anecdotes  of  this  kind  are  related  of 
him  ;  and  one  of  the  last  acts  of  his  life,  v/as  equally  noble. 
Just  before  his  decease,  he  looked  over  his  accounts,  filled 
out  receipts  against  all  poor  persons,  who  were  indebted  to 
him,  with  directions  that  his  executors  should  deliver  them 
to  those  concerned  immediatel}-  after  his  death.  This  was 
accordingly  done. — Moore's  Annals. 


Jonathan  Belcher,  governor  of  Massachusetts  and  New- 
Hampshire,  was  the  son  of  the  honorable  Andrew  Belcher, 
of  Cambridge,  one  of  his  majesty's  council  in  the  province 
of  Massachusetts  Bay,  who  was  born  about  the  year  1618. 
His  father  took  peculiar  care  in  regard  to  the  education  of 
this  son,  on  whom  the  hopes  of  the  family  were  fixed.     He 

'^S-l  Gov.  Belcher. 

was  gradualed  at  Harvard  collrge  in  1699.  While  a  mem- 
ber of  this  instiluiion  his  o[)en  and  pie;is::nt  conversation, 
ioined  wiih  hi?  manlj  and  gonerous  eonducr,  (  oncihaicd  the 
esteem  of  all  his  acquaintance.  Not  long  ait(  i  the  termina- 
tion of  his  coll^gial  course,  he  visited  Europe,  that  he 
might  enrich  his  mind  by  his  observations  upon  the  various 
manners  and  characters  of  men,  and  might  return,  furnish- 
ed with  that  useful  knowledge,  which  is  gained  by  inter- 
course with  the  world. 

During  an  absence  of  six  years  from  his  native  country, 
he  was  preserved  from  those  fo'lics,  into  uhirh  inexperi- 
enced youth  are  frequently  drawn,  and  he  even  maintained 
a  constant  regard  to  that  holy  religion,  of  which  he  had 
early  made  a  profession.  He  was  every  whtre  treated 
with  the  greatest  respect.  The  ar  quaintance  v\hich  he  form- 
ed with  the  princess  Sophia  and  her  son,  alterwards  king 
George  II.,  laid  the  foundation  of  his  future  honors.  After 
his  return  from  his  travels,  he  lived  in  Boston  in  the  charac- 
ter of  a  merchant  with  great  reputation.  He  was  chosen  a 
member  of  the  council,  and  the  genr-ral  assembly  sent  him 
as  an  agent  o(  the  province  to  the  British  court  in  the  year 

After  the  death  of  governor  Burnet,  he  was  appointed  by 
his  majesty  to  the  government  of  Massachusetts  and  Nf'w- 
Hampshire,  in  1730.  In  this  station  he  continued  eleven 
years.  His  style  of  living  was  elegant  and  splendid,  and 
he  was  disiiiiguished  for  hospitality.  By  the  depreciation 
of  the  cui'rency  his  salary  was  much  diminished  in  value, 
l)ut  he  disdained  any  unwarrantaf'le  means  of  enriching 
himself,  though  apparently  just  and  sanctioned  by  his  pre- 
decessors in  offire.  He  had  been  one  of  the  principal  mer- 
chants of  New-England,  but  he  quitted  his  business  on  his 
accession  to  the  chair  of  the  first  magisirat?.  Having:  a 
high  sense  of  the  dignity  of  his  commission,  he  was  deter- 
mined to  support  it,  even  at  the  expense  of  his  private  for- 
tune. Frank  and  sincere,  he  was  extremely  liberal  in  his 
censures  both  in  conversation  and  letters.  This  imprudence 
in  a  public  officer  gained  him  enemies,  who  were  determin- 
ed on  revenge.  He  also  assumed  son^e  authority,  which 
had  not  been  exercised  before,  though  he  did  not  exceed 
his  commission.  These  causes  of  complaint,  together  with 
a  controversy  respecting  a  fixed  salary,  which  had  been 
transmitted  to  him  from  his  predecessors,  and  his  opposition 
to  the  land  bank  coinpanv,  finally  occasioned  his  removal. 
His  enemies  w?re  so  inveterate  and  so  regardless  of  justice 

Original  LetUrs.  225 

and  truth,  that  as  they  were  unable  to  find  real  grounds 
for  impeaching  hi^  integrity,  they  lorgod  letters  tor  the 
purpose  of  his  ruin.  On  being  superseded,  he  repaired  lo 
court,  whi-re  he  vindicated  his  character  and  conduct,  and 
exposed  the  base  designs  of  his  enemies.  He  was  resiorrd 
to  tHe  royal  favor,  and  was  prorQi.->ed  the  first  vacant  gov- 
ernment in  America.  This  vacancy  occurred  in  the  prov- 
ince of  New-Jersey,  where  he  arrived  in  1  747,  and  where 
he  spent  the  remaining  years  of  his  life.  In  this  province, 
his  memory  ha•^  been  held  in  deserved  respect. 

He  enlarged  the  charter  of  Princeton  college,  and  was  its 
chiet  patron  and  benefactor.  Even  under  the  growing  in- 
firmities of  age,  he  applied  himself  with  his  accustomed  as- 
siduity and  diligence  to  the  high  duties  of  his  otfice.  He 
died  at  Elizabeth-Town,  August  31,  1757,  aged  seventy-six 
years.  His  body  was  brought  to  Camoridge,  Massachu- 
setts, where  it  was  entombed. 

[  Through  the  kindness  of  a  friend  at  Poitsmoulh,  who  has  granted  us  the  loan  of  a 
mass  of  original  papers,  we  are  enabled  ta  present  extracts  from  the  Corres- 
pondence of  Gov.  Belcher,  and  others.  The  reader  who  is  acquainted  with  the 
history  of  the  period  to  which  these  letters  relate,  will  understand  the  allusions 
so  frequently  made  in  them,  under  fictitious  names,  to  the  most  conspicuoun 
men  then  figuring  in  the  province.  Judging  from  the  samples  before  us,  it  would 
appear  that  political  intrigues  were  quite  as  fashionable  a  hundred  years  since,  as 
they  are  now.] 

Extracts  from  the  Correspondence  of  Gov.  Eelcher,  ire. 

Gov.  Belcher  to  Secretary  Waldron^  dated  Boston^  August 
3,1737.  [Extract.']  "  You  say  your  committee's  demand  is 
lean  and  nnked,  without  argument.  The  notion  of  their  west 
line  is  so  trite,  that  it's  not  worth  a  thought ;  nor  what  they 
may  say  about  Province  of  Main.  If  all  the  rest  of  the 
world  run  mad,  and  turn  fools,  I  hope  you'll  keep  in  your 
senses,  and   not  be  cajoled  into  any  of  their  wild  fagaries." 

Mr.  Waldron  to  Gov.  Belcher,  Sept.  24,  1 747.  lExtract.} 
******  44  J  don't  mention  particulars  of  our 
wretched  administration,  because  it  would  be  tedious,  and  to 
no  purpose,  but  to  surprise  you  with  unparalleled  instances  of 
folly  and  iniquity  ;  indeed,  the  lamentable  condition  we  are 
in,  cannot  be  described,  nor  known,  but  by  those  who  feel  it. 
The  aptest  similitude  that  1  can  think  of,  to  represent  our 
case  by,  is  that  of  a  field  of  battle,  after  the  fight  is  ended — 
the  common  people  being  compared  to  the  carcasses,  anil 

226  Original  Letters* 

those  who  are  chief  in  power,  to  the  vultures  and  ravens 
glutting  on  the  carnage." 

Same  to  samcy  March  10,  1748.  [Extract.']  "It  is  gen- 
erally expocled,  both  at  Boston  and  here,  that  the  Don  will 
soon  be  superseded.  The  candidates  ibr  the  succession  are, 
K.  H — y-y  Rodomc/ntado  and  Sapl-vg,  The  first,  1  tiave  rea- 
son to  think,  has  consented  lo  the  exchange  of  a  thousand 
yeltoiV-boys,  and  will  go  further,  if  need  require.  The  sec- 
ond is  more  insignific  ant  than  when  he  had  a  Lady  Topsail 
to  counsel  and  guide  him.  The  third,  I  know.  Las  ordered 
7  or  800  guineas  certain,  and  his  friend,  who  is  to  manage 
for  him,  is  K.  Bethell,  Esq.  with  a  hundr-d  thou&and  pounds 
sterling,  and  mfmb.-T  of  rarli.imcnt  for  London,  who  wrote 
him  in  May  or  June  last,  he  will  do  his  best  to  obtain  what 
he  desires.  So  upon  the  whole,  I  can't  but  trunk  thrre  is 
reason  to  hope  for  rpdemption  from  our  preseiit  Spanish  bond- 
age, by  one  mean  or  other." 

Same  to  same,  Apr^l  15,  1748.  [Extract.']  "  The  sat- 
isfaction which  your  Excellency  has  from  a  Royal  justifica- 
tion of  your  past  conduct,  your  being  re-settled  in  a  pleas- 
ant and  fruitful  country,  among  a  kind  and  respectful  people, 
and  situated  on  the  banks  of  the  American  Euphrates,  with 
your  other  fine  accommodations,  are  all  very  desirable  cir- 
cumstances ;  and  to  what  pitch  of  contentment  can't  your 
Excellency's  wisdom  and  piety  heighten  them,  though  the 
salary  and  perquisite?  are  not.  such  as  perhaps  were  expect- 
ed, and  might  be  reasombly  wished  for.  And,  as  to  the 
want  of  convei-sation,  might  not  that  defect  be,  in  some  meas' 
Mr«,  repaired  by  a  lady  from  Boston^  Mew-York\  or  PhiladeU 
phia,  if  none  in  the  Jerseys  to  your  taste  ;  and  can  h  be, 
that  a  gentlewoman  ol  a  suitable  age  and  fortune,  who  would 
be  one  spirit  as  well  as  one  flesh  with  you,  could  fail  to  sweet- 
en the  remains  of  life  ?  The  religious  remark  your  Excel- 
lency makes  on  the  length  of  your  shadows,  the  decline  of 
your  sun,  and  your  few  remaining  lands,  is  a  good  instruc- 
tion to  me,  (and  perhaps  was  so  intended)  which  I  hope  I 
shall  properly  apply,  and  that  it  won't  prove  a  fruitless  les- 
son.— What  your  Excll'^ncy  says  of  renewing  our  corre&. 
pondence,  and  your  kind  mention  of  my  family,  with  your 
wishes  for  our  prosperity.  T  esteem  as  a  renewed  mark  of 
your  goodness  to  me  and  mine.  I  have  but  two  sons  left, 
out  of  eight  children,  viz  :  Thomas,  who  has  pitched  his 
tent  at  Cochecbo,  for  the  present,  and  George,  who  yet  re- 
mains with  me." 

Original  Letters,  S2? 

Same  io  same,  July  1,1748.  [Extracts.]  "It  is  vastly 
agreeable  to  tue  to  hear  of  your  Excellency's  ease  and  pros- 
perity, and  therefore  what  you  Imve  been  pleased  to  hint  in 
rel.*iion  thereto,  gives  me  great  pleasure,  particularly  the 
mu'ual  benevolence  subsisting  between  you  and  your  as- 
sembly, which  I  pray  God  may  continue  to  the  end  ot  your 
adoiinistration,  and  that  to  the  end  of  your  life,  unless 
Providence  should  open  a  way  for  your  Excellency's  remo- 
val to  "aiother  seat  that  may  be  more  to  your  liking. 

"  My  kinsman  was  badly  used  indeed,  especially  by  the 
Learned^  whose  military  honor  and  profits  are  owing  to  him, 
as  he  was  the  projector  and  promoter  of  the  expedition,  and 
without  which  it  would  never  have  been.  But  this  is  no 
new  thing  under  the  sun.  Ingratitude  is  of  ancient  date, 
and  baseness,  false  pretences  and  treachery  to  benefactors 
are  not  of  yesterday.  I  have  had  ill  treatment  of  this 
kind  myself,  and  I  presume  your  Excellency  has  had  that 
which  has  het  n  much  more  so.  ^ 

•'  1  well  know  the  new  feather  hunter  is  a  rceakling 

as  well  as  saplinv^  but  what  thm  ?  we  want  his  money  to 
oust  Diefio,  which  is  my  principal  aim  j  and  if  he  should 
be  successor,  as  he  is  honest,  well  principled  and  well  mean- 
in?,  though  he  should  not  be  able  to  go  alone,  he  may  be 
we  1 1  conducted  in  leading  strings,  for  the  public  advantage. 
A  friend  oiice  advised  a  lady  not  to  marry  her  daughter  lo 
a  nob  gentleman,  because,  though  rich,  he  was  a  simpleton. 
She  replif^d,"  So  much  the  belter  for  my  daughter  to  make 
a  fool  of.""  I  don't  mean  to  apply  this  in  full  to  the  present 
Ciise,  though  it  may  suit  in  part. 

"The  matter  of  the  complaint  against  the  Don,  is  in  his 
first  acts  of  government, namely,  issuing  a  proclamation  for 
continuance  of  officers  civil  as  well  as  military — he  denied 
thi  Council  to  join  with  him;  that  he  suspended  a  commis- 
sion without  advice  of  the  council  ;  that  he  made  judged 
without  their  advice  :  that  he  with  the  council  have  issued 
letters  patent,  as  he  calls  them,  to  supersede  a  law  which  he 
with  the  council  and  assembly  passed  but  a  few  months  be- 
fore ;  that  he  with  the  council,  and  without  the  assembly, 
have  given  a  companj'  of  settlers  in  the  wilderness  an  au- 
thority to  make  taxes  and  levy  them  ;  that  he,  with  the  coun- 
cil, and  without  the  assembly,  have  incorporated  a  parish, 
reserving  the  presentation  of  the  first  minister  to  the  Presi- 
dent and  Fellows  of  the  College.or  to  Mr.  Fitch  and  Mr.  Odlin; 
that  he  has  taken  a  100,000  old  tenor  out  of  the  Treasury, 
without  any  law  to  pay  the  Canada  troops,  and  that  after 

23B  Miscellanies. 

there  was  an  order  from  the  Crown  to  dismiss  those  troops, 
he  made  a  new  promotion  of  officers  to  reserve  the  pay, 
and  appointed  his  eldest  son  a  ^lajor,  and  his  two  others 
Captains,  and  one  of  his  brother's  children  of  lO^rars  old, 
a  Lieuienant  or  an  Ensign,  and  theNtgroesoi  those  fami- 
lies in  all,  some  by  blotd,  marriage  or  friendship,  to  be 
drummers,  barbers,  and  what  not.  And  to  facilitate  the  ac- 
com[)lishment  of  the  iniquity,  some  of  the  officers  have  been 
cashiered,  and  almost  all  reduced,  which  has  occasioned  a 
universal  uneasiness,  and  will  bring  a  good  number  of  sub- 
scribers to  the  compldnt.  Moreover,  we  have  had  no  as- 
sembly since  the  4ih,  and  on  the  next  choice,  are  not  with- 
out   of  having  a  majority  of  those,  who   will  enforce  a 

complaint  and  address  themselves  for  a  removal." 
{To be  continued.) 


In  November,  If  78,  an  act  passed  tlie  government  of  New-Hampshire,  to  pre- 
vent me  return  to  this  state  of  certain  persons,  who  had  left  the  state  anti  joined 
with  tne  enemies  thereof.  In  case  of  their  voluntary  return  without  leave  first  had 
and  obtained,  thc3'  were  on  conviction  before  the  Superior  Court  of  Judicature,  to 
suffer  the  pains  of  Death.  The  following  is  a  list  of  their  names.  Those  with  a 
star,  by  a  subsequent  act,  had  their  estates  confiscated. 

*John  VVentworlh,  Esq,,  Pet^r  Levius,  Esq.,  John  Eisher, 
Esq.,  *George  Meserve,  Esq.,  Robert  Trail,  E.-q.,  George 
Buyd,  E^q.,  John  Fenion.  Esq.,  *.)ohn  Cockran,  Esq.,  Sam- 
uel Hale  Jr.  Esq.,  Edward  Parry,  E^q.,  *Thomas  McDo- 
iiough,  Esq.,  Maj.  Robert  Rogers,  Andrew  Pepperell  Spar- 
h;<vvk,  alias  Anorfw  Pepperell,  Escj.,  Patrick  Burn,  John 
Smiih,'''VVilliam  Johnson  Rysam,  Stephen  Little,!  homas  A- 
chincloss,Archil)ald  AchincIoss,Robert  Robinson,  Hugh  H«  n- 
derson,  Gilliam  Butl-r,  *James  Mc Masters,  ^'^ John  McMas- 
ters,  George  Craige,  James  Bigby,  William  Peavey,  Benja- 
min Hart,  Bnrthoiomew  Stavers,  Phillip  Bayley,  Samuel 
Holland,  Esq.,  *Benning  Wentworth,  Jude  Kennison,  Jona- 
than Dix,  ^Robert  Luist  Fowle,  Benjamin  Thompson,  Esq., 
Jacob  Brown,  George  Bell,  *Stcpben  Holland,  Esq.,  Rich- 
ard Holland,  John  Davidson,  James  Fulton,  Thomas  Smith, 
Dennis  O'Hala,  *Edward  Goldstone  Lutw^che,  Esq.,  *Sam- 
uel  Cummings,  Esq.,  *Benjamin  Whiting,  Esq.,  Thomas 
Cummings.  *William  Stark,  Esq.,  John  Stark,  *John  Stin- 
son,  John  Stin^on,  Jr.,  Samuel  Stinson,  Jeremiah  Bowen, 
^Zacheus  Cutler,  John  Holland,  *Daniel  Farnsworth,  *John 

Miscellanies.  229 

Quigley,  Esq.,  John  Morrison,  *Josiah  Pomroy,  *Elijah  Wil- 
liams, Esq.,  Thomas  Cutler,  Eleazer  Sanger,  Robert  Gil- 
more,  *Breed  Batcheldor.  Simeon  Baxter,  William  Baxter, 
Soloraan  Willard,  Jesse  Rice,  *Enos  Stevens,  Phineas  Ste- 
vens, Solomon  Stephens,  Levi  WiUard,  *John  Brooks,  Josiah 
Jones  and  Smieon  Jones. 


^^  Portsmouth,  May  27,  1734. — Upon  the  occasion  of  the 
illustrious  mdrriage  of  the  Princess  Royal  ol  Great-Britain 
with  his  Serene  Highness  the  Prince  of  Orange,  his  Excel- 
lency our  Governour  S'^nt  an  order  lo  his  Honour  the  Lieut. 
Gov.  to  fire  the  Castle  Gufis,  as  an  expression  of  the  joy  of 
this  Guvernmeniand  people  ;  and  to  consult  with  his  Majes- 
ty's Council  how  to  shew  the  greatest  respect  to  his  Majesty 
and  the  Royal  Fimily  on  so  great  and  happy  an  event.  Ac- 
cordingly the  Council  were  convened,  and  it  appearing  that 
there  was  hardly  any  powder  in  th'^  stores,  the  matter  dropt 
thro'  lor  ihat  day.  The  Major  part  of  the  Council,  esteeming 
itapoiutof  duty  to  his  Majesty  and  to  themselves,  to  celebrate 
the  Royal  Nuptials  in  the  best  manner  they  could,  sundry 
of  them,  with  most  of  the  civil  and  militt^ry  officers  of  the 
town,  and  a  considerable  number  of  private  gentlemen  met 
at  the  King's  Anns  tavern  on  the  24th  instant,  where  they 
expressed  their  hearty  zeal  and  loyalty  to  his  Majesty,  and 
joy  on  the  happy  occasion  in  royal  and  loyal  healths,  with 
volleys  of  small  arms  and  the  beat  of  drums;  and  the  very 
populace  were  not  wanting  in  their  way  to  manifest  their  re- 
joicings.— Old  MSS, 

"  Portsmouth,  in  New-Hampshire,  October  25,  1  737.  On 
Wednesday  last,  his  Exeelleicy  our  governor  attended  by 
several  of  the  members  of  his  majesty's  council,  and  a  con- 
siderable number  of  civil  and  military  officers  and  private 
gentlemen,  went  dov/n  Pascataqua  river  in  several  boats, 
passing  by  his  majesty's  Castle  William  and  Mary,  the  flag 
being  hoisted,  landed  at  the  Hon.  Col.  Pepperell's  in.  Kit- 
tery,  where  his  Excellency  met  with  a  most  respectful  re- 
ception, and  was  (with  his  attendants)  entertained  in  a  very 
generous  and  handsome  marmer.  His  Excellency  forbid 
the  salute  of  the  Castle  guns,  ordering  the  small  store  of 
powder  in  that  fortress  to  be  reserved  for  the  happy  anni- 
versary of  his  majesty's  birth  day.on  the  30th  instant.  In  the 
evening,  his  Excellency  returned  to  Portsmouth,  and  the 
next  day,  viz.  Thursday  the  24th,  set  out  for  Boston,  with  a 

230  Miscellanies. 

vast  train  of  attendants.  The  form  of  the  cavalcade  was  as 
follows,  Capt.  Downing's  troop  were  in  front,  preceded 
by  the  officers  of  the  toot  and  private  gentlemen,  by  twos, 
next  to  thpm  went  the  under  sheriffs,  after  them  the  high 
sheriffs  with  their  wands,  then  went  his  Excellency  in  his 
chaise  with  the  Hon.  Col.  and  Lieut.  Col.  of  the  first  regi- 
ment on  his  right  and  left  hiind,  next  to  the  chaise  went  the 
members  of  his  majesty's  council,  and  Capt.  Roby's  troop 
brought  up  the  rear.  His  Excellency's  first  stop  was  at  the 
sign  of  the  Horse  in  Hampton,  where  he  was  pleased  gra- 
ciously to  regale  his  attendants.  And  then  moving  for- 
ward, was  m'jt  on  the  province  line,  by  sundr}'^  gentlemen 
of  the  Massachusetts  and  Salisbury  troops.' — Old  J\IS. 

^^Portsmouth,  in  Nev}-Hamp<'hire.  October  14,  1737.  Friday 
last,  being  the  anniversary  of  his  majesty's  coronation,  his 
Excellency  the  governor,  (in  honor  of  the  day)  was  pleas- 
ed to  invite  his  majesty's  council  and  house  of  representa- 
tives, (then  convened  in  general  assembly)  to  a  regale  at 
the  Green  Dragon  tavern  in  this  town,  whither  they  attend- 
ed his  Excellency,  in  a  body  from  the  court  house,  and  be-' 
ing  entertained  with  a  handsome  supper,  spent  the  remain- 
der of  the  evening  in  loyal  healths." — Old  MS. 


[Composed  about  the  year  1630,  taken  memoriter  in  1791,  from  the  lips  of  an 
old  lady,  at  the  advanced  age  of  92.] 


The  place  where  we  live  is  a  wilderness  wood, 
Where  grass  is  much  wanting  that's  fruitful  and  good ; 
Our  mountains  and  hills  and  our  vallies  below, 
Being  commonly  covered  with  ice  and  with  snow : 
And  when  the  north-west  wind  with  violence  blows, 
Then  every  man  pulls  his  cap  over  his  nose  ; 
But  if  any's  so  hardy  and  will  it  withstand, 
He  forfeits  a  finger,  a  foot  or  a  hand- 

But  when  the  spring  opens,  we  then  take  the  hoe, 
And  make  the  ground  ready  to  plant  and  to  sow ; 
Our  corn  being  planted,  and  seed  being  sown, 
The  worms  destroy  much  before  it  is  grown  ; 
And  when  it  is  growing  some  spoil  there  is  made, 
By  birds  and  by  squirrels  that  pluck  up  the  blade  j 
And  when  it  is  come  to  full  corn  in  the  ear. 
It  la  after  destroyed  by  racoon  and  by  deer. 

Miscellanies.  5231 

And  now  our  old  garments  begin  to  grow  thin, 
And  wool  is  much  wanted  lo  card  and  to  spin ; 
If  we  can  get  a  garment  to  cover  wifhortt, 
Our  other  in  garments  are  clout  upon  clout  ;* 
Our  clothes  we  brought  with  us  are  apt  to  be  torn. 
They  need  to  be  clouted  soon  after  they're  worn ; 
But  clouting  our  garments  they  hinder  us  nothing, 
Clouts  double,  are  warmer  than  single  whole  clothing, 

If  fresh  meat  be  wanting  to  fill  up  our  dish, 
We  have  carrots  and  pumpkins  and  turnips  and  fish ; 
And  is  there  a  mind  for  a  delicate  dish  ? 
We  repair  to  the  clam  banks  and  there  we  catch  fish, 
Instead  of  pottage  and  puddings  and  custards  and  pies. 
Our  pumpkins  and  parsnips  are  common  supplies ; 
We  have  pumpkins  at  morning  and  pumpkins  at  noon. 
If  it  was  not  for  pumpkins  we  should  be  undone. 

If  barley  be  wanting  to  make  into  malt, 
We  must  be  contented  and  think  it  no  fault ; 
For  we  can  make  liquor  to  sweeten  our  lips, 
Of  pumpkins  and  parsnips  and  walnut  tree  chips. 
(Four  lines  wanting.) 

Now  while  some  are  going,  let  others  be  coming. 
For  while  liquor's  a  boiling  it  must  have  a  scumming  ^ 
But  I  will  not  blame  them,  for  birds  of  a  feather, 
By  seeking  their  fellows  are  flocking  together. 
But  you  whom  the  Lord  intends  hither  to  bring, 
Forsake  not  the  honey  for  fear  of  the  sting ; 
But  bring  both  a  quiet  and  contented  mind, 
And  all  needful  blessings  you  surely  will  find. 
*  Clout  signifies  patching. 

.    The  following  is  a  poetical  description  of  the  Trees  in  New-England, 
written  in  1639. 

Trees  both  in  hills  and  plains  in  plenty  be, 
The  ioDg-liv'd  oak,  and  mournful  cyprus  tree  ; 
Sky-towering  pines,  and  chesnuts  coated  rough, 
The  lasting  cedar,  with  the  walnut  tough  ; 
The  rosin-dropping  fir,  for  masts  in  use, 
The  boatmen  seek  for  oars,  light,  neat  grown  spruce  ; 
The  brittle  ash,  the  ever-trembling  asps, 
The  broad-spread  elm,  whose  concave  harbours  wasps ; 
The  water  spungy  alder  good  for  nought. 
Small  eldern  by  the  Indian  fletchers  sought ; 

232  Mortality  in  Exeter, 

The  knotty  maple,  palled  birch,  hawthorns, 
The  horn-bound  tree  that  to  be  cloven  scorns, 
Which  from  the  tender  vine  oft  takes  hi^  spouse^ 
Who  twines  embracing  arms  about  his  boughs. 

Within  this  Indian  orchard  fruits  be  some, 
The  ruddy  cherry,  and  the  jetty  plumb ; 
Snake-murthering  hazel,  with  sweet  saxaphrage, 
Whose  spurns  in  beer  allays  hot  fever's  rage  ; 
The  dear  shumac,  with  more  trees  there  be 
That  are  both  good  to  use,  and  rare  to  see. 

Bill  of  Mortality,  for  Exet>r,  M'.  H.  A.  D.  1823. 
Bv  Joseph  Tilton,  M.  D. 




Old   Age    ^  85  :  83  :  70  :  79  :  77 
Consump.  30  :  50  :  44  :  58 :  14  :  8m.  50y 
Typhus  Fever,       ....     15  :  49y. 

Palsy 71v- 

Croup 2:  4y. 

Measles 2y.   10, n. 

Marasmus lOni 

Dropsy  of  Head, 17) 

Apthea 21il. 

Mortification 21  -.  58y 

Convulsions,      .     .     3d.  :  3\v.  :  1  :  8y- 

Dysentery, 58y. 

Quinsy, 55y 

Cholera  Morbus,       .    .     .     5y  :  15m. 

Apoplexy,         52  :  66y 




—I  1 

-I  1 

1    1 

—    2 

55  :  64y.|   1 


'■3.\  &\'i\  3i  21  51  31  51  31    2!   1 

1  11 






Marriages,  27 Births— Males.  23  —Females.  27. Still  horn,  2. 

Summary  oj  all  the  Bills  of  Mortality  for  the  town  of  Exeter.,  from 
the  year  1810. 

































































Amount  of  Births  in  13  years,  901.     Deaths,  382.     Marriages,  271. 

I!xeter  is  situated  at  the  head  of  Pascataqui  liver.  14  miles  west  from  Portsmouth--^ 
containing  about  2200  inhabitants. 

AUGUST,  1824. 



REV.    JOHN    SMITH,  D.  D. 

Professor  of  the  Learned  Languages  at  Dartmouth  College. 
1  [Extracted  from   the  Eulogium   of  President  John  Wheelock.] 

The  Rev.  John  Smith,  D.  D.,  a  descendant  from  worthy 
parents,  was  born  on  the  21st  day  of  December,  1752,  ia 
the  parish  of  Byfield,  in  the  State  of  Massachusetts.  Early 
in  lile,  so  soon  as  his  mind  was  susceptible  of  rational  im- 
provement, his  father  entered  him  at  Dummer  school,  under 
the  instruction  of  Mr.  Samuel  Moody.  It  is  unnecessary  to 
take  notice  of  the  developement  of  his  juvenile  mind,  his 
attention  to  literature,  and  especially  his  delight  in  the  study 
of  thi'  ancient  oriental  languages.  That  distinguished  mas- 
ter contemplated  the  heiglit  to  which  he  would  rise  in  this 
department ;  and  his  remark  on  him,  when  leaving  the  schooJ, 
to  enter  his  institution,  was  equal  to  a  volume  of  eulogy. 

Dr.  Smith  took  his  first  degree  in  the  year  1773.  He  still 
resided  at  the  College  with  unremitted  ardor  in  his  literary 
pursuits.  His  mind  was  not  wholly  isolated  in  one  particu- 
lar branch.  Philosophy,  geography,  criticism,  and  other 
parts  of  philology,  held  respectable  rank  in  his  acquire- 
ments ;  but  these  yielded  to  a  prevailing  bias  ;  the  investi- 
gation of  language  unceasingly  continued  his  favorite  ob- 
ject. The  knowledge  of  the  Hebrew,  with  his  propensity, 
led  him  to  the  study  of  theology.  He  filled  the  office  of 
tutor  in  the  College,  when  an  invitation  was  made  to  him 
from  Connecticut  to  settle  in  the  ministry. 

At  this  period,  in  the  year  1778,  the  way  was  open  to  a 
professorship  in  the  learned  languages.  On  him  the  public 
eye  was  fixed.  He  undertook  the  duties,  and  entered  the 
career  of  more  splendid  services,  in  the  republic  of  letters. 
His  solicitude  and  labors  were  devoted  to  tne  institution 

234  Rtv.  John  Smith,  D.  D, 

during  ifs  infantile  state,  embarrassed  by  the  revolutionary 
war.  He  alleviated  the  burthens  of  the  reverend  founder 
of  this  establishment  ;  and  administered  comfort  and  solace 
to  him  in  his  declining  days. 

From  that  period,  in  1779,  Dr.  Smith  continued  indefati- 
gable in  mental  applications,  faithful  in  the  discharge  of 
official  duties  ;  and  active  for  the  interest  of  the  society, 
through  scenes  of  trouble  and  adversity.  The  board  of 
Trustees  elected  him  a  member  of  their  body.  The  church 
at  the  College,  founded  by  my  predecessor,  entrusted  with 
him,  as  pastor,  their  spiritual  concerns,  and  were  prosper- 
ed under  his  prudent  and  pious  care.  God  blessed  his  la- 
bors ;  a  golden  harvest  reminds  us  of  the  last.  I  may  add, 
that  his  qualifications,  as  a  divine,  were  appreciated  abroad  ; 
and  have  been  acknowledged  with  marked  respect  by  a 
public  and  honorable  body. 

To  the  force  of  his  various  exertions,  under  divine  provi- 
dence, justice  demands,  that  we  ascribe  much  in  the  rise 
and  splendor  of  this  establishment. 

The  Creator,in  his  wisdom,  has  not  formed  the  individuals 
of  the  human  race  with  universal  genius.  Cicero  appears  to 
have  been  the  only  instance,  among  the  ancients,  of  the  same 
person  embracing  the  various  arts  and  sciences,  and  ex- 
celhng  in  each.  One  mind  seems  to  have  been  adapted  to 
only  one  kind  of  improvement,  so  that  it  might  mature  in 
its  varieties,  by  the  more  effectual  labors  of  all.  But  can 
this  truth  justify  the  usage  of  the  ancient  Egyptians,  and  as 
continued  in  India,  confining  the  different  professions  to 
particular  families  ?  Human  institutions  cannot  control  the 
laws  of  nature.  Genius,  restrained,  can  never  advance. 
Happy,  when  education,  and  circumstances,  conduct  it  in  the 
course,  which  nature  designed.  Thus,  in  regard  to  him, 
whose  merit  now  demands  our  tribute. 

While  surveying  the  circle  of  knowledge,  and  justly  esti- 
mating the  relative  importance  of  its  different  branches,  still 
his  eye  was  more  fixed  on  classical  science  ;  and  his  attach- 
ment seemed  to  concentrate  the  force  of  genius  in  develop- 
ing the  nature  of  language,  and  the  principles  of  the  learned 
tongues,  on  which  the  modern  so  much  depend  for  their 
perfection.  The  Latin,  the  Greek,  and  the  Hebrew,  were 
almost  familiar  to  him  as  his  native  language.  He  clearly 
comprehended  the  Samaritan  and  Chaldaic  ;  and  far  extend- 
ed his  researches  in  the  Arabic. 

Some,  perhaps,  may  think  less  of  the  importance  of  gram- 
mar ;  because,  like  the    atmosphere,  its  use  is    common, 

Rev»  John  Smithy  D.  D.  235 

though  necessary.  Will  such  believe,  that  the  enlightened 
Greeks  and  Romans  assigned  a  place  to  its  professor,  as 
wtil  as  to  philosophers  and  poets,  in  the  temple  of  Apollo  ; 
could  thej  conceive,  that  Suetonius  devoted  himself  to  write 
the  history  of  Illustrious  Grammarians  ?  Plato  gave  rank 
to  this  art  in  his  sublime  works  ;  and  Aristotle  more  largely 
discussed  his  principles.  A  croud  of  Stoic  philosophers 
enlisted  in  the  service.  Varro,  Cicero,  Messula,  and  Ju- 
lius Caesar,  treated  of  the  same,  and  did  honor  to  the  sub- 

The  eminent  attainments  of  Dr.  Smith  in  the  knowledge 
of  the  languages  are  attested  by  multitudes,  scattered  in  the 
civilized  world,  who  enjoyed  his  instruction.  They  will  be 
attested  in  future  times,  by  his  Latin  Grammar,  published 
about  seven  years  ago  ;  and  by  his  Hebrew  Grammar, 
which  has  since  appeared.  In  each  of  these  works,  in  a 
masterly  manner,  he  treats  of  every  matter  proper  for  the 
student  to  know.  Each  subject  is  displayed  in  a  new  meth- 
od, with  perspicnity,  conciseness,  simplicity,  and  classic 
taste.  His  Greek  Grammar,  we  may  suppose,  will  exhibit 
the  same  traits,  when  it  shall  meet  the  public  eye.  This 
last  labor  he  had  finished,  and  committed  to  the  printer  a 
few  months  before  his  decease.* 

If  we  turn  to  take  a  moral  view  of  this  distinguished  vota- 
ry of  science,  new  motives  will  increase  our  esteem.  What 
shall  I  say  of  the  purity  of  his  manners,  his  integrity,  and 
amiable  virtues  ?  These  are  too  strongly  impressed  on  the 
minds  of  all,  who  knew  him,  to  need  description.  He  was 
possessed  of  great  modesty,  and  a  degree  of  reserve,  appear- 
ing at  times  to  indicate  diffidence  in  the  view  of  those  less 
acquainted.  But  this,  itself,  was  an  effusion  of  his  goodness, 
which  led  to  yielding  accommodation  in  matters  of  minor 
concern  ;  yet,  however,  when  the  interest  of  virtue  or  socie- 
ty required  him  to  act,  he  formed  his  own  opinion,  and  pro- 
ceeded with  unshaken  firmness.  Those  intimately  ac- 
quainted with  him  can  bear  witness ;  and  it  is  confirmable 
by  invariable  traits  in  his  principles  and  practice  during  life. 

The  virtues  of  Dr.  Smith  were  not  compressed  within  the 
circle  of  human  relations,  which  vanish  with  time.  Con- 
templating the  first  cause,  the  connexions  and  dependencies 
in  the  moral  state,  his  mind  was  filled  with  a  sense  of  inter- 
minable duties.  He  was  a  disciple  of  Jesus.  The  former 
President  admired  and  loved  him,  and  taught  him  theology. 
The  latter,  as  a  divine  and  christian,  embraced  and  incul- 

*  It  has  been  since  publishid,  and  is  much  approved. 

296  Mev,  Timothy  Walker, 

cated  the  same  doctrine, — peace  on  earth,  and  good  will  to  all 
men.  This  amiable  spirit  actuatrd  his  whole  lile,  and  added 
peculiar  splendor  to  the  closing  scene. 

His  intense  pursuits  of  science  aflected  his  constitution, 
and  produced  debility,  which  more  than  two  years  belore, 
began  to  be  observed  by  his  friends.  It  gradually  increas- 
ed, but  not  greatly  to  interrupt  his  avocations  'till  six  weeks 
before  his  death.  While  I  revive  the  affliction  at  his  de- 
parture, its  accompanying  circumstances  will  assuage  our 
sorrow.  The  thoughts  of  his  resignation  to  Divine  Provi- 
dence through  all  the  stages  of  a  disease,  that  rapidly  prey- 
ed upon  his  vitals,  his  composure,  serenity,  and  christian 
confidence,  remain  for  the  consolation  of  his  friends,  and 
instruction  of  all. 

Such  is  the  character  of  Dr.  Smith,  which  I  have  endeavor- 
ed faithfully  and  impartially  to  depict.  Some  there  arc,  who, 
by  a  flash  of  achievement,  have  like  Pisistratus  and  Deme- 
trius, received  the  burst  of  applause  from  a  deluded  people. 
Many  surrounded  with  the  trappings  of  wealth  ;  many  deco- 
rated with  titles  ;  many  descended  from  ennobled  ancestors, 
have  been  flattered  while  living  by  parasites,  celebrated  at 
their  death  by  hirelings,  and  to  their  memory  statutes  and 
monuments  were  erected,  but  such  glory  vanishes  like 
the  falling  star,  and  its  possessors  are  consigned  to  oblivion. 
How  different  is  the  honor  consecrated  to  merit ;  to  the  mem- 
ory of  him  whose  departure  we  now  lament !  The  fame  of 
Dr.  Smith  does  not  arise  from  wealth,  nor  descent  from  ti- 
tled ancestors.  It  has  no  boiTOwed  lustre.  He  was  indebt- 
ed wholly  to  his  genius,  his  labour,  and  his  virtues.  His 
monument  will  exist  in  the  hearts  of  his  acquaintance;  and 
in  the  future  respect  of  those,  who  shall  derive  advantage 
from  his  exertions.  Dr.  Smith  died  at  Hanover,  in  April, 
1809,  aged  5G. 


On  the  2d  September,  1782,  died  the  venerable  Timothy 
Walker,  the  first  minil5ter,  and  one  of  the  first  settlers,  of 
the  town  of  Concord,  N.  H.  He  was  born  at  Woburn, 
Mass.  in  1706;  after  having  graduated  at  Harvard  college, 
in  1725,  he  pursued  the  usual  course  of  theological  studies. 
On  the  18th  of  November,  1  730,  upon  the  unanimous  invita- 
tion of  the  proprietors  of  the  new  township  of  Penacook, 
[Concord]he  was  ordained  their  pastor.  After  his  ordination, 
Mr.  W.  returned  with  the  council,  and  soon  came  up  with 

Rev.  Timothy  Walker.  237 

his  wife,  and  other  settlers,  with  four  of  their  wives.  These 
were  the  first  women  that  came  into  the  town,  excepting  two 
who  passed  the  previous  winter  in  the  block-house,  (meeting- 
house.) Mr.  W.  erected  his  house  on  Horse-shoe  pond  hiW  ; 
but  after  the  Indians  becamt  hostile,  he  removed  hih  houso 
into  a  fort  which  he  had  erected,  and  remained  within  its 
walls,  with  seven  other  families,  until  the  wars  in  which  the 
Indians  engaged,  were  ended.  Durinsr  this  time,  the  house 
of  worship  stood  without  the  walls  of  the  garrison,  where 
the  inhabitants  attended  armed  and  in  companies. 

Many  anecdotes  are  related  of  Mr.  W.  which  prove  him 
to  have  been  a  favorite  with  the  Indians,  who  even  in  times 
of  danger  and  hostilities,  were  hospitably  entertained  within 
the  walls  of  his  fort.  The  merciless  cruelties  of  the  In- 
dians, exercised  most  frequently  upon  the  weak  and  de- 
fenceless, had  create  d  a  sentiment  of  hostility  against  them, 
which  now,  as  their  extermination  seemed  rapidly  approach- 
ing, rendered  these  little  offices  of  friendship  very  delightful 
to  them.  An  Indian  never  forgets  a  benefit,  and  many  of 
them  r'  garded  Mr.  W.  as  a  father  and  friend. 

The  years  of  Mr.  W.  until  the  dispute  between  Bow,  (or 
rather  the  government  of  New-Hampshire")  and  Concord, 
wpre  passed  in  opening  and  improvmg  his  farm,  and  in  the 
discharge  of  his  parochial  duties.  At  this  time,  he  was 
chosen  agent  for  the  town  to  defend  their  law  suits,  and  for 
this  purpose  he  made  three  voyages  to  England.  Sir  Wil- 
liam Murray,  afterwards  Lord  Mansfield,  was  his  counsellor 
and  advocate  in  the  first  cause.  The  last  case  detained  him 
in  England  about  two  years.  During  this  period,  he  had 
frequent  interviews  with  Lord  Mansfield  at  his  Chambers, 
who  the  year  before,  was  his  counsel,  and  the  conversation 
was  often  relative  to  the  affairs  of  America.  Mr.  Kilby, 
an  eminent  merchant  of  Boston,  was  at  that  time  in  London, 
and  introduced  Mr.  W.  to  many  of  the  Ministry.  From 
the  manner  and  spirit  of  their  remarks,  when  they  spoke  of 
America,  he  was  convinced,  and  observed  to  the  late  Dr. 
Chauncey,  "  that  nothin^i  but  the  absolute  submission  of  the 
colonies  would  satisfy  Britain,  and  that,  in  the  end,  we  must 
have  a  war  with  Old  England  and  a  league  with  France.'' — 
He  was  ever  a  firm  advocate  for  the  rights  of  the  colonies, 
and  at  the  commencement  of  hostilities  in  1775.  although 
far  advanced  in  years,  he  encouraged  the  people  to 
be  decided  and  persevering  in  the  struggle  for  their  Inde- 
pendence. He  was  chosen  by  the  town  a  delegate  to  the 
first  Provkicial  Congress,  and  evinced  great  ardor  in  the 

238  Hon.  Thomas   W.  Thompson. 

American  cause,  and  an  unshaken  conviction  of  its  justice 
and  success.  He  did  not  live,  however,  to  see  the  truth  of 
his  predictions,  and  the  accomplishment  of  his  most  san- 
guine wishes. 

Mr.  Walker's  zeal  in  the  cause  of  his  country  was  firm 
and  untiring.  When  Capt.  Jonathan  Eastman  returned  from 
Saratoga,  bringing  the  first  intelligence  of  the  victory,  Mr. 
Walker  came  running  out  to  meet  him,  eagerly  inquiring 
"  What  news  ?  friend  Eastman  !  what  news  ?"  The  captain 
related  to  him  the  joyful  tidings ;  and  the  good  old  patriot 
exclaimed,  "  Blessed  be  God  !  the  country  is  saved — I  can 
now  die  in  peace  !" 

In  his  ministry,  Mr  Walker  was  extremely  tolerant. — 
Firm  in  his  own  tenets  ;  yet  to  others  of  different  persua- 
sions, kind  and  charitable  ;  forcibly  recommending  to  all 
what  he  adopted  himself,  the  Bible  alone  as  the  rule  of  their 
faith  and  practice.  Under  his  ministry,  for  S2  years,  the 
town  was  harmoniously  united  in  one  congregation,  and  he 
died  universally  lamented  by  a  people,  among  whom  he 
had  lived  in  honor  and  usefulness. — Moore's  Annals  of  Con- 
cord, J^.  H. 


Thomas  W.  Thompson  was  born  in  Boston,  Mass.  in  the 
montii  of  March,  in  the  year  1765.  His  father,  the  late 
deacon  Thomas  Thompson,  was  a  native  of  Alnwick,  in 
North-Britain.  His  mother,  Isabella  White,  was  born  in 
Glasgow,  in  Scotland.  The  period  of  their  emigration  from 
Europe  to  Boston  is  not  recollected.  They  removed  from 
Boston  to  Newburyport  when  he  was  quite  young.  He  was 
fitted  for  college  at  Dummer  Academy,  in  the  parish  of  By- 
field,  in  Newbury,  Mass.  by  the  venerable  Samuel  Moc  dy, 
a  preceptor,  who  was  no  less  distinguished  for  talent  at  gov- 
erning his  pupils,  than  for  his  thorough  knowledge  of  the 
Latin,  Greek,  and  Hebrew  languages.  He  entered  the  col- 
lege at  Cambridge  in  the  year  1782,  and  received  the  de- 
gree of  A.  B.  in  1786.  Soon  after  he  left  college,  the  in- 
surrection in  Massachusetts,  of  which  Daniel  Shays  was 
nominal  leader,  broke  out,  and  he  entered  into  the  army  as 
an  aid  to  General  Lincoln,  commander  of  the  army  of  Mas- 
sachusetts, and  served  during  the  whole  campaign,  in  a 
severe  winter,  and  until  the  insurrection  was  quelled.  He 
afterwards  pursued  the  study  of  theology,  in  order  to  quali- 
fy himself  for  the  pulpit.  While  engaged  in  that  study,  he 
was  appointed  a  tutor  in  the  college  at  Cambridge  ;  he  ac- 

Hon,  Thomas   W.  Thompson,  239 

cepted  the  appointment,  and  was  very  much  a  favorite  with 
the  students,  to  whom  he  was  rendered  peculiarly  agreea- 
ble by  the  suavity  of  his  manners,  and  native,  easy,  un- 
affected politeness — qualities,  at  that  day,  too  rare  among 
the  learned  instructors  of  colleges.  Leaving  the  office  of 
tutor,  he  commenced  the  study  of  law,  under  the  tuition  of 
Theophilus  Parsons,  "  the  giant  of  the  law,"  who  then  lived 
at  Newburyport.  Being  admitted  to  practice  at  the  bar,  he 
came  into  New-Hampshire  in  June,  1791,  and  commenced 
practice  near  the  south  meeting-house,  in  Salisbury,  where 
he  remained  about  one  year,  and  then  removed  to  the  river 
road,  in  Salisbury,  where  he  continued  in  the  practice  of 
law  until  he  went  the  first  time  to  Washington,  a  representa- 
tive in  Congress.  He  then  withdrew  from  judicial  courts, 
though  he  continued  through  life  to  give  advice  as  a  coun- 
sellor at  law.  Soon  after  he  came  into  this  State,  his  talents, 
industry,  integrity,  and  knowledge  of  the  law,  introduced 
him  to  a  very  extensive  and  lucrative  practice,  and  he  be- 
came well  known  at  the  bar,  in  most  of  the  counties  in  this 

In  the  year  1801,  he  became  a  member  of  the  board  of 
trustees  of  Dartmouth  college,  and  continued  such,  until  he 
resigned  his  seat  a  short  time  before  his  death.  Of  this 
board,  he  was  an  active  and  efficient  member.  He  was, 
from  1805  to  1807,  a  Representative,  and  once  a  Senator  in 
the  Congress  of  the  United  States.  He  represented  the 
town  of  Salisbury  once  or  twice  in  the  Legislature.  After 
his  removal  to  Concord,  he  was  several  times  elected  a  Rep- 
resentative of  that  town.  He  was  Speaker  of  the  House  of 
Representatives  of  this  State  at  a  time  when  party  spirit 
was  at  its  greatest  height  ;  and,  even  at  that  time,  his  politi- 
cal opponents  bore  willing  testimony  to  his  candor,  ability 
and  impartiality  in  the  discharge  of  the  duties  of  that  office. 

In  the  year  1809,  he  removed  from  Salisbury  to  Concord, 
where  he  ever  after  resided  until  his  death.  In  August,  1819, 
he  sat  out  on  a  journey  to  Quebec,  and  was  on  board  the 
steam-boat  Phoenix,  bound  from  Burlington  to  Canada,  at 
the  time  of  its  destruction  by  fire  at  midnight  on  lake  Cham- 
plain.  The  vessel  was  all  on  fire,  and  the  people  on  board 
were  leaving  her  in  two  small  boats,  while  he  was  left  asleep. 
Waking,  he  saw  the  situation  of  the  vessel,  and  that  the 
last  boat  was  leaving  her.  He  jumped  into  the  boat,  alrea- 
dy filled  nearly  to  sinking,  and  was  the  last  person  who  es- 
caped from  the  burning  vessel.  The  terrors  and  fatigue  of 
that  night  probably  produced  the  disease  which  put  a  period 
to  his  life.     He  died  October  1st,  1821. — Moore's  Annals. 

(  240  ) 

Historical  Notices  of  Kewspapers  published  in  the  State  ofKtw- 

[Continued  frora  page  180.] 

The  second  newspaper  printed  in  New-Hampshire  was 
commenced  by  Thomas  Furber,  at  Portsmouth,  in  1765. 
Furber  was  a  native  of  Portsmouth,  and  served  his  appren- 
ticeship with  Daniel  Fowle.  Some  zealous  whigs.  who 
thought  the  Fov/les  were  too  timid  in  the  cause  of  lib.  rty, 
or  their  press  too  much  under  the  influence  of  the  otfit.t  rs  of 
the  crown,  encouraged  Furber  to  set  up  a  second  press  in 
the  province.  He  accordingly  opened  a  printing-house  to- 
ward the  end  of  1764,  and  soon  after  published  a  news- 
paper, called 

The  Portsmouth  Mercury  and  Weekly  Mvertiser. 

Containing  the  freshest  and  mdst  important  Advices,  both  Foreign  and  Doniestick. 

Its  first  appearance  was  on  the  21st  of  January  1766. — 
It  was  introduced  with  an  address  to  the  public,  which  states 

"  The  Publisher  proposes  to  print  Nothing  that  may  have 
the  least  Tendency  lo  subvert  good  Order  in  public  and  pri- 
vate Societies,  and  to  steer  clear  of  litigious,  ill  natured  and 
trifling  disputes  in  Individuals  ;  yet  neither  opposition,  arbi- 
trary Power,  or  public  Injuries  may  be  expected  to  be 
screened  from  the  Knowledge  of  the  People,  whose  Liberties 
are  dearer  to  them  than  their  lives." 

The  Mercury  was  published  weekly  on  Monday,  on  a 
crown  sheet  folio,  from  a  n^w  large  faced  small  pica  from 
Cottrell's  foundry  in  London.* — Imprint — "  Portsmouth,  in 
New-Hampshire,  Printed  by  Thomas  Furber  at  the  New 
Printing  Office  near  the  Parade,  where  this  Paper  may  be 
had  for  one  Dollar  or  Six  Pounds  O.  T.  per  year;  One 
Half  to  be  paid  at  entrance." 

The  Mercury  a  few  weeks  after  its  first  appearance,  was 
very  irregular  as  to  its  size.  It  was  most  commonly  com- 
prised in  a  sheet  of  pot  or  foolscap,  printed  "  broadsides," 
but  occasionally  on  half  a  sheet  of  medium  or  demy,  as  pa- 
per could  be  purchased  at  the  stores  the  moment  it  was 

The  typography  of  the  Mercury,  the  new  type  excepted, 
did  not  exceed  that  of  the  Gazette.  The  collection  of  intel- 
ligence was  inferior  ;  and  this  paper  was  not  supported  hy 
any  number  of  respectable  writers  more  than  the  Gazette. 

J  Not  celebrated  fpr  f^oducing  the  best  type?. 

Printing  in  Nito-Hampshire.  241 

Before  the  first  year  of  the  publication  of  the  Mercury 
ended,  Furber  took  as  a  partner,  Ezekiel  Russell,  and  his 
name  appeared  after  Furber's  in  the  imprint. 

They  who,  in  the  greatest  degree,  encouraged  the  Mercu- 
ry, very  warmly  opposed  the  stamp  act,  laid  on  the  colonies 
at  this  time,  by  the  British  parliament ;  indeed,  the  spirit  of 
the  country  rose  in  opposition  to  this  act  ;  and,  although 
some  publishers  of  newspapers  made  a  faint  stand,  yet  few 
among  those  more  immediately  attached  to  the  British  ad- 
ministration, were  hardy  enough  to  afford  this  measure  even 
a  feeble  support.  The  New-Hampshire  Gazette,  which  some 
thought  would  not  appear  in  opposition  to  the  stamp  act, 
came  forward  against  it ;  and,  on  the  day  preceding  that  on 
which  it  was  designed  the  act  should  take  place,  appeared 
in  full  mourning  ;  contained  some  very  spirited  observations 
against  this  measure  of  government ;  and  continued  to  be 
published  as  usual  without  stamps. 

The  Mercury  did  not  gain  that  circulation,  which  it  might 
have  obtained,  had  its  editors  taken  a  more  decided  part  ; 
and,  either  defended  government  with  energy,  or  made  the 
paper  generally  interesting  to  the  publick  by  a  zealous  sup- 
port of  the  rights  and  liberties  of  the  colonies. 

In  consequence  of  the  neglect  of  the  publishers  to  render 
the  Mercury  worthy  of  publick  attention,  the  customers  with- 
drew, and  the  paper,  after  having  been  published  about  three 
years,  was  discontinued. 

The  printing  materials  were  purchased  by  the  Fowles, 
and  Furber  became  their  journeyman.  Having  been  taught 
plain  binding,  though  not  very  skilful  either  in  printing  or 
binding,  he  undertook  to  connect  it  with  the  printing — but 
did  not  prosper  in  the  undertaking.  Russell  was  born  in  Bos- 
ton, and  learned  the  art  of  his  brother  Joseph  Russell,  who 
was  the  partner  of  Green.  He  left  Portsmouth  upon  the 
failure  of  his  enterprize  there,  and  worked  with  several 
printers  in  Boston  until  1769,  when  he  commenced  business 
again  on  a  small  scale,  in  a  house  near  Concert  Hall.  He 
afterwards  worked  in  Union-street,  and  to  his  printing  bu- 
siness, for  a  time,  added  that  of  an  auctioneer. 

In  November,  1771,  he  began  a  political  publication,  en- 
titled "  The  Censor."  This  paper  was  supported,  during 
the  short  period  of  its  existence,  by  those  who  were  in  the 
interest  of  the  British  government. 

Russell   removed  to  Salem  in   1774,  and  attempted  the 
publication  of  a  newspaper,  but  did  not  succeed.     He  again 
removed,  and   went  to  Danvers,   and  printed   in  a  house 

242  Printing  in  New-Hampshire. 

known  by  the  name  of  the  Bell  tavern.  In  a  few  years  he 
returned  once  more  to  Boston  ;  and,  finally,  took  his  stand 
in  Essex-street,  near  the  spot  on  which  grew  the  great  elms, 
one  of  which  was  then  standing,  and  was  called  "  Liberty 
tree."  Here  he  printed  and  sold  ballads,  and  published 
whole  and  half  sheet  pamphlets  for  pedlers.  In  these  small 
articles,  his  trade  principally  consisted,  and  afforded  him  a 
very  decerit  support. 

The  wife  of  Russell  was  indeed  an  "  help-meet  for  him." 
She  was  a  very  industrious,  active  woman  ;  she  made  her- 
self acquainted  with  the  printing  business  ;  and,  not  only 
assisted  her  husband  in  the  printing  house,  but  she  some- 
times invoked  her  muse,  and  wrote  ballads  on  recent  tragical 
events,  which  being  immediately  printed,  and  set  oft'  with 
wooden  cuts  of  coffins,  &c.  had  frequently  "  a  considerable 
run."     Russell  died  September,  1796,  aged  62. 

From  1767  until  1775,  the  Gazette  was  the  only  paper 
published  in  the  province. 

The  third  newspaper  which  appeared  in  New-Hampshire, 
was  issued  from  the  press  in  Exeter,  near  the  close  of  the 
year  1 775,  and  published,  irregularly,  by  Robert  Fowle, 
under  various  titles,  in  1776  and  part  of  1777,  until  discon- 
tinued. It  was  printed  on  a  large  type,  small  paper,  and  of- 
ten on  half  a  sheet. 

It  was  first  entitled,  "  A  New-Hampshire  Gazette."  Af- 
terward, "■  The  New-Hampshire  Gazette." — "  The  New- 
Hampshire  Gazette,  or,  Exeter  Morning  Chronicle." — "  The 
New-Hampshire  [State]  Gazette,  or,  Exeter  Circulating^ 
Morning  Chronicle." — "  The  State-Journal,  or.  The  New- 
Hampshire  Gazette  and  Tuesday's  Liberty  Advertiser." 
These,  and  other  alterations,  with  changes  of  the  day  of  pub- 
lication, took  place  within  one  year.  It  was  published,  gen- 
erally, without  an  imprint. 

In  the  last  alteration  of  the  title,  a  large  cut,  coarsely  en- 
graved, was  introduced  ;  it  was  a  copy  of  that,  which  had, 
for  several  years,  been  used  in  The  Pennsylvania  Journal,* 
and  the  same  which  Rogers,  some  time  before,  had  introdu- 
ced into  the  Salem  Gazette  and  Advertiser. 

*Tlie  device  was  an  open  volume,  on  which  the  word  "  jocrnal"  is  very  con- 
spicuous ;  underneath  the  vohtme  appears  a  ship  under  sail,  enclosed  in  an  orna- 
mented border;  the  volume  is  supported  by  two  large  figures;  the  one  on  the  right 
represents  Fame,  that  on  the  left,  one  of  the  aborigines  properly  equipped.  This 
device  remained  as  long  as  the  Journal  was  published,  excepting  from  July  1774,  to 
October,  1775,  during  which  time,  the  device  of  the  divided  snake,  with  the  motto — 
••  UNITE  OR  DIB,"  was  substituted  in  its  room. 

[^Fo  he.  continued,'] 

(  243  ) 




Id  the  two  last  numbers  I  considered  the  evils  which  result 
from  a  council  purely  executive,  and  suggested  an  amendment 
which  would  prevent  most  of  those  evils,  and  at  the  same  time 
afford  a  greater  degree  of  security  to  the  people.  But  there  are 
other  principles  and  practices  relating  to  appointments,  that 
have  not  been  mentioned,  which  require  attention. 

Our  constitution  gives  the  sole  and  exclusive  right  to  the  gover- 
nor and  council,  to  appoint  all  our  judicial  officers.  The  law  limits 
and  establishes  the  precise  number  of  judges  of  which  the  superior 
court,  courts  of  common  pleas,  and  of  probate  shall  consist ;  and 
the  executive  can  neither  increase  nor  diminish  that  number. 
This  is  as  it  ought  to  be — the  number  of  judges  should  depend 
upon  stable  laws,  and  not  on  the  will  and  pleasure  of  a  single 
branch  of  the  government,  which  is  not  only  subject  to,  but  actual- 
ly changes  almost  every  year.  But  there  is  one  class  of  judicial 
officers,  justices  of  the  peace,  the  number  of  whom  is  neither 
fixed  by  the  constitution  or  law,  but  depends  upon  the  will  and 
pleasure  of  the  executive,  which  is  sometimes  exercised  without 
due  consideration.  In  several  of  the  States,  the  number  of  jus- 
tices of  the  peace  is  expressly  limited  by  law  ;  and  such  a  limi- 
tation partakes  more  of  the  nature  of  legislation,  than  of  execu- 
tive authority.  Such  a  law  would  relieve  the  executive  of  much 
trouble,  distribute  those  offices  more  equally  through  the  various 
parts  of  the  State,  and  produce  a  uniform  system,  to  which  every 
executive  would  be  obliged  to  conform. 

I  lay  it  down  as  a  rule,  that  there  ought  to  be  no  more  justices 
of  the  peace  appointed,  than  what  are  necessary  to  perform  the 
duties  of  that  office,  promote  the  public  interest,  and  accommo- 
date the  people.  The  propriety  of  this  rule  is  too  just  and  clear 
to  be  questioned  :  for  we  are  not  permitted  to  create  offices  to 
confer  honor,  or  reward  merit,  but  solely  to  serve  the  pubJick. 
The  principles  of  our  government  forbid  the  establishment  of 
nobility  and  knighthood — we  distinguish  no  man  by  stars  and 
ribbands,  or  sinecure  offices.  Indeed,  if  we  were  allowed  to 
confer  a  title  of  honor  as  a  reward  for  eminent  talents  and  great 
public  services,  the  office  of  justice  of  the  peace  is  too  common 
to  be  considered  as  a  mark  of  distinction.  Justices  are  so  numer- 
ous, and  so  many  of  them  have  so  little  information  and  respecta- 
bility, that  many  good  men  refuse  to  associate  with  them. 

A  simple  statement  of  duties  which  a  justice  is  by  our  laws  re- 
quired to  perform,  will  shew  that  we  have  more  than  we  want, 
and  that  many  who  are  in  commission  are  altogether  uselees  to  the 

244  Essai/s  of  Cincinnatus, 

publick.  Originally,  justices  were  mere  conservators  of  thepcace^ 
and  had  no  other  jurisdiction,  or  duties  to  perform  ;  but  their  duty 
is  now  divided  into  two  classes — civil  and  criminal.  Our  laws  au- 
thorize them  to  issue  process  against  offenders,  and  if  upon  exam- 
ination, the  accused  appears  guilty  of  an  offence  which  exceeds 
their  jurisdiction  to  try,  the  justice  is  to  require  him  to  give  securi- 
ty for  his  appearance  at  the  Superior  Court,  and  for  want  thereof,  to 
commit  him  to  prison  :  but  they  are  to  decide  on  petty  breaches 
of  the  peace,  thefts,  and  other  minor  offences.  They  are  also  au- 
thorized to  try  civil  suits  of  a  small  amount ;  issue  warrants  against 
persons  accused  of  bastardy,  and  bind  over  the  accused  to  trial  ; 
take  depositions  of  witnesses,  and  the  acknowledgment  of  deeds; 
administer  oaths  to  officers  and  witnesses  ;  and  where  selectmen 
or  proprietors'  clerks  refuse  or  neglect,  they  are  to  issue  war- 
rants for  calling  meetings.  These  are  the  principal,  if  not  all, 
the  duties  required  of  a  justice  ;  and  surely  one  to  a  town,  a 
few  towns  excepted,  would  be  sufficient  for  those  purposes. 

According  to  the  most  accurate  account  I  have  been  able  to  ob- 
tain, the  number  of  justices  in  New-Hampshire,  at  this  time, 
exceeds  a  thousand.  They  are  more  numerous  than  is  necessary, 
whether  we  consider  the  duties  they  are  to  perform,  or  the  pro- 
portion they  bear  to  our  population,  rateable  polls,  militia,  or 
our  towns.  There  is  more  than  one  justice  to  every  two  hun- 
dred and  forty-four  inhabitants,  to  every  forty-two  rateable  polls, 
and  to  every  twenty-nine  men  who  belong  to  the  militia  ;  and  on 
an  average,  nearly  five  justices  to  each  town,  though  some  of 
the  towns  have  very  few  inhabitants.  On  the  first  of  June,  1816, 
the  whole  number  of  justices  was  nine  hundred  eighty-four  ; 
in  the  three  years  following,  they  were  reduced  to  eight  hundred 
and  three  ;  but  within  the  last  five  years,  two  hundred  new  ad- 
ditional appointments  have  been  made.  For  this  great  increase, 
jio  reason  has  been  assigned,  and  perhaps  for  the  best  cause,  that 
none  existed. 

The  office  of  a  justice  of  the  peace  is  necessary,  and  should 
be  held  by  men  who  possess  the  confidence  and  respect  of  the  peo- 
ple ;  but  whenever  they  become  too  numerous,  the  public  with- 
draw their  esteem,  and  the  office  itself  is  degraded  :  for  in  such 
a  number  there  will  be  some  who  are  ignorant,  intemperate,  dis- 
honorable, and  dishonest  men,  who,  to  increase  their  emoluments, 
will  promote  petty  suits,  and  encourage  a  spirit  of  litigation — 
the  curse  and  scourge  of  society.  The  evils  which  such  an  offi- 
cious justice  introduces  into  a  town  are  great,  and  in  some 
places  more  burthensome  to  the  people  than  all  the  taxes  they 
pay.  Whenever  the  executive  appoint  more  justices  than  is  ne- 
cessary, it  is  difficult  to  stay  their  course — every  unnecessary  ap- 
pointment forms  a  precedent  for  another.  This  abuse  of  power 
is  too  often  exercised  for  the  purpose  of  increasing  the  patron- 
age of  the  governor  and  councillors,     .liislicps*  commissions  are 

Essays  of  Cincinnahts.  245 

given  ns  a  reward  for  the  services  of  a  certain  class  of  their  ad- 
vocates and  partizans.  Though  I  consider  such  a  course  in  the 
executive,  as  founded  in  error  and  mistake,  because,  by  every 
such  appointment,  they  disappoint  more  office-seekers  than  they 
gratify,  and,  what  is  of  more  importance,  induce  high-minded 
men  to  withdraw  their  support ;  yet,  to  remove  this  temptation 
from  the  executive,  I  think  a  law,  limiting  and  tixing  the  number 
of  justices  hereafter  to  be  appointed  in  each  county,  would  be 
xisefid^  and  indeed,  has  now  become  necessarj'  to  restrain  the  ex- 

Some  may  imagine  I  have  dwelt  longer  on  this  subject,  than 
its  importance  required.  To  such  men,  permit  me  to  say,  that 
every  measure  which  tends  to  remove  temptation  from  the  exec- 
utive department,  to  limit  judicial  ofhcers  to  such  numbers  only, 
as  the  public  interest  requires,  and  to  render  those  more  respect- 
able, merits  the  consideration  of  all,  whose  object  is  to  make  the 
government  as  perfect  as  the  nature  of  man  will  permit.  And  I 
may  add,  thai  justices  of  peace  are  a  class  of  men  whose  influ- 
ence in  society  is  considerable  ;  and  that  the  influence  of  some 
of  them  is  not  from  their  talents,  information,  or  virtues,  but 
simply  from  their  office.  Their  influence  of  such  justices,  in 
general,  is  not  good,  but  evil,  and  by  appointing  more  than  is  ne- 
cessary, that  kind  of  influence  is  increased. 

The  authority  of  the  executive  to  appoint  militia  officers  is 
confined  to  the  general  and  field  officers  ;  the  generals  and  colo- 
nels appoint  their  staff,  and  the  field  officers  their  captains  and 
subalterns  ;  and  the  governor  is  bound  to  commission  them.  In 
the  appointment  of  the  general  and  field  officers,  the  executive 
is  not  bound  to  promote  the  oldest  officers,  but  may  prefer  mer- 
it to  rank.  The  great  number  of  field  officers  that  are  annually 
appointed,  and  the  impracticability  of  obtaining  the  necessary  in- 
formation who  are  best  qualified,  will  justify  the  executive  in  ap- 
pointing the  senior  oflficers  in  the  regiment.  But  as  there  are 
only  a  few  general  officers  to  be  appointed,  the  safest  course  is 
to  appoint  those  who  have  the  most  merit  and  best  qualifications 
for  those  offices,  without  regarding  their  former  rank.  Appoint- 
ing general  officers  according  to  seniority  may,  and  in  fact  has, 
raised  men  to  the  command  of  a  brigade  and  even  a  division,  who 
were  never  qualified  to  be  captain  of  a  company.  Unqualified 
military  officers  in  high  command,  degrade  the  militia  and  dis- 
grace themselves.  Neither  the  people  or  the  soldiers  can  res- 
pect the  military  establishment,  when  illiterate  men,  grossly  ig- 
norant of  military  science,  and  without  the  habits  and  manners 
of  the  gentleman  and  the  officer,  are  placed  at  the  head  of  a  di- 
vision or  brigade.  A  due  regard  to  the  respectability  and  use- 
fulness of  the  militia,  should,  therefore,  induce  the  executive,  in 
appointing  the  general  and  field  officers,  "to  prefer  merit  and 
qualification  to  every  other  consideration. 

246  Essays  of  CincinnaMs. 

A  few  observations  upon  the  mode  of  making  nominations,  will 
close  this  branch  of  our  enquiries.  Our  constitution  originally 
required,  thai  the  nomination  should  be  made  seven,  but  now  on- 
ly three  days,  before  the  appointment.  The  space  of  time  that 
is  required  to  elapse  between  the  nomination  and  the  appoint- 
ment, was  intended  to  afford  opportunity  to  the  members  of  the 
executive  board  to  consider  and.  investigate  the  character  and 
qualifications  of  the  person  nominated,  and  prevent  the  evils 
which  too  often  result  from  a  hasty  and  sudden  decision  upon  first 
impressions.  Soon  after  the  constitution  took  effect,  the  prac- 
tice commenced  of  nominating  several  persons  for  an  office,  when 
only  one  could  be  appointed.  The  chief  magistrate,  at  that  time, 
was  eminent  for  the  good  qualities  of  the  heart  ;  he  neither  dis- 
trusted the  purity  of  other  men's  motives,  or  suspected  any  thing 
improper  in  that  course;  but  some  of  his  council  were  artful  and 
intriguing,  and  under  the  pretext  that  it  was  necessary  to  pre- 
vent delay  which  a  seven  day's  nomination  would  occasion,  in 
case  a  majority  should  decline  to  appoint  the  man  whom  they 
nominated,  they  prevailed  upon  the  chief  magistrate  to  adopt 
that  rule.  This  practice  continued  until  some  years  after  the 
first  year  of  governor  Oilman's  election,  who,  on  mature  consid- 
eration, renounced  that  mode,  and  nominated  only  one  person 
for  an  office.  This  last  mode  was  continued,  I  believe,  without 
a  single  exception,  until  the  last  year,  when  governor  Woodbury 
again  resorted  to  the  former  practice. 

The  nominating  of  several  persons,  when  but  one  can  be  ap^ 
pointed,  appears  to  me  improper.  It  fosters  intrigue  and  man- 
agement from  the  time  of  nomination,  till  the  time  the  appoint- 
ment is  made.  Instead  of  fixing  the  attention  of  the  governor 
and  council  to  a  single  object,  it  tends  to  create  a  diversity  of 
opinion,  and  make  divisions  in  the  executive  department — evils 
that  ought  to  be  studiously  avoided.  It  also  tends  to  divide  pub- 
lic opinion,  for  as  soon  as  a  nomination  is  made,  it  is  usually 
known,  and  becomes  the  subject  of  conversation,  and  every  man 
who  is  nominated,  is  sure  to  have  advocates  who  support  bis  pre- 
tensions to  the  office.  And  as  it  respects  the  individuals  who  are 
nominated,  but  not  appointed,  instead  of  conferring  an  honor  up- 
on them,  it  unnecessarily  wounds  their  feelings.  It  is  a  declaration 
to  the  world,  that  the  executive  have  maturely  considered  their 
character  and  qualifications  for  the  office  in  question,  and  are  of 
opinion  that  they  are  not  worthy  of  it.  If  there  are  advantages 
in  this  mode  of  proceeding,  they  are  so  inconsiderable  that  they 
have  escaped  my  notice. 


June  3d,  182.4. 


[Extracted  from  Blackwood's  Edinburgh  Magazine.] 

Mr.  Calhoun,  the  present  Secretary  of  War,  (or  Minister 
of  War)  is  one  of  the  five,  and  the  youngest  among  them. 
He  has  distinguished  himself  in  Congress,  by  his  intrepid 
eloquence,  and,  in  the  cabinet,  by  some  bold  and  able,  but 
hazardous  undertakings.  He  is  nearly  six  feet  in  height, 
walks  very  erect,  so  that  his  stature  appears  even  greater 
than  that  :  has  very  dark  expressive  eyes  :  high  cheek- 
bones, and  a  square  forehead,  with  a  physiognomy  rather 
of  the  Scotch  character  :  talks  with  singular  rapidity  and 
vehemence,  when  at  all  excited,  and  electioneers  more  bare- 
facedly, and  with  less  address,  than  any  other  of  the  five 
candidates.  He  is  too  young  a  man  for  the  office,  and  has 
little  or  no  chance  of  success  :  he  is  very  ambitious,  and 
fully  aware  of  the  consequences  if  he  should  fail.  His  ad- 
versaries say  that  he  will  jump  before  he  comes  to  the  still  ; 
and  rmist  clear  the  passage,  or  be  thrown  out  forever. 
They  are  probably  right.  But  if  he  should  be  elected,  and 
it  is  quite  possible,  though  not  probable  that  he  will  be,  he 
will  seek  to  distinguish  his  administration  by  very  high- 
handed measures.  Such  a  course  would  be  natural  to  most 
ambitious  young  men,  who  find  it  easier  to  design  than  im- 
itate ;  pleasanter  to  open  a  new  path  for  themselves,  than 
to  follow  any  that  another  has  opened  ;  and  a  much  finer 
thing  to  suggest  a  great  improvement,  for  another  to  carry 
into  execution,  than  to  assist  in  consummating  the  plans  of 
another,  particularly  in  a  government,  which,  on  account  of 
the  quick  rotation  in  office,  will  seldom  permit  any  one  man 
both  to  originate  and  consummate  any  great  political  meas- 

Mr.  Crawford,  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  (corres- 
ponding with  our  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer)  is  the  second 
candidate.  He  is  a  tall,  stately  man,  more  than  six  feet 
high,  and  large  in  proportion.  He  was  a  school-master; 
and,  it  is  said,  has  killed  his  man,  a  circumstance  not  at  all 
against  him  with  the  Southern  Americans,  but  very  much 
so  among  the  men  of  New-England,  who  reprobate  duelling 
as  absolute  murder.  Mr.  Crawford  is  fuller  o/  political  re- 
sources than  Mr.  Calhoun,  and  manages  his  cards  more 
adroitly  ;  but  then  his  enemies,  and  those  who  are  opposed 
to  him,  are  men  of  a  more  serious  temper,  and  a  more  steady 
determination,  than  those  of  Mr.  Calhoun.  Their  opposi- 
tion to  Mr.  Crawford  is  chiefly  that  ot  principle  ;  and  not 

248  Presidential  Candidates^, 

political,  so  much  as  moral  principle  ;  while  their  objecliou 
to  Mr.  Calhoun  grows  chiefly  out  of  his  youth,  temper,  and 
indiscretion.  The  influence  of  Mr.  Crawlord's  character, 
should  he  be  elected,  will  be  chiefly  felt  in  the  domestic  ad- 
ministration of  the  government:  that  of  Mr.  Calhoun,  on  the 
contrary,  would  be  most  operative  upon  the  foreign  rela- 
tions of  the  American  people. 

Mr.  John  Quincy  Adams,  the  present  Secretary  of  State, 
(premier)  son  of  the  former  President  Adams,  and  the  third 
candidate,  is  one  of  the  ablest  statesmen,  and  most  profound 
scholars  of  the  age.  The  chief  objections  to  him  are,  that 
he  is  the  son  of  a  distinguished  federalist, — that  he  is  an 
apostate  from  the  federal  party, — that  his  father  was  a  Pres- 
ident before  him,  which,  in  a  country  so  very  republican  as 
that  of  the  United  Slates,  in  its  horror  of  any  thing  heredi- 
tary^ is,  or  ought  to  be,  an  insurmountable  objection  to  the 
son,  although  three  other  Presidents,  and  a  whole  genera- 
tion, have  already  intervened  between  the  reign  of  the  fa- 
ther, and  the  pretension  of  the  son;  and  that  he  is  the  pres- 
ent Secretary  of  State,  occupying  an  office  from  which  the 
President  has  been  taken  so  frequently,  that  it  is  come  to  be 
considered  as  a  certain  steppine^-stone,  and  the  very  next 
one  to  the  Presidential  chair.  These  are  formidable  objec- 
tions to  a  jealous  people,  whose  theory  of  government  is 
about  the  finest  that  the  world  ever  saw  ;  and  it  is  possible 
that  they  may  outweigh  all  other  circumstances — practical 
virtue,  and  great  talent,  in  the  day  of  trial. 

Mr.  Adams  has  represented  his  country  at  several  Euro- 
4iean  courts;  and  it  is  known  that  his  influence  has  been 
ielt  and  acknowledged  in  the  most  unequivocal  manner  by 
that  of  Russia. 

He  is  a  fine  belles-lettres  scholar ;  was  a  lecturer  on  judi- 
cial and  popular  eloquence  in  Harvard  University,  (New- 
England  ;)  and  has  published  a  very  valuable  work  on  the 
subject  of  Rhetoric  and  Elocution.  The  most  unlucky,  and 
most  unworthy  thing  that  he  has  ever  done,  to  my  knowledge, 
is  one  that  he  can  never  be  justified  for  having  done.  He 
consented,  some  years  ago,  to  deliver  the  fourth  of  July  ora- 
tion at  the  Capitol  in  Washington  ;  and  in  delivering  it,  for- 
got that  he  was  no  longer  John  Quincy  Adams,  an  American 
citizen,  justly  exasperated  at  the  indignity  with  which  the^ 
genius,  and  literature,  and  hospitality  of  his  countrymen  had 
been  treated  here,  and  fully-justified  in  expressing  his  indig- 
nation— he  forgot  that  he  was  no  longer  a  private  citizen,  in 
whom  such  a  thing  would  be  justifiable — and  did  not  recol- 

Presidential  Candidates.  249 

lect  that  he  was  the  Secretary  of  State  for  the  United 
Stales — the  chief  oigan  of  the  government,  in  whose  lan- 
guage on  such  an  occasion,  all  philippic,  reproach,  and  rc- 
crimmHlion,  would  be  undignified  and  mischievous;  a  per- 
petual precedent  for  other  and  humbler  men.  I  could  ap- 
plaud ti:e  spirit  of  the  man — but  cannot  help  pitying  that  of 
the  politician  and  statesman,  while  so  emploj'cd.  As  the 
oration  of  Mr.  John  Quincy  Adams,  the  polite  scholar  and 
and  accomplished  gentleman,  it  was  pleasant  to  read  ;  but 
as  the  work  of  a  statesman, — the  deliberate  manifestation  of 
sentiment,  by  the  Secretary  of  State  for  the  United  States, 
it  was  undignified  and  indiscreet. 

In  a  time  of  peace,  Mr.  Adams  would  be  better  calculated 
to  advance  the  reputation  of  his  country  abroad,  than  any 
other  of  the  five  candidates.  Literature,  and  literary  men, 
would  be  more  respeclaljle  under  his  administration  than  they 
evtr  have  been  ;  and  the  political  negotiation  of  the  coun- 
try would  continue  to  be,  what  it  has  been,  during  his  occu- 
pation of  the  office  which  he  now  holds  in  the  cabinet,  pro- 
found, clear,  and  comprehensive. 

Let  any  one  imagine  the  effect  of  his  presence  and  man- 
ner upon  some  foreign  ambassador,  (no  matter  from  what 
country  of  Europe  he  may  c3me,)  who  should  see  hira  for 
the  first  time,  as  I  have  often  seen  him — The  gentleman  from 
abroad,  familiar  with  the  pomp  and  circumstance  of  royalty 
at  home,  and  through  all  the  courts  of  Europe,  it  may  be, 
and  full  of  strange  misapprehension  of  republican  simplici- 
ty— imagining  it  to  be  what  it  generally  is,  either  rude  and 
atiected, — worn  for  the  gratification  of  the  mob — or  the  nat- 
ural manner  of  uneducated  people,  who  are  not  so  much  su- 
perior to,  as  they  are  ignorant  of,  courtly  parade,  yet  prone 
to  imitation  nevertheless,  has  prepared — we  will  suppose,  for 
an  introduction  to  the  President  of  the  United  States  :— a 
single  attendant  announces  hira. — He  is  ushered  into  the 
presence  chamber,  without  any  ceremonj',  into  a  yery  plain 
roon),  furnished  not  so  handsonl^  ly  as  it  is  common  to  see 
that  of  a  respectable  tradesman  in  England. 

He  sees  a  little  man  writing  at  a  table — nearly  bald,  with 
a  face  quite  formal  and  destitute  of  expression;  his  eyes  run- 
ning uith  water  ;  his  slippers  down  at  heel — fingers  stained 
with  ink ;  in  warm  weather  wearing  a  striped  seersucker 
coat,  and  white  trowsers,  and  dirty  waistcoat,  spotted  with 
ink  ;  his  whole  dress,  altogether,  not  worth  a  couple  of  pounds; 
or,  in  a  colder  season,  habited  in  a  plain  blue  coat,  much 
the  worse  for  wear,  and  other  garments  in  proportion  ;  not 

250  Presidential  Candidates, 

so  respectable  as  they  may  find  in  the  old-clothes  bag  of  al- 
most any  Jew  in  the  street. — This  man,  whom  the  Ambassa- 
dor mistakes  fi^r  a  clerk  of  the  department,  and  only  won- 
ders, in  looking;  at  him,  that  the  President  should  permit  a 
man  to  appear  before  him  in  such  a  dress,  proves  to  be  the 
President  of  the  United  States  himself.  The  stranger  is 
perplexed  and  confounded  ;  he  hardly  knows  how  to  behave 
toward  such  a  personage.  But  others  arrive,  one  after  the 
other — natives  of  ditierent  countries,  speaking  different  lan- 
guages.— Conver«;ation  begins.  The  little  man  awakes.  His 
countenance  is  gradually  illuminated — his  voice  changes. 
His  eyes  arc  lighted  up  with  an  expression  of  intense  sagac- 
ity, earnestness,  and  pleasantry.  Every  subject  is  handled 
in  sticcession — and  ever}'  one  in  the  language  of  the  stran- 
ger with  whom  he  happens  to  be  conversing,  if  that  stran- 
ger should  bptray  any  want  of  familiarity  with  the  English 
language — What  are  the  opinions  of  this  Ambassador  here? 
what  docs  he  know  of  the  address  and  appearance  of  Mr. 
Adams?  Nothing.  He  has  forgotten  the  first  impressions; 
and  when  he  has  returned  to  his  house,  it  would  be  difficult 
to  persuade  him  that  the  President  of  the  United  States  is 
either  dirty  in  his  dress,  little   or  poorly  clad. 

General  Jackson  is  the  next  candidate.  He  is  a  man  of 
a  very  resolute  and  despotic  temper:  so  determined  and 
persevering,  that,  having  once  undertaken  a  measure,  he  will 
carry  it  through,  right  or  wrong;  so  absolute,  that  he  will 
endure  neither  opposition  nor  remonstrance.  He  has  a 
pownrful  pTrty  in  his  favour;  but  his  enemies  are  also  very 
powerful,  and  ready  to  go  all  lengths  in  preventing  his  elec- 
tion. He  has  gone  through  every  stage  of  political  service. 
— He  has  been  successively  a  judge,  a  general,  a  governor, 
and  a  senator.  He  is  a  man  of  singular  energy ,decision  and 
promptitude — a  good  soldier  and  would  have  been  a  great 
captain  had  he  been  educated  in  the  wai's  of  Europe.  His 
countrymen  hold  him  to  be  the  greatest  general  in  the 
world  ;  but  he  has  never  had  an  opportunity  to  show  his 
grneralship.  His  warfare  with  the  Indians  ;  and  liis  vic- 
tory at  New-Orleans  though  carried  on  with  sufficient  skill 
for  the  occasion,  were  of  a  nature  rather  to  develope  his  tal- 
ent as  a  brave  nrn,  than  as  a  great  gf^neral. 

His  countrym'-ii  give  a  bad  reason  for  desiring  to  promote 
him  1.0  the  Presi.iency.  They  admit  the  great  ability  of 
Mr.  Adams  and  '^^■^ .  Clay  in  the  Cabinet;  but  then  they 
contend  that  Gen.  Jackson  has  no  rival  in  the  field. 

Presidential  Candidates,  251 

Granted  if  they  please — but  what  does  that  prove  ?  In 
case  of  war,  Gen.  Jackson's  services  would  be  wanted  in 
the  iieid,  not  in  the  presidential  chair.  And  in  a  time  of 
peace,  his  talents  as  a  general  would  be  useless.  It  would 
have  been  a  belter  reason  to  give  for  his  election  to  the  war 
office;  and  yet  it  would  have  been  a  bad  one  there.  In  a 
time  o(  peace,  the  manners  of  General  Jackson,  who  is  a 
very  erect,  stiff,  tall,  military  man,  about  six  feet  high,  would 
be  less  likely  than  that  of  any  other  of  the  five  candidates, 
to  make  a  favourable  impression  upon  foreigners.  It  is  dig- 
nified, to  be  sure,  and  conciliatory ;  but  then,  it  does  not  ap- 
pear natural,  and  is  far  from  being  easy  or  graceful. 

If  General  Jackson  should  be  elected,  there  would  be  a 
thorough  revolution  in  the  present  system  of  things.  He 
would,  probably,  do  a  great  deal  of  good — but  might  do  a 
gr^at  deal  of  harm,  in  his  thorough-going,  revolutionary,  and 
absolute  spirit.  His  officers  would  all  resemble  himself :  his 
influence  would  assemble  all  the  rash  and  adventurou-^  ma- 
terial of  the  nation  about  him — and  honest  as  he  undoubtedly 
is,  lead  the  country  into  many  a  situation  of  peril.  A  man 
who,  after  having  received  the  fire  of  his  adversary,  where 
the  parties  were  permitted  to  fire  when  they  pleased,  walk- 
ed deliberately  up  to  him,  and  shot  him  through  the  head 
(a  story  that  is  generally  told,  and  generally  believed  in 
America :) — a  man  who  ventured  to  reform  the  judgment  of 
a  court-martial,  and  order  two  men  to  execution,  because  he 
thought  them  worthy  of  death ;  a  man  who  suspenrled  the 
Habeas  Corpus  act,  of  his  own  free  will,  at  New  Orleans, 
and,  1  believe,  actually  imprisoned,  or  threatened  to  imprison, 
thi'  judge  for  issuing  a  writ;  a  man  who  imprisoned,  or  ar- 
rested, the  governor  of  Florida — invaded  a  neighbouring 
territory,  of  his  own  head,  with  an  army  at  his  back — and 
publickly  threatened  to  cut  off  the  ears  of  sundry  senators 
of  the  United  States,  for  having  ventured  to  expostulate  with 
the  government,  on  account  of  his  high-handed  measures, 
however  he  may  be  fitted  for  a  time  of  war,  is  not  very  well 
calculated,  I  should  think,  to  advance  the  political  reputa- 
tion, or  interests  of  his  country,  in  time  of  peace. 

The  last  of  the  candidates,  Mr.  Ci-av,  one  of  the  Ameri- 
can Commissioners  at  Ghent,  and  for  many  years  Speaker 
of  the  House  of  Representatives,  a  situation  of  great  influ- 
ence and  authority,  is  better  known  in  Europe,  than  any  of 
the  others,  except  Mr.  Adams.  He  is  a  plain-looking  man, 
with  a  common  face;  light  hair;  about  five  feet  ten  ;  talks 
with  great  animation,  and  declaims  with  surprising  fluency 

252  Original  Letters. 

and  boldness.  He  exercises  a  very  commanding  influence 
over  a  powerful  party  in  his  country;  and  if  ilected,  will 
contribute  greatly  to  extend  the  repuiatioii  of  the  govern- 
ment. He  is  neither  so  profound,  nor  so  comprehensive,  as 
]\Ir.  Adams  in  his  political  views ;  b«it  be  is  an  able  and 
honest  politician  ;  with  iriends  a  thousand  times  more  en- 
thusiastic than  are  those  of  Mr.  Adams  ;  but  they  are  nei- 
ther so  numerous,  so  thoughtful,  nor  so  respectable. 

His  manner  is  very  unpretending,  and  very  awkward  :  he 
has  a  good  deal  of  electioneering  expedient — but  it  is  easily 
seen  through.  1  remember  having  seen  Kim  enter  the  city 
of  Washington,  alone,  and  unattended  by  a  servant,  on  horse- 
back, with  his  portmanteau  or  valise,  stuffed  behind  the  sad- 
dle, two  or  three  elays  before  the  election  of  Sfieaker.  He 
had  been  reported  sick  and  dying  for  sevt  ral  successive 
weeks — and  was,  finally,  said  to  be  actually  a  dead  man. 
And  when  he  appeared,  it  was  in  the  manner  which  I  have 
described,  although  the  i^sue  of  his  election  as  Speaker, 
was  generally  believed  to  be,  in  one  alternative,  conclusive 
upon  his  chance  for  the  Preside  ncy  :  that  is — if  he  were  not 
elected  Speaker;  it  was  believed  th;il  be  hiid  no  chanct-  for 
the  Presidency,  although,  if  he  were  elected  Speaker,  his 
election  to  the  F^rcsidency  was  not  by  any  means,  certain  lo 
follow.  These  reports,  and  the  republican  entry,  were,  pro- 
bably electioneering  tricks:  the  first  (for  Mr.  Clay  liad  nev- 
er been  sick  at  all)  was  got  up  by  his  friends  to  try  the  pulse 
of  the  people  ;  and  the  latter  was  his  own. 


From  Gov.  Chittenden  to  President  Weare. 

Arlington,  Vermont,  Sept.  3,1778. 

Sir — I  have  received  yours  of  the  22d   ult.,  and  alihough 
not  addressed  to  me  as  a  magistrate  or  head  of  a  free  State,, 
duly  observed  the  contents,  anel  agreeable  to  your  request 
shall  lay   it  before  the  General  Assembly  of  this  State,  at 
their  session  in  October  r.ext. 

And  in  the  meantime  assure  you,  that  I  shall  not  so  much 
as  countenance  any  infringement  on  the  right  of  New-Hamp- 
shire, or  promote  any  measure  which  maj'  te  nd  to  anarchy 
and  confusion. 

As  3^our  apology  is  not  by  me  thought  sufficient  for  omis- 
sion in  adelress,  I  shall  not  in  future  receive,  or  atisw'er  any 
letter,  to  me  directed  by  the  authority  of  the  Slate  of  New- 
Hampshire  on  public  service,  whilst  I   sustain   my  present 

Original  Letters.  253 

office,  unless  directcJ  in  the  style  given  me  by  the  Rrpre- 
sentatives  of  my  constituents  in  General  Assembly,  who  are 
the  only  proper  source  of  the  titles,  rank,  &LC.  of  their 

1  am,  with  due  respect,  your  most 

obedient  humble  servant, 

The  Hbn.  Meshech  JVeare^  Esq. 

From  Col.  Scammdl  to  Col.  Peabody. 

Camp  Middle  Brook,  April  2,  1779. 

Dear  Sir — Relying  on  your  friendship,  1  must  entreat 
you  to  assist  me  in  procuring  certain  certificates  and  cojjies 
of  receipts,  which  1  find  absohiiely  necessary  in  settling  my 
account  with  the  auditors,  who  are  very  strict.  1  have  wrote 
Esq.  Thompson  particularly  on  the  subject.  Capt.  Oilman, 
the  bearer,  will  likewise  be  able  to  let  you  into  the  matter 

I  am  almost  tired  of  quarrelling  with  Great-Britain — 
wish  we  could  reduce  them  to  reason,  and  a  proper  sense  of 
iheir  inability.  They  seem  lo  be  determined  to  die  in  the 
last  ditch,  and  that  we  shall  feel  the  effects  of  disappointed 
malice  the  ensuing  campaign. 

I  further  fear,  that  the  war  will  doom  me  to  old  bachelor- 
ism— However,  content  myself  with  this  consideration,  that 
there  is  enough  of  the  breed  already — Though  this  consider- 
ation don't  lully  correspond  with  my  feelings  on  the  open- 
ing of  spring.  Let  us  establish  our  Independence  on  a  lasting 
and  honorable  foundation,  and  I  shall  be  hapj^y  at  all  events. 

It  seems  half  pay  for  life,  for  the  officers  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania and  Maryland  line,  is  established  by  the  respective 
Stales  ;  also,  half  pay  to  officers  widows  since  the  war  be- 
gun. How  this  step  will  be  looked  upon  by  the  other 
Slates,  I  can"'t  say.  This  I'll  venture  to  affirm,  that  it 
would  increase  legitimate  subjects  to  the  States,  as  it  would 
encourage  our  officers,  who  hav'nt  wives,  to  marry,  and 
proceed  in  obedience  to  the  first  command.  At  present, 
the  young  women  dread  us  as  the  picture  of  poverty  ;  and 
the  speculators,  to  our  great  mortifif  ation,  are  runtiing  away 
with  the  best  of  them,  whilst  we  are  the  painful  spectators 
of  the  meat  being  taken  out  of  our  mouths,  and  devoured  by 
a  parcel  of .  Give  my  sinceresl  compliments  to  in- 
quiring friends — Mrs.  Peabody  in  particular. 
Your  friend,  and  humble  servant, 


Col.  Peabody. 

254  Original  Letters. 

Extracls  from  the  Correspondence  of  Gov,  Belcher,  ^c, 
[Continued  from  page  228.] 

Gov,  Belcher  to  Secretary  JValdron,  dated  Burlington^  K.  J. 
July  23,  1748.  [Extract.l  "  I  well  approve  the  project, 
and  were  I  in  your  situation,  and  but  64  years  old,  I  would 
pursue  it,  totd  animd  ;  and  when  I  survey  the  thing  on  all 
sides,  I  think  it  carries  the  complexion  of  success ;  yet,  I 
will  not  have  my  name  mentioned  to  the  chicken^  or  to  any 
body  else.  As  1  expect  Mr.  Foye  will  be  here  the  next 
month,  would'nt  it  be  worth  your  while  to  make  a  visit  to 
your  aunt  Chambers,  and  have  a  full  talk  vvith  my  nephew 
on  the  affair  b'  fore  he  comes  hither.  You  may  say  more 
to  one  another  in  an  hour,  than  you  can  write  in  a  day. 
But  I  remember  it  was  as  easy  to  move  a  mountain,  as  to 
persuade  you  to  stir  from  home  ;  but  that  way  and  manner 
won't  do.  No  !  you  must  exert  in  person  ;  but  I  think  I 
would  not  go  to  the  Weakling''s  house;  all  must  be  acted  with 
great  secrecy,  or  the  thing  will  fail,  which  otherwise  may 
take  effect,  from  many  circumstances  that  seem  at  present 
to  coincide  in  its  favor.  I  say,  let  Mr.  Foye  come  to  me, 
well  and  amply  instructed,  and  he  shall  have  all  my  best 
thoughts  and  advice  upon  it.  In  the  mean  time,  leave  no 
stone  unturned,  to  make  a  strong  and  authentic  complaint. 
And  so  I  leave  the  matter,  'till  I  hear  further  from  you. 

"  I  again  give  you  pleasure,  while  I  say,  I  bless  God,  I 
am  placid  and  easy  in  my  present  situation  ;  and  think  I 
have  abundant  reason  to  be  so,  for  this  climate  and  govern- 
ment seems  calculated  to  my  advanced  years.  Your  unrea- 
sonable enemies  do  you  great  honor  in  esteeming  you  a 
man  of  principle  and  perseverance  ;  for  of  what  value  is 
the  acquaintance  or  friendship  of  a  shittlecock  ?  I  am  glad 
to  hear  you  say,  you  believe  you  could  soon  convert  what 
you  have  into  cash,  and  at  a  pretty  good  price.  Sed  cui 
bono  ?  To  which  I  answer;  It  is  a  grave  affair  for  a  gen- 
tleman of  your  age  and  character,  to  pluck  up  stakes,  and 
to  abandon  his  native  soil,  and  that  of  his  ancestors  ;  yet^  it 
is  done  every  day,  and  people  pass  from  east  to  west,  (thou- 
sands and  thousands  of  miles  distant)  when  they  judge  it  for 
the  advantage  and  comfort  of  themselves  and  of  their  fam- 
ilies. So  did  the  Patriarchs  before  the  flood,  and  so  their 
successors,  down  to  this  day.  As  the  parsons  saj'',  this  be- 
ing premised,  I  go  on  by  way  of  illustration,  and  say,  unless 
some  reasonable  thing  should  heave  in  sight,  I  will  never 
move  you  to  alter  your  situation,  although  I  so  much  desire 

Original  Letters.  255 

to  have  you  near  me  ;  and  which,  by  the  favor  of  heav- 
en, would  much  sweeten  my  pilgrimage,  and  even  prolong 
my  days.  Nor  have  I  given  you  this  trouble,  without  a 
prospect,  though  at  some  distance,  of  something  that  may 
be  agreeable  ;  and  of  this,  more  hereafter,  when  we  see 
what  may  be  the  fate  of  the  new  project. 

"  You  must  not  so  much  hug  yourself  within  yourself,  and 
give  way  to  your  ease,  although  you  are  a  valetudinarian, 
yet  stirring,  journeying  and  voyaging  have  proved  great 
restoratives  of  health  and  constitutions  ;  and  now  it's  peace, 
a  voyage  from  Portsmouth  directly  to  Philadelphia  may 
be  soon  performed,  and  sc^-a  sickness  never  kills,  but  is  good 
physic  to  cleanse  the  body,  and  to  bring  on  a  better  state 
of  health ;  and  since  your  son  Thomas  is  knowing,  and 
capable  in  all  your  affairs,  why  shouldn't  you,  for  once, 
assume  a  manly  resolution,  and  come  and  see  these  parts, 
and  your  old  friend,  which  would  rejoice  the  cockles  of  my 
heart  ;  for  Solomon  says,  "  Iron  sharpeneth  iron,  so  a  man 
sharpeneth  the  countenance  of  his  friend,"  and  this  I  sub- 
mit to  your  wise  adjustment." 

From  Secretary  fValdroji  to  Gov.  Belcher,  dated  September 
16,  1748.  [Extract'l  "  1  am  glad  your  Excellency  ap- 
proves of  our  project.  Your  opinion  that  there  is  some 
proba^ulity  of  success,  andoifering  to  give  your  best  thoughts 
and  advice,  after  seeing  iVlr.  Foye,  affords  me  no  small 
pleasure,  for  I  ^m  determined  to  pursue  it  with  all  my  skill 
and  might  to  its  «e  plus  ultra,  though   considerable  discour- 

agf^m<^nts  have  already  arisen,  as  that  the  K y  Kn t's 

son-in-1  iw  is  going  homo  to  plead  the  merits  of  his  father, 
and  ro  ask  the  samf"  thing  for  him,  who  chooses  his  father 
should  have  New-Hampshire  rather  than  Massachusetts.  He 
will  spare  nothing  to  aLComplish  his  design,which  was  impart- 
ed to  me  as  a  secret,  and  with  an  intention,  I  suppose,  that  I 
should  offer  my  assistance  in  promoting  a  complaint  in  his 
favor,  which  1  cannot  do,  being  under  a  prior  engagement 

to  Mr.  B ,  though  it  makes  not  much  to  me  who  is  the 

successor ;  the  dismounting  the  Don  being  my  principal  aim. 

"  I  lake  much  notice  of  what  your  Excellency  says  of  the 
removal  of  the  ante  and  post-diluvians  down  to  this  day, 
with  your  reasoning  upon  it  ;  and  with  greater  gratitude 
than  I  can  utter,  acknowledge  your  repeated  kind  expres- 
sions in  regard  to  your  seeing  ^^uch  an  atom  as  I  am,  and 
particularly  of  a  prospect  of  something  at  a  distance,  to  be 
mentioned  hereafter,  when  the  fate  of  the  new  project  is 

256  Original  Letters. 

"  I  am  much  obliged  for  what  your  Excellency  is  pleased 
to  say  of  Mrs.  VV-ilcIroii  aad  her  sons,  though  what  I  men- 
tioned in  my  last  of  the  elder,  was  rather  a  sudden  excursion 
of  my  pen,  than  the  fruits  of  digested  thoughts  and  serious 
consideration,  for  which  I  ought  to  (and  do  iiow)  ask  your 
Excellency's  pardon  ;  and  yet  yon  were  pleased  to  take  so 
much  notice  of  it,  as  to  say  you  would  cast  your  eyes 
through  the  province,  &:c. 

"  VVe  have  a  report,  that  a  lady  at  London  had  taken 
passage  in  a  shi[)  lor  Philadelphia,  to  go  to  Gov.  Belcher; 
and  that,  like  the  Queen  of  Sheba,  in  her  visit  (o  King  Solo- 
mon, she  brings  much  gold  with  her,  and  will  commune 
with  your  Excellency  of  all  that  is  in  her  heart.  If  the 
story  be  true,  perhaps  she  may  be  at  Burlington  before 
this  reaches  thiiher  ;  in  which  case,  it  will  be  opj)ortune  for 
my  congratulations  t)n  the  occasion,  of  which  1  pray  your 
Excellency's  acceptance,  together  with  my  heartiest  wishes 
and  prayers,  that  a  long  series  of  hajjpiness  Riay  attend 
you  in  your  person,  family  and  government  ;  even  till  you 
shall  be  called  off  from  this  stage  of  fluctuation  and  uncer- 
tainties, to  the  mansions  of  unintcrruj)ted  joy  and  eternal 

"  There  is  one  thing,  which  if  rightly  represented,  I'm 
persuaded  would  break  the  Don  in  pieces  ;  that  is,  the  waste 
of  the  King's  'imber  ;  but  there  is  hardly  a  man  in  the 
province  would  mention  it,  either  as  a  complaint  or  a  wit- 
ness, as  most  of  the  people  make  earnings  out  of  the  un- 
righteous indulgence.  Dieiio  is  surveyor  of  the  woods,  his 
brother  Mark  is  undertaker  for  the  contractors  with  the 
navy  board  for  masts  ;  the  undertaker  agrees  with  any  and 
cvGvy  body  that  apply,  for  as  many  trees  as  they  will  get 
of  any  size,  witiiout  regard  to  the  number  or  dimensions 
mentioned  in  the  contract.  The  surveyor  licenses  all  that 
the  undertaker  agrees  with,  and  so  a  twofold  iniquity  en- 
sues. The  undertaker  has  a  dock  of  masts  aUvays  ready  to 
supply  the  wants  of  those  who  stand  in  need,  at  his  own 
price,  of  which  doubtless  the  broker  has  his  share,  and  the 
countrymen  cut  what  trees  they  please,  making  masts  of  the 
brst  for  the  King,  and  such  others  as  the  undertaker  sup- 
plies, and  converting  the  rest  into  mill  logs  for  their  own 
use.  But  this  is  an  affair  not  easily  detected,  but  by  a  court 
of  inquiry,  andmovingin  it,  would  be  oneof  the  most  un- 
popular things  in  the  world." 

[To  be  continued.l 

(  257  ) 

misosimIm  Annus. 

Circuit  and  District  Courts  of  New-Hampshire, 


The  Judicial  Courts  of  the  United  States,  in  and  for  the 
Ntw-Hampshire  District,  were  orejanized  in  pursuance  of 
an  act  passed  September  24th,  1789,  at  the  first  session  of 
the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  begun  and  held  at  the 
city  of  New- York  on  the  4th  day  of  March,  1 789. 

The  Circuit  Court  was  held  at  Portsmouth,  on  the  20th 
May  1790,  by  Hon.  John  Jay,  Chief  Justice  of  the  United 
States,  and  Hon.  John  Sullivan,  Judge  of  the  New-Hamp- 
shire District.  At  the  subsequent  terms,  the  said  Court  was 
held  by  the  following  Judges,  viz. 

1790.  Nov.  Term.     By  John  Jay,  William  Cushing  and 

John  Sullivan. 

1791.  May,    John  Jay,  William  Cushing  and  John  Sul- 

do.     Nov.     John  Jay  and  William  Cushing. 

1792.  May,  do.  do. 

do.     Oct.        James  W^ilson  and  James  Iredell. 

1793.  May,     William  Cushing. 

do.     Oct.       James  Wilson  and  John  Blair. 

1794.  May  and  Oct.     William  Cushing. 

1795.  May,     James  Iredell  and  John  Pickering, 
do      Oct.      William  Cushing  and  John  Pickering. 

1796.  May,     Samuel  Chase  and  John  Pickering, 
do.     Oct.      W.  Cushing  and  J.  Pickering. 

'•    1797.  May,  Oliver  Ellsworth  and  J.  Pickering, 

do.  Nov.  W.  Cushing  and  J.  Pickering. 

1798.  May,  Oliver  Ellsworth  and  J.  Pickering, 
do.  Nov.  W^illiam  Patterson  and  J.  Pickering. 

1799.  May,  Samuel  Chase  and  J.  Pickering, 
do.  Nov.  William  Cushing. 

1800.  May,  William  Patterson. 
do.  Nov.  Willinm  Cushing. 

1801.  April,  John  Lowell,  Chief  Justice, 

&  Oct.        Benjamin  Bourne,    >  ^.^^^^^  j^^ 
Jf-remiah  Smith,       ^ 

1802.  April,  John  Lowell  and  Jeremiah  Smith. 
do.     Nov,     William  Cushing. 

1803.  May  and  Nov.  Wiiliam  Cushing. 

1804.  May  and  Nov.  W.  Cushing  and  John  S.  Sherburne 


258  Miscellanies. 

1805-6,  each  term,    W.  Gushing  and  J.  S.  Sherburne. 
1807.  May,     John  S.  Sherburne, 
do.     Nov.     W.  Gushing  and  John  S.  Sherburne. 
1808-9,  each  term,  do.  do. 

1810-11,  each  term,  John  S.  Sherburne. 
1812.     Miiy,     Jo.ieph  Story  and  John  S,  Sherburne^    who 
have  since  presided  as  Judges  of  said  Gourt. 

The  District  Court  was  organized  in  1789,  December 
15th,  Hon.  John  Sullivan,  Judge  of  said  Court.  From 
17th  \Iarch  1795,  to  1801,  the  District  Gourt  was  held  by 
Hon.  John  Pickering. 

From  27th  April  1801,  to  29ih  June  1802,  by  Hon.  Jere- 
miah Smith,  Circuit  Judge,  acting  as  District  Judge  by  di- 
rection of  the  Circuit  Gourt  for  the  first  Circuit,  by  reason 
of  the  indisposition  of  Judge  Pickering. 

From  September  1802  to  1803,  by  John  Pickering. 

From  March   1803  to   1804,  no  Gourt  was  held.     Since 
May  1804,  the  Court  has  been  held  by  Hon.  John  Samuel 
Sherburne^  Judge  of  said  Gourt. 
Attorneys  of  the  United  States  for  the  New-Hampshire  District, 

1789  to  1797.     Edward  St.  Loe  Livermore,  Esq. 

1798  to  1800.     Jeremiah  Smith,  Esq. 

1801  to  1804.     John  Samuel  Sherburne,  Esq. 

1 804.  to  Daniel  Humphreys^  Esq, 

Clerks   of  the  District  and  Circuit   Courts  of  the   United 
States  for  the  JV.   H,  District, 

1789,  Nov.  10,    Jonathan  Steele,  Esq. 

1 804,  May  1,      Richard  Cutts  Shannon,  Esq. 

1814, George  Washington  Prescott,  Esq. 

1817,  March  18.  Peyton  Randolph  Freeman,  Esq. 

1821,  May  8,       William  Clag^etl^  Esq. 

Marshals  for  the  JV.  H,  District. 

7189,  John  Pniker,  Esq. 

1792,  Nathaniel  Rogers,  Esq. 

1798,  Bradbury  Cilley,  Esq. 

1802,  Michael  M'Clary.  Esq. 

1824,  Pearson  Cogswell,  Esq. 

[From  a  sermon  of  Rev.  William  Cogswell,  1816.]    ' 

The  town  of  D<  dnam,  according  to  the  most  authentic 
documents  which  can  be  obtained,  was  the  sixteenth  or  etg/i- 

Miscellanies*  25^ 

teenth  original  settlement  in  New-England.  From  the 
church  records,  it  appears  that  the  first  settlers  came  from 
several  parts  of  England,  and  were  most  of  them  unknown 
to  each  other.  They  were  undoubtedly  of  that  class  of 
men  called  puritans,  who  fled  from  their  native  country, 
from  their  homes,  and  from  their  earthly  all,  that  they  might 
enjoy  religious  peace  and  liberty. 

in  the  year  1636,  the  inhabitants  petitioned  the  General 
Court,  that  the  settlement  might  be  incorporated  into  a 
town,  and  be  called  Contentment.  On  the  8th  of  September, 
in  the  same  year,  it  was  incorporated,  but,  for  reasons  un- 
known, it  was  called  Dedham.  Within  the  limits  of  territo- 
ry which  originally  included  Dedham,  containing  in  1637, 
only  thirty  families;  there  are  now  eight  towns  and /owr- 
teen  societies  for  religious  worship.* 

The  first  Church  in  Dedham,  according  to  Johnson's  His- 
tory of  New-England,  (printed  in  London,  1654)  waf>  the 
fourteenth  that  was  embodied  in  this  country,  and  was  gather- 
ed 8lh  November,  1638,  and  consisted  of  eight  persons,  viz. 
John  Allen,  Ralph  Wheelock,t  Edward  Allen,  John  Luson, 
John  Hunting,  John  Frayry,  Eleazer  Lusher,  and  Robert 
Hinsd:ile.  Soon,  however,  more  were  added  to  it.  On  the 
24th  of  April,  1639,  Rev.  John  Allen,  who  had  been  for  a 
number  of  years  a  faithful  preacher  of  the  gospel  in  Eng- 
land, and  who  came  to  this  country  in  1637,  in  company 
with  Rev.  John  Fi«ke,  of  Chelmsford,  was  inducted  into 
the  pastoral  office  of  that  church. 

♦  There  he  continued  in  the  ministry  till  August  26,  1671, 
at  which  time  h^  died,  in  the  75th  year  of  his  age.  His 
successors  in  the  ministry  have  been  Rev.  William  Adams, 
Rev.  Joseph  Belcher,  Rev.  Samuel  Dexter,  Rev.  Jason  Ha- 
ven, Rev.  Joshua  Bates,  and  Rev.  Alvan  Sampson. 

Ecclesiastical  J^otes  on  Canton,  Ms. — The  Congregational 
church  in  Canton,  Massachusetts,  was  gathered  30th  October, 
1717.  Rev.  Joseph  Morse,  a  native  of  Medfie Id,  born  about 
1671,  who  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1699,  was  or« 
dained  the  same  day  the  church  was  organized.  Mr.  Morse 
died  in  November,  1732,  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Samuel 
Dunbar,  son  of  Mr.  John  Dunbar,  who  emigrated  from  Scot- 

*  The  following  are  the  towns,  with  the  number  of  religious  societies  containeil 
in  each;  Dedham,  containing/our  ,•  Medford,  <?oo;  Needhatn,  two;  Bellingham.. 
•ne  ;  Walpole,  one  .■  Natick,  one  ;  and  Dover,  one. 

i  Ralph  Wheeleck,  was  the  ancestor  of  the  late  Presiilent  Wheelock. 

260  Miscellanies. 

land  to  America,  near  the  commencement  of  the  last  century, 
Mr.  Dunbar  was  born  at  Boston,  2d  October,  1704,  graduated 
at  Harvard  College  in  1723,  and  was  ordained  16th  Novem- 
ber, 1727.  He  was  well  skilled  in  the  Classicks,  and  had  a 
critical  knowledge  of  the  Latin,Greekand  Hebrew  languages. 
He  was  remarkably  studious,  and  during  his  long  ministry 
of  53  years,  wrote  more  than  7000  sermons.  He  compos- 
ed with  great  rase,  and  wrote  in  stenography  ol  his  own  in- 
vention. For  more  than  half  a  century,  he  was  never  ab- 
sent from  his  pulpit  through  ill  health.  His  printed  sermons 
amount  to  eii^ht.  Mr.  Dunbar*  died  16lh  June,  1783,  in 
th<'  79th  year  of  his  age.  and  56th  of  his  ministry,  and  was 
succeeded  by  Rev.  Zachariah  Howard,  a  native  of  Bridge- 
water,  who  graduattd  at  Harvard  college  in  1784.  He 
was  ordained  the  minister  of  ihf^  first  parish  in  Stoughton, 
now  Canton,  25th  October,  1786,  and  died  18th  September, 
1806,  in  the  48th  year  of  his  age,  and  the  20th  of  his  minis- 
try. Rev.  William  Richey  succeeded  Mr.  Howard,  and 
was  ordained  Isi  July,  I807.t 

The  chur'^h  in  Canton  dismissed  thirty-three  of  their  num- 
ber to  form  !he  church  in  the  third  Precinct  (now  Stou^h(on) 
which  WHS  eatheml  10th  Au£{ust,  1744.  Rev.Jedidiah  Ad- 
ams, born  21st  Ma'ch,  1712.  who  graduated  at  Harvard  Col- 
lege in  1733,  was  the  first  minister.  He  was  ordained  19th 
February,  1746,  and  died  25th  February,  1799,  aged  88, 
and  had  nearly  completed  the  53d  year  of  his  ministry. 
He  had  survived  eveiy  member  of  the  church  over  which 
he  was  ordained,  excepting  one. 


Nathaniel  Meloon,  who  v/as  the  first  settler  in  the  wester- 
ly part  of  Salisbury,  was  taken  by  the  Indians,  May  16, 
1753,  together  with  his  wife  and  three  children,  viz.  Sarah, 
Rachel,  and  Daniel.  They  were  carried  to  Canada,  where 
he  and  his  wife  were  sold  to  the  French  in  Montreal.  The 
three  children  were  kept  by  the  Indians.  After  they  had 
resided  in  Montreal  about  a  year  and  a  half,  they  had  a 
son  born,  who  was  baptized  by  a  French  friar  by  the  name 

*  Mr.  Dunbar,  was  grandfather'  of  Rev.  Elijah  Dunbar,  of  Peterborough,  in  this 

t  Capt.  Consider  ,/5Mer<<m,  the  oldest  meirbpr  of  the  church  in  Canton,  then  in 
his  9Ist  year,  attended  the  ordination,  and  walked  from  his  dwelling  house,  a  dis- 
tance of  about  four  miles,  attended  ijie  exercises,  and  returned  home  on  foot,  the 
same  day. 

Miscellanies,  26 1 

of  Joseph  Mary. — Mr.  Meloon  returned  from  captivity  after 
foui  yi-ars  and  a  half  to  his  farm  in  Sahsl)ury.  Sarah  died 
with  the  Indians.  Rachel,  who  was  9  years  old  when  cap- 
tured, returned  after  9  years.  She  had  become  much  at- 
tached to  the  Indians;  was  about  to  be  married  to  Peter 
Louis,  son  of  Col.  Louis  of  Cagnawaga.  She  had  the  hab- 
its of,  and  acted  like  an  Indian;  learned  the  Indian  language, 
and  could  sing  their  songs.* 

She  was  carried  by  the  Indians  to  the  Mississippi,  who 
went  there  to  obtain  a  settlement;  but  the  Flat  Heads  would 
not  suffer  them  to  stay,  and  they  returned.  On  their  way, 
they  desired  to  ascertain  whether  a  part  of  their  own  tribe 
had  found  a  country  for  a  good  settlement.  In  order  to  find 
out,  they  practised  some  magical  rites  to  raise  their  Evil 
Spirit.  They  cut  poles  and  stuck  them  in  the  ground  in  a 
circle,  covered  the  top  with  bark,  leaving  a  small  hole,  and 
put  an  old  Indian  into  the  circle  ;  he  set  up  a  powow,  &c. 
a  small  creature,  of  the  bigness  of  a  small  owl,  went  down 
to  him  through  the  hole-  the  Indian  held  a  sort  of  conversa- 
tion with  this  bird — the  bird  came  out,  and  flew  to  the  west  ; 
and  after  a  while  came  back,  and  went  into  the  hole.  The 
Indian  talked  with  the  bird,  and  it  came  out,  and  went  off, 
and  all  was  still.  The  Indians  broke  the  circle  and  went  in  : 
the  old  Indian  lay  as  dead.  In  a  short  time  he  revived,  and 
informed  them,  that  their  friends  had  found  a  country,  and 
were  well  settled,  which  was  afterwards  found  to  be  a  fact. 
After  her  return,  she  married  Reuben  Greeley,  by  whom 
she  had  one  son,  Nathaniel  Greeley,  now  living. 

Opinions. — Weak  minds  always  conceive  it  most  safe  to 
adopt  the  sentiments  of  the  multitude.  They  never  venture 
to  form  an  opinion  on  any  subject  until  the  majority  have 
decided.  These  decisions,  whether  on  men  or  thmgs 
they  implicitly  follow,  without  giving  themselves  the 
trouble  fo  inquire  who  is  right,  or  on  which  side  the  truth 

*  The  following  is  a  specimen  of  one  of  their  songs  : 
Siie  dokina  wen  to  markit 
Asoo  sa  sika  me  a  saw 
Sa  waka  catawunka  naw 
Chicka  way  sa  catawunka  naw — 

The  girk  tha  wont  sn  su  tunga  tush 
Run  au  by  oo  a  soo  sa  snos 
Run  au  by  oo  a  soo  sa  soos 
To  etnh  butka— 




["  The  year  1711  was  rendered  remarkable  by  a  hreinthe  city 
ef  Boston,  which  from  that  time  until  the  year  1760,  was  called  the 
Great  Fire.  It  was  supposed  to  have  been  caused  by  the  careless- 
ness of  an  old  woman  in  or  near  what  is  called  Williams'  court. 
All  the  houses  on  both  sides  of  Cornhill,  from  School  street  to 
what  was  called  the  stone  shop,  in  Dock  square,  all  the  upper 
part  of  King  street  on  the  south  and  north  side,  together  with  the 
town  house,  and  what  was  called  the  old  meeting  house  above  it, 
were  consumed  to  ashes."  In  lately  looking  over  a  mass  of  an- 
cient papers  and  pamphlets,  we  found  the  following  "  Lamenta- 
tion," on  this  calamity,  of  which,  perhaps,  there  is  not  another 
copy  in  existence. — Editors.] 

A  Short  Lamentation, 

ON    THE 

Awful  Rebuke  of  Divine  Providence  by  Sea  and  Land :  mainly 
upon  our  Metropolis  Town,  Bostoii^  New-England.  By  the  Late 
Desolation  made  by  FIRE  ;  begun  Tuesday  Evening  about 
Seven  a  Clock,  and  ended  about  Two,  the  2d.  and  3d.  of  Oc- 
tober.    1711. 

LORD,  Where's  tliy  tender  Bowels  Lord,  With  Bruises  and  the  Raginc;  Flames, 
thy  Heritaj;!.-  iloth  Claim  ?  tlitre  many  Lives  were  lost  : 

Throughout  the  Habitable  World,  Jlore  worth  than  Houses  and  Choice  Goods, 

thiue  Anger  spreads  its  f  au-.e.  which  many  Tliousand  cost. 

\^Line  illegible.'] 
didst  dash  our  Ships  of  Store  : 
And  thou  hast  spoiled  our  Choicest  Town, 
and  Treasures  on  the  Shore. 

Thy  Ancient  House  where  tliy  dear  Saints 

assembled  in  thy  Name  ; 
Thou  gavest  as  a  Sacritice, 

to  the  Consuming  FL-uue. 

Thine  Honour  hath  reraov'd  from  where, 

thou  hast  long:  dwelt  before  ; 
And  with  a  sharp  Rebuke  hast  turn'd, 

thy  Children  out  of  door. 

Their  very  Souls  were  oft  refresht, 
where  Goliien  Streams  did  shine  : 

Flowing  forth  from  Love's  Fountain,  that 
is  Holy  and  Divine. 

If  at  GOD'S  Sanctuary,  He 

in  Judgment  doth  begfin  ; 
Where  shall  they  find  a  hiding  place, 

who  Monsters  are  in  Sin  ? 

Our  Losing  of  our  Great  Exchange, 

gives  us  a  fearful  Wound. 
Some  say,  but  few  such  Chambers  in 

our  Kingdom  can  be  found. 

At  Evening  our  wasted  Friends, 

enjoy'd  a  good  f'state  : 
Next  Morning  light  discovered, 

tlieir  Places  Desolate. 

fnder  the  brick  and  the  walls, 
BOiiie  Bodies  appeared  there  : 

Which  could  not  be  distinguished, 
what  Bodies  they  did  bear. 

The  Changes  you  li.ive  felt  of  late ; 

'tis  sad  to  see  or  tell 
Your  Case  with  that  of  holy  706' j, 

may  bear  some  pai'allel. 

In  Patience  walk  .close  with  your  GOD 

and  in  his  Love  remain, 
And  He  who  ple^s'd  to  Pull  you  dowTi, 

will  Build  yotj  up  again. 

We  see  our  Ouj'ward  Comfoi-ts  here, 

they  often  find  a  Wing  : 
And  in  their  passing  off  sometimes, 

they  leave  a  smarting  Sting. 

LORD,  Teach  us  that  we  profit  by 

tky  sore  afflictnig  Hand  : 
Thy  Frowns  are  on  us  on  the  Sea, 

oiir  City  and  our  Laud. 

GOD  also  in  this  Province  hath, 

sliew'd  us  another  Frown  ; 
In  Fevers,  Fluxes,  and  Ague  Pains, 

passing  from  Town  to  Town. 

Upon  His  People's  Prayers,  GOD 
hath  seem'd  to  turn  His  Back  : 

To  answer  some  of  our  Requestj^ 
He  seemeth  to  be  slack> 

Literary  Notices,  263 

Onr  QUEEN  from  Flanders  Mustered,  Our  Fleet  upon  the  River  Great, 

Her  Senior  Men  of  War  :  did  make  a  Lovely  show  : 

Who  were  Expert  to  handle  Arm ;  Their  Masts  shew'd  like  the  Cedars,  that 

did  Cowardise  abhor.  in  Lebanon  did  grow. 

She  sent  a  N»ble  General,  Be  Thankful  that  the  LOUD  did  spare, 

is  eall'd  Renowned  HILL  :  our  Province  Soldiers  Lives  : 

To  Serve  the  felUKKN,  and  Help  our  Land,  AVe  hope  He'l  bring  tliern  Home  to  see, 

he  seem'd  to  have  Good  Will.  their  Parents  and  their  Wives. 

And  of  his  Brother  NICHOLSON,  Be  Thankful  that  the  LORD  Himself, 

with  Care  and  Love  he  spake  :  His  Children  doth  Chastise  ; 

If  he  could  gone  ashoar  he  would,  And  gives  us  not  into  the  Hands, 

part  of  his  Hazzards  take.  of  Cruel  Enemies. 

Kin«'  NICHOLSON  doth  spare  no  Pains,  Were  we  fit  for  Deliverasice, 
of  Head,  or,  or  Hand,  the  LORD  would  Crush  our  Foes  : 

To  use  all  methods  for  the  Peace  He'd  put  His  Bridie  in  their  Lips, 
and  Welfare  of  our  Land.  and  Hook  upon  their  Nose.  S.  F. 

BOSTON  :  Printed  for  the  Author,  by  E.  Phillips,  at  his  Shop 
in  Newbury  Street,  1711. 

NOTE  TO   VERSE    11th. 

[The  lives  of  several  sailors  were  lost.  Anxious  to  save  the  bell  of  tlie  meeting, 
house,  they  went  up  into  the  steeple  or  cupola.  While  they  were  there  engaged, 
the  house  was  on  fire  below,  and  the  stairs  were  consumed.  They  were  seen  at 
work  just  before  the  roof  fell  in,  and  all  perished  in  the  flames.  Coll.  of  Mass. 
Hist.  Soc.  IV.  189.] 


History  of  Boston. — Mr.  A.  Bowen  has  undertaken  to  pub- 
lish a  history  of  Boston  in  numbers  ol  24  pages,  ornamented 
wiih  engravings.  The  price  ife  twenty-five  cents  a  number, 
an(J  it  is  calculated  the  work  will  m  tke  from  twelve  to  six- 
teen numbers.  We  have  seen  the  first  number,  and  it  is  but 
just  to  say  that  it  is,  so  tar,  well  written,  and  handsomely 
and  correctly  printed.  It  also  contains  a  "  South  East  view 
of  Boston"  and  a  view  of  the  New  State  House,  handsomely 
engraved  by  Mr.  Bowen.  We  do  not  hesitate  to  recommend 
this  work  to  the  patronage  of  our  fellow  citizens,  as  one 
which  cannot  fail  of  being  highly  interesting. — Statesman, 

Wmthrop\<i  Journal. — Proposals  have  been  issued  by 
Messrs.  Phelps  and  Farnham,  of  Boston,  for  publishing  by 
subscription,  the  History  of  New-England,  from  1630  to 
1649,  by  John  Winthrop,  the  first  Governor  of  Massachu- 
setts, edited  by  James  Savage,  Esq.  The  publication  of 
this  work  has  been  long  and  impatiently  expected,  by  all 
those  who  are  acquainted  with  the  value  of  the  original,  and 
the  great  industry,  patient  research,  and  precision  of  the 
editor.  The  manuscript  of  the  third  and  last  part  of  this 
hi>^tory,  was  discovered  a  few  years  since,  and  has  never 
been  published.     The  two  first  parts  were  printed  in  1790, 

264  Literary  Noikts. 

but  very  inaccurately,  and  with  many  omissions,  in  conse- 
quence of  obscurity  or  defect  in  the  manuscript  from  which 
it  was  published,  or  from  want  of  care  in  the  editor  of  that 
edition.  A  new  copy  of  the  whole  work  is  now  prepared 
from  the  original  mnnuscript,  in  the  library  of  the  Massa- 
chusetts Historical  Society,  and  the  work  is  to  be  accompa- 
nied with  notes  "  to  illustrate  their  civil  and  ecclesiastical 
concerns,  the  geography,  settlement  and  institutions  of  the 
country,  and  the  lives  and  manners  of  the  principal  planters," 
whi^h,  from  th'^  known  familiarity  of  the  present  editor  with 
the  early  history  of  the  country,  and  the  care  he  has  be- 
stowed on  this  undertaking,  there  is  reason  to  believe  will  be 
hardly  less  valuable  than  the  principal  work. — Dai.  Adv. 

Robert  Waln,  Jr.  Esq.  of  Philadelphia,  the  indefatiga- 
ble author  of  the  Biography  of  the  Signers  of  the  Declar- 
ation of  Independence,  has  issued  proposals  for  publishing 
the  Life  of  the  JMarquis  De  In  Fayette,  Major  General  in  the 
service  of  the  United  Stales  of  America.,  in  the  War  of  the 
Revolution^to  be  composed  from  the  most  authentic  materials. 
The  eminent  services  of  this  distinguished  foreigner  render- 
ed this  country  in  the  darkest  days  of  her  struggle  against 
oppression,  entitle  him  to  the  grateful  consideration  of  those 
who  are  now  enjoying  the  prosperity  which  he  contributed 
to  establish.  Considering  his  intended  visit  to  this  country, 
the  present  delineation  of  his  public  and  private  charac- 
ter will  be  very  seasonable,  und  must  be  highly  accepta- 
ble to  our  citizens.  The  work  is  to  contain  from  200  to  250 
pages  8vo.  at  §2,50. 

Waln^s  Biography. — The  fourth  volume  of  the  biography  of 
the  sig'ners  to  the  DeclaratJon  of  Indep'ndence,has  just  been  pub- 
lished and  delivered  to  subscribers.  Its  contents  are  the  lives  of 
Thomas  Heyward,  Georsre  Read.  WHIiam  Williams,  Samuel 
Huntington,  William  Floyd,  George  Walton,  George  Clymer,  and 
Beniarain  Rush,  comprising  about  300  pages,  and  ornamented 
with  five  beautiful  engravings.  In  point  of  literary  execution, 
and  typographical  neatness,  this  volume  is  not  inferior  to  its  pre- 
decessors ;  and  at  a  period  when  every  thing  of  a  revolutionary 
character  is  acquiring  additional  interest,  and  is  sought  after  with 
increased  avidity,  such  a  work  surely  ought  to  receive  an 
extensive  and  liberal  patronage.  To  the  future  historian  and 
to  posterity  it  will  be  invaluable,  as  containing  an  authentic 
tio^raphy  of  the  statesmen,  and  patriots,  who  participated  in 
the  greatest  event  on  record.  A  copy  of  this  book  should  be 
found  on  the  shelves  of  every  library. — JV.  J.  States. 

SEPTEMBER,  1824. 



[From  his  History  of  King  Philip's  War.] 

Col.  Benjamin  Church  was  born  in  1639,  at  Duxbury, 
near  Plymouth,  of  respectable  parents,  who  lived  and  died 
there.  His  father's  name  was  Joseph,  who,  with  two  of  his 
brethren,  came  early  into  New-England,  as  refugees  from 
the  religious  oppressions  of  the  parent  state.  Mr.  Joseph 
Church,  among  other  children,  had  three  sons,  Joseph,  Ca- 
leb and  Benjamin.  Caleb  settled  at  Watertown,  the  other 
two  at  Seconet,  or  Little  Compton.  Benjamin,  the  hero  of 
this  history,  was  of  a  good  stature,  his  body  well  propor- 
tioned, and  built  for  hardiness  and  activity.  Although  he 
was  very  corpulent  and  heavy  in  the  latter  part  of  his  life, 
yet  when  he  was  a  young  man  he  was  not  so,  being  then 
active,  sprightly  and  vigorous.  He  carried  dignity  in  his 
countenance,  and  possessing  a  rational  and  manly  judgment, 
joined  with  a  nature  really  generous,  obliging  and  hospita- 
ble disposition,  he  rose  to  both  authority  and  esteem. — 
He  married  Mrs.  Alice  Southworth,  by  whom  he  had  one 
daughter,  and  several  sons,  viz  ; 

1.  Thomas  Church,  the  author  or  publisher  of  his  histo- 
ry, and  father  of  the  honorable  Thomas  Church,  Esq,  an 
inhabitant  of  Little  Compton. 

2.  Constant  Church,  a  captain  under  his  father  in  the 
Eastern  expedition  in  the  militia  ;  and  of  a  military  and  en- 
terprising spirit. 

3.  Benjamin  Church,  who  died  a  bachelor. 

4.  Edward  Church,  who  was  a  man  of  integrity,  justice, 
and  uprightness,  of  piety  and  serious  religion. 

He  was  a  member  of  the  Church  of  Bristol  at  its  founda- 
tion, in  the  Rev.  Mr.  Lee's  day.     He  was  constant    and  de- 
vout in  family  worship,  wherein  he  read  and  often  expound- 
ed the  scriptures  to  his  household.     He  was   exemplary  iti 

266  Col.  Benjamin  Church. 

observing  the  sabbath,  and  in  attending  the  worship  and  or- 
dinances of  God  in  the  sanctuary.  He  lived  regularly,  and 
left  an  example  worthy  of  the  imitation  of  his  posterity. — 
He  was  a  friend  to  the  civil  and  religious  liberties  of  his 
country,  and  greatly  rejoiced  in  the  revolution.*  He  was 
Colonel  of  the  Militia  in  the  county  of  Bristol. 

The  several  offices  of  civil  and  military  trust,  with  which 
he  was  invested  from  lime  to  time,  through  a  long  life,  he 
discharged  with  fidelity  and  usefulness.  The  war  of  1675 
was  the  most  important  Indian  War  that  New-England  ever 
saw.  Philip,  or  Metacomet,  a  son  of  good  old  Massasoit,  and 
his  2d  successor  had  wrought  up  the  Indians  of  all  the  tribes 
through  New-England,  into  a  dangerous  combination  to  ex- 
tirpate the  English.  It  was  one  of  the  last  works  of  the 
Commissioners  of  the  United  Colonies  (a  council  in  which 
subsisted  the  security  of  New-England,  from  1643  to  1678) 
to  break  up  this  confederacy.  An  army  of  one  thousand 
English  was  on  foot  at  once,  under  the  command  of  Gover- 
nor Winslow.  Whoever  desires  further  information  con- 
cerning this  war,  may  consult  Mr.  Hubbard's  history  of  it. — 
The  part  Col.  Church  acted  in  it,  is  exhibited  in  the  plain 
narrative,  given  by  his  son  two  years  before  his  father's 

Col.  Church  perfectly  understood  the  manner  of  the  In- 
dians in  fighting,  and  was  thoroughly  acquainted  with  their 
haunts,  swamps,  and  places  of  refuge  on  the  territory  be- 
tween Narragmset  and  Cape  Cod.  There  he  was  particular- 
ly successful.  On  that  'ield  he  gathered  his  laurels.  The 
surprisal  and  seizure  of  Annawun  was  an  act  of  true  bold- 
ness and  heroism.  Had  the  Eastern  Indians  been  surroun- 
ded with  English  settlements,  there  is  reason  to  think  that 
he  would  have  been  more  successful  among  them.  But  on  a 
long  and  extended  frontier,  open  to  immense  desarts,  little 
more  has  ever  been  don(>  by  troops  of  undoubted  courage, 
than  to  arouse  and  drive  off  the  Indians  into  a  wide  howling 
wilderness;  where  it  was  as  much  in  vain  to  seek  them,  as 
for  Caesar  to  seek  the  Gauls  in  the  Hercinian  forests. 

After  Philip's  war.  Col.  Church  settled  and  lived  first  at 
Bristol,  then  at  FdU-River,  lastly  at  Seconet,  in  each  of 
which  places  he  acquir-  d  and  left  a  large  estate.  Having 
served  his  generation  faithfully,  by  the  will  of  God  he  fell 
asleep  and  was  gathered  to  his  fathers.  He  died  and  was 
buried  at  Little-Compton.     The  morning  before  his  death, 

[•The  Revolution  in  the  time  of  Sir  Edmund  Amlross.] 

Col.  Benjamin  Church.  26? 

he  went  about  two  miles  on  horse  back,  to  visit  his  only  sis- 
ter, Mrs.  Irish,  to  sympathise  with  her  on  the  death  of  her 
only  child.  After  a  friendly  and  pious  visit,  in  a  moving 
and  affecting  manner  he  took  his  leave  of  her,  and  said,  ''It 
was  a  last  farewell ;  telling  her  he  was  persuaded  he  should 
never  see  her  any  more  ;  but  hoped  to  meet  her  in  heaven." 
Reiurning  homeward,  he  had  not  rode  a  half  a  mile  before 
his  horse  stumbled,  and  threw  him  over  his  head.  And  the 
Colonel  being  exceeding  fat  and  heavy,  fell  with  such  force, 
that  a  blood  vessel  was  broken,  and  the  blood  gushed  out  of 
his  mouth  like  a  torrent.  His  wife  was  soon  brought  to  him; 
he  tried,  but  was  unable  to  speak  to  her,  and  died  in  about 
twelve  hours.  He  was  carried  to  the  grave  with  great  fun- 
ereal pomp,  and  was  buried  under  arms,  and  with  military 
honours.     On  his  tombstone  is  this  inscription. 

Here  lieth  interred  the  Body 
of  the  Honourable 

Col.  Benjamin  Church,  Esq. 

Who  departed  this  Life, 

January  the  17th,  1717-18, 

In  the  78th  Year  of  his  Age. 

In  addition  to  the  preceding  sketch  of  Col.  Church,  we 
select  the  following  notices  from  President  Allen's  Bio- 
graphical Dictionary. 

In  the  year  1676,  when  in  pursuit  of  king  Philip,  he  was 
engaged  with  the  Indians  in  a  swamp.  With  two  men  by  his 
side,  who  were  his  guard,  he  met  three  of  the  enem}'.  Each 
of  his  men  look  a  prisoner,  but  the  other  Indian,  who  was  a 
stout  fellow  with  his  two  locks  tied  up  with  red,  and  a  great 
rattle  snake's  skin  hanging  from  his  hair  behind,  ran  into  the 
swamp.  Church  pursued,  and  as  he  approached  him  pre- 
sented his  gun,  but  it  missed  fire.  The  Indian  being  equally 
unsuccessful  in  his  attempt  to  discharge  his  gun,  turned  him- 
self to  continue  his  flight ;  but  his  foot  was  caught  in  a  small 
grapevine  and  he  fell  on  his  face.  Church  instantly  struck 
him  with  the  muzzle  of  his  gun  and  dispatched  him.  Look- 
ing about,  he  saw  another  Indian  rushing  towards  him  with 
inexpressible  fury  ;  but  the  fire  of  his  guards  preserved  him 
from  the  danger.  After  the  skirmish  his  party  found  they 
had  killed  and  taken  one  hundred  and  seventy  three  men. — 
At  night  they  drove  their  prisoners  into  Bridgewater  pound, 
where,  having  a  plenty  of  provisions,  they  passed  a  merry 
night.  Colonel  Church  commanded  the  party,  which  killed 
Philip  in  August,  1 676.     When  it  was  known,  that  the  savage 

.^68  Notices  of  Revolutionary  Officers* 

monarch  was  shot,  the  whole  company  gave  three  loud  huz- 
zas. Church  ordered  him  to  be  beheaded  and  quartered, 
and  gave  one  of  his  hands  to  the  friendly  Indian  who  shot 
him.  The  government  at  Plymouth  paid  thirty  shillings  a 
head  for  the  enemies  killed  or  taken,  and  Philip's  head  went 
at  the  same  price. 

Jiotlces  of  several  of  the  principal  o£icers  of  the  Revolutionary 


There  are  few,  I  presume,  that  hear  of  the  achievements 
of  distinguished  men,  without  forming  some  idea  of  their 
persons  and  features,  and  it  is  pleasing  to  know  whether  the 
reality  answers  to  the  idea.  1  have  therefore  made  some  in- 
quiry respecting  the  persons  of  the  most  active  officers  of 
the  American  army,  engaged  in  those  operations  which  it 
ha";  been  a  part  of  our  task  to  describe,  and  as  1  believe  that 
you  are  not  incurious  upon  this  subject,  1  will,  without  hesita- 
tion communicate  what  I  have  learned. 

Washington  has  already  been  described  so  often,  that  his 
\vh")!e  appearance  must  be  familiar  with  yourlancy.  I  can- 
rot  however  pass  by  so  imposing  a  figure,  entirelj'^  unnoticed. 
With  a  person  six  teet  two  inches  in  stature,  expanded,  mus- 
cular, of  elegant  proportions,  and  unusually  graceful  in  all 
its  movements — his  hcdd  moulded  somewhat  on  the  model 
of  the  Grecian  antique  ; — features  sufficiently  prominent  for 
strength  or  comeliness — a  Roman  nose  and  large  blue  eyes, 
deeply  thoughtful,  rather  than  lively — with  these  attributes, 
the  appearance  of  Washington  was  striking  and  august. — 
Of  a  fine  complexion,  he  was  accounted,  when  young,  one  of 
the  handsomest  of  men.  But  his  majesty  consisted  in  the 
expression  of  his  countenance,  much  more  than  in  his  come- 
ly features,  his  lofty  person,  or  his  dignified  deportment.  It 
was  the  emanation  of  his  great  spirit  through  the  tenement  it 

Major  General  Green  in  person  was  rather  corpulent,  and 
above  (he  common  size. — His  complexion  was  fair  and  flor- 
id—  his  countenance  serene  and  mild,  indicating  a  goodness 
which  seemed  to  shade  and  soften  the  fire  and  greatness  of 
its  expression.  His  health  was  delicate,  but  preserved  by 
temperance  and  regularity. 

Gen.  Sullivan  was  a  man  of  short  stature,  well  formed  and 
active — his  complexion  dark — his  nose  prominent — his  eyes 
black  and  piercing,  and  his  face  altogether  agreeable  and 
well  formed. 

Noticts  of  Revolutionary  Officers,  269 

The  Lord  Sterling  was  short  and  thick  set — somewhat 
pursy  and  corpulent.  His  face  was  red,  and  looked  as 
though  colored  by  brandy,  rather  than  sun  burnt,  and  his 
appearance  in  no  manner  either  military  or  commanding. 

Gen.  Maxwell  was  about  the  common  size,  without  any 
thing  peculiar  either  in  the  features  or  expression  of  his 
face. — He  was  a  man  of  merit,  though  of  obscure  origin. 
His  manners  were  not  conciliatory,  and  it  was  his  misfor- 
tune to  be  often  at  variance  with  his  officers. 

Grn.  Wayne  was  about  the  middle  size,  with  a  fine  rud- 
dy countenance,  commanding  port,  with  eagle  eye.  His 
looks  corresponding  well  with  his  character,  indicating 
a  soul  noble,  ardent,  and  daring.  At  this  time  he  was  about 
32  years  of  age,  a  period  of  lite  which  perhaps  as  much  as 
any  other,  blends  the  grace  of  youth  with  the  majesty  of 
manhood.  In  his  intercourse  with  his  officers  and  men,  he 
was  affable  and  agreeable,  and  had  the  art  of  communicating 
to  their  i)Osoms,  the  gallant  and  chivalrous  spirit  which  glow- 
ed in  his  own. 

The  Marquis  de  la  Fayette  was  one  of  the  finest  looking 
men  in  the  army,  notwithstanding  his  deep  red  hair,  which 
then,  as  now,  was  rather  in  disrepute.  His  forehead  was 
fine  though  receding — his  eye  clear  hazel — his  mouth 
and  chin  delicately  formed,  and  exhibiting  beauty  rather 
than  strength.  The  expression  of  his  countenance  was 
strongly  indicative  of  the  generous  and  gallant  spirit  which 
animated  him,  mingling  with  something  of  the  pride  of  con- 
scious manliness.  His  mien  was  noble— his  manners  frank 
and  amiable,  and  his  movements  light  and  graceful.  He 
wore  his  hair  plain,  and  never  complied  so  far  with  the 
fashion  of  the  times  as  to  powder. 

,  Col.  Morgan  was  stout  and  active — six  feet  in  height — not 
/too  much  encumbered  with  flesh,  and  exactly  fitted  for  the 
'toils  and  pomp  of  war.  The  features  of  his  face  were 
strong  and  manly,  and  his  brow  thoughtful.  Hi*  manners 
plain  and  decorous,  neither  insinuating  nor  repulsive.  His 
conversation  grave,  sententious  and  considerate,  unadorned 
and  uncoptivating. 

Col.  Hamilton  is  thus  described  by  Mr.  Delaplaine  : — 
"  Although  in  person  below  the  middle  stature,  and  some- 
what deficient  in  elegance  of  figure,  Hamilton  possessed  a 
very  striking  and  manly  appearance.  By  a  most  superficial 
observer  he  could  never  be  regarded  as  a  common  individu- 
al. His  head  which  was  large  was  formed  on  the  finest 
model,  resembling  somewhat  the  Grecian  antique.     His  fore- 

f7d  Col.  David  Webster. 

head  was  spacious  and  elevated — his  nose  projecting  but  in- 
clining to  the  aqueline — his  ejes  grey — keen  at  all  times, 
and  when  animated  by  debate  intolerably  piercing — and 
his  mouth  and  chin  well  proportioned  and  handsome. — 
These  two  latter,  although  his  strongest,  were  his  most  pleas- 
ing features — yet  the  form  of  his  mouth  was  expressive  of 
eloquence  more  especially  of  persuasion.  He  was  remark- 
able for  a  deep  depression  between  his  nose  and  his  fore- 
head, and  a  contraction  of  bis  brows,  which  gave  to  the  up- 
per part  of  his  countenance,  an  air  of  sternness.  The  low- 
er part  was  an  emblem  of  mildness  and  benignity." 

Alajor  Lee,  one  of  the  most  vigilant  and  active  partizan 
officers  in  the  American  army,  was  short  in  stature,  and  of 
slight  make — but  agile  and  active.  His  face  was  small  and 
freckled — his  look  eager  and  sprightly.  He  was  then  quite 
young,  and  his  appearance  was  even  more  youthful  than  his 
years. —  Village  Record, 


[In  the  July  number  of  these  Collections,  we  noticed  the 
death  of  this  gentleman;  and  are  gratified  in  being  able 
to  present  the  following  particulars  of  his  life,  which  we 
find  in  the  New-Hampshire  Patriot.] 

Col.  David  Webster  was  the  son  of  Elder  Stephen  Web- 
ster of  Chester,  N.  H.,  and  was  born  in  Chester,  Dec.  10, 
1738.  Although  tlie  son  of  worthy  and  intelligent  parents, 
his  early  advantages  for  education  were  poor,  his  erudition 
limited.  His  person  was  of  the  middling  stature  and  rather 
handsome,  his  constitution  robust,  limbs  muscular,  and  his 
taste  was  rather  for  the  chase  and  athletic  exercises  than  for 
the  pursuits  of  literature.  He  was  trained  to  the  art  of  shoe- 
making,  and  his  pastimes  were  running,  wrestling,  jumping, 
dancing,  &c. 

When  Majors  Rogers  and  Stark  selected  their  men  from 
the  militia  for  the  Ranging  service,  as  it  was  called,  Web- 
ster was  their  first  choice  in  Chester ;  he  was  attached  to 
the  company  commanded  by  Capt.  Kazen,  and  was  in  active 
service  in  the  years  1757  and  1760.  He  excelled  his  com- 
rades in  feats  of  activity  and  muscular  strength,  which  ren- 
dered him  popular  among  them ;  and  his  general  deport- 
ment was  such  as  to  gain  the  confidence  of  his  officers. 
When   he  joined  his  company,  Webster  resolved   to  war 

Col.  David   Wehsteu  271 

against  the  "  flesh,  the  devil"  and  the  enemies  of  his  coun- 
try, and  he  accordingly  avoided  gambling,  diinking,  and 
other  too  prevalent  vices.  He  was  honored  with  a  ser- 
geant's warrant  in  the  campaign  of  1757,  on  which  occa- 
sion he  was  more  elated,  or  according  to  his  own  expression, 
^^  he  felt  belter  and  was  prouder''''  than  on  any  other  occasion 
of  the  like  nature  during  his  life.  This  was  the  commence- 
ment of  his  promotion,  and  the  honor  of  this  station  was  al- 
most too  much  for  him  to  bear  with  tolerable^dcccncy.  In 
1760,  he  went  with  Rogers  and  Stark  from  Ticonderoga,  in 
pursuit  of  the  French  aiid  Indians,  to  Crown  Point,  the  isle- 
auxNoix,  and  Chamblee  to  Montreal.  He  then  command- 
ed one  of  the  advanced  guards,  and  at  several  times  helped 
dislodge  parties  of  the  enemy  in  ambush.  On  one  occasion 
the  Indians  so  eft'ectually  concealed  them-selves,  that  a  large 
body  of  them  were  between  the  advance  and  the  main  bod}', 
at  which  time  the  whole  of  the  talents  of  Stark  were  neces- 
sary to  extricate  the  party  from  their  perilous  situation. 
Webster  always  gave  Stark  the  credit  for  success  on  (hat  oc- 
casion, and  always  after  considered  him  a  more  able  com- 
mander and  better  officer  than  Rogers.  The  latter  was 
brave,  and  would  lead  rashly  forward,  whilst  the  former  was 
cool,  and  made  proper  arrangemen-ts  for  retreat  if  necessary. 
Webster  commanded  a  party  of  observation  at  the  Isle-aux- 
Noix  the  night  before  it  was  abandoned  ;  he  came  in  the 
night  to  the  fort,  and  many  times  since  he  has  described  the 
horrors  of  this  night,  as  tar  surpassing  any  thing  with  which 
he  was  acquamted.  The  bombs  were  flying  from  our  bat- 
teries ;  the  women  and  children  in  the  fort  were  crying;  the 
French  swearing;  the  dogs  and  Indians  howling;  all,  com- 
bined with  the  peril  of  his  own  situation,  made  a  lasting  im- 
pression on  his  mind.  At  Chamblee  he  was  in  the  last  skir- 
mish of  the  war,  and  was  at  Montreal  when  and  where  the 
forces  of  Gen.  Amherst,  Sir  William  Johnson,  &c.  concen- 
trated, and  when  all  Canada  finally  surrendered  to  the  for- 
ces of  his  Britannic  Majesty.  Webster  returned  from  the 
army  to  Chester,  where  he  married,  April  20,  1761.  Nov. 
9,  1763,  he  moved  from  Chester  to  Hollis.  Under  the  pat- 
ronage of  Samuel  Cumraings,  Esq.  his  brother-in-law,  and 
one  of  the  original  proprietors  of  Plymouth,  he  visited  the 
new  settlements  there,  pitched  his  teuton  a  lot  drawn  to  the 
original  right  of  his  patron,  at  the  confluence  of  Baker's  and 
Pemigewasset  rivers.  He  cleared  some  land,  built  a  house, 
and  made  the  necessary  arrnngements  for  moving.  At  (his 
time  there  were  but  few  families,  and  but  few  camps  in  Ply- 

272  Col.  David  Webster. 

mouth.  In  the  autumn  of  1764,  he  drove  the  first  ox  team 
to  Plymouth,  and  was  laden  with  provisions  and  household 
furniture.  His  wife,  with  a  child  in  her  arms,  accompanied 
him  on  horseback;  the  roads  were  poor,  and  the  passage  of 
some  of  the  streams,  particularly  Smith''s  river  in  New-Ches- 
ter, difficult.  Near  the  end  of  the  journey,  Mrs.  W.  under 
the  escort  of  a  pilot,  set  forward  to  gain  Brown's  Camp  at 
the  lower  interval  in  Plymouth,  but  did  not  arrive  till  eve- 
ning. The  first  view  of  the  torch  light  was  transporting  to 
her,  and  she  never  afterwards  mentioned  the  incident  with- 
out tears.  Mr.  Webster  with*  his  team,  arrived  the  day  fol- 
lowing, and  they  began  to  keep  hmise  in  Plymouth,  Nov.  17, 
1 764,  under  more  favorable  circumstances  than  generally  fell 
to  the  lot  of  their  neighbors.  Mr.  W.  drove  the  five  first 
ox  teams  to  Plymouth,  which  was  the  occasion  of  much  con- 
versation at  the  time,  as  a  part  of  their  road  was  on  the 
beach  and  in  the  current  of  the  river.  He  was  generally 
the  leader  of  the  parties  for  hunting  and  fishing,  from  both 
which  sources  the  first  settlers  drew  a  large  supply  of  pro- 
visions. At  one  time  he  had  on  hand  fifteen  barrels  of  moose 
meat,  besides  salmon,  which  the  river  furnished  plentifully 
at  the  proper  season.  He  was  on  committees  for  erecting 
mills,  making  and  laying  out  roads,  and  various  other  busi- 
ness connected  with  the  division  and  settlement  of  the  lands 
of  the  town. 

In  1771,  the  Province  of  New-Hampshire  was  divided  in- 
to five  counties;  but  the  inhabitants  of  Strafford  and  Graf- 
ton transacted  their  business  at  Rockingham  lor  a  season. 
When  Grafton  became  organized.  Col.  Wm.  Simpson  was 
appointed  High  Sheriff',  and  Col.  Webster  was  his  deputy 
and  jailer,  and  so  continued  till  law  was  suspended  at  the 
commencement  of  the  Revolution.  Afterwards,  when  legal 
proceedings  were  restored  and  the  counties  were  re-organiz- 
ed, Col.  VVebster  was  made  Sheriff'  of  Grafton,  which  office 
he  held  until  he  became  seventy  years  of  age.  His  commis- 
sion ran,  during  good  behaviour.  The  constitution  after- 
wards adopted,  disqualified  any  person  from  holding  the  of- 
fice after  he  became  seventy.  Many  distinguished  persons, 
however,  considered  it  questionable  whether  in  law  Col. 
Webster  ceased  to  be  sheriff",  when  he  became  seventy. 
Very  early.  Col.  W^ebster  became  an  Ensign  in  the  military 
company  in  Plymouth,  and  gradually  rose  to  the  command 
of  the  regiment. 

June  1  7,  1775,  the  sound  of  the  battle  at  Bread's  Hill  was 
distinctly  heard  at  Plymouth  by  lying  the  ear  to  the  ground. 

Col.  David  Webster,  273 

Col.  Webster  ordered  the  long  roll  to  be  beaten,  collected 
the  hardy  emigrants,  and  held  a  council,  which  resulted  in  a 
determination  to  ascertain  the  place  and  particulars  of  the 
battle,  and  to  take  part  if  necessary.  He  went  forward  un- 
til he  gained  intelligenee,  which,  although  contradictory, 
caused  the  return  of  his  men,  but  himself  went  to  the  field 
and  saw  and  heard,  and  was  enabled  to  make  satisfactory 
report  on  his  return  to  his  comrades.  He  was  the  ardent, 
sincere,  and  continued  friend  of  the  first  Hon.  Judge  Liver- 
more,  the  father  of  Holderness,  who  was  said  to  govern  the 
inhabitants  of  that  town  with  a  nod,  and  preserve  respect. 
H^  was  also  one  of  the  leading  men  of  the  whig  parly  in 
Plymouth.  His  was  the  only  public  house,  and  the  place 
where  resorted  the  whigs,  tories,  and  those  of  doubtful  minds. 
Here  were  politics  discussed,  victories  celebrated,  adversity 
mourned — men  of  different  parties  and  from  different  towns 
were  frequently  together,  and  they  scarcely  ever  met  with- 
out a  battle.  It  required,  therefore,  no  small  share  of  firm- 
ness and  good  sense  on  the  part  of  the  landlord  to  avoid  per- 
sonal collision,  and  maintain  his  reputation  and  principles, 
and  the  confidence  of  all  parties  ;  but  so  was  the  fact. 

The  defeat  and  capture  of  Burgoyne  and  his  army,  may 
be  considered  one  of  the  most  important  events  in  the  Revo- 
lution. In  1777,  he  came  from  the  north  with  a  powerful 
army,  accompanied  with  a  train  of  savages,  and  marched 
without  opposition  from  Crown  Point  to  Ticonderoga.  This 
was  considered  by  the  Americans  an  impo-'-tant  post,  and 
manned  with  about  three  thousand  troops,  well  provided, 
under  the  command  of  Gen.  St.  Clair.  That  this  place 
should  be  abandoned  by  St.  Clair  and  his  forces,  without  the 
least  opposition,  cast  a  gloom  through  ihe  country  not  easily 
described.  Burgoyne  was  disposed  to  cause  the  alarm  to 
spread  as  far  as  possible.  Gen.  Schuyler  called  for  militia 
and  regular  troops,  to  oppose  and  harass  the  British  in  their 
course.  Gen.  Arnold  and  Col.  Morgan  of  the  regulars,  join- 
ed Schuyler ;  and  Gen.  Lincoln  witli  a  body  of  militia,  came 
to  his  assistance.  The  New-Hampshire  levies,  under  the 
command  of  the  brave  Stark,  on  the  I6th  of  July,  encounter- 
ed ar>d  conquered  an  important  detachment  of  the  veteran 
enemy  at  Bennington,  which  demonstrated  what  could  be 
done  when  freemen  did  their  duty.  The  pffects  of  Stark"'s 
victory  can  hardly  be  imagined ;  like  electricity  the  news 
pervaded  the  country,  and  served  to  dispel  the  clouds  and 
darkness,  and  shades  which  hovered  over  it,  in  consequence 
<»f  the  precipitate  abandonment  of  the  fort  at  Ticonderoga. 

S74  Col,  David  Webster. 

Soon  after,  Gen.  Gates  took  the  command  of  the  American 
Northern  forces,  and  reduced  to  system  opposition  to  the 
invading  troops.  He  was  reinforced  by  regulars  and  mili- 
tia. The  militia  from  New-England  detached  by  Gen.  Lin- 
coln early  in  September,  surprized  and  took  the  British  out- 
works at  Ticonderoga,  together  with  their  water-draft,  arms, 
ammunition,  &c.  and  many  prisoners.  Soon  afterwards  was 
fought  a  spirited,  sanguinary,  obstinate  and  protracted  bat- 
tle in  the  neighborhood  of  Bemis'  Heights,  in  which  both 
parties  claimed  the  victory.  On  the  7th  of  October,  was 
another  severe  and  bloody  battle,  which  was  terminated  by 
the  night.  The  Americans  lay  on  their  arms.  Burgoyne 
drew  his  men  into  camp  on  the  heights.  The  victory  of 
the  Americans  was  complete.  Gen.  Gates  detached  strong 
bodies  of  his  troops  in  various  directions  to  cut  off  the  re- 
treat of  the  enemy.  Burgoyne  retired  by  Saratoga  Creek 
t->  the  Hudson,  at  which  pomt  he  was  met  by  the  New-Hamp- 
shire militia,  under  the  command  of  Colonels  Webster,  Bel- 
lows, and  Morey.  At  this  place  the  enemy  halted,  and  Bur- 
goyne observed  "  it  was  vain  to  contend  with  the  owners  of 
the  soil."  Therefore  he  and  his  army  laid  down  their  arms, 
and  surrendered  themselves  prisoners  of  war.  The  con» 
vention  was  signed  by  Generals  Gates  and  Burgoyne,  on  the 
17th  of  October.  The  storm  had  ceased,  the  mists  were 
dissipated,  and  the  evening  became  calm  and  delightful. 

As  a  patriot,  Col.  Webster  could  partake  of  the  joys  of 
victory  ;  as  a  man,  however,  he  could  but  weep  for  the  death 
of  a  beloved  and  favorite  brother.  Amos  Webster,  who 
commanded  a  company  of  Light  Infantry,  attached  to  Col. 
Morgan's  corps  during  these  perilous  days,  was  cut  down 
while  in  the  arms  of  victory  :  he  simply  inquired  which  side 
gave  way,  and  being  told,  exclaimed,  "It  is  enough — I  aie 
in  peace."  Col.  W^ebster  went  with  the  escort  to  Albany, 
where  he  was  disrharsred,  and  returned  home.  During  the 
rest  of  the  war.  Ccl.  Webster  was  active  in  collecting  beef 
and  other  supplies  for  the  army.  He  was  distinguished  for 
his  courage  and  integrity,  and  was  sociable.  He  was  a 
friend  of  peace  and  good  order,  but  he  made  it  an  invaria- 
ble rule  not  to  be  forced  to  surrender  any  important  right  for 
the  sake  of  peace;  and  his  opinions  once  formed, were  not 
easily  shaken. 

(  275) 




There  remains  one  other  branch  of  executive  authority  to  be 
considered,  and  that  is  the  power  to  grant  reprieves  and  pardons 
to  persons,  who  by  due  course  of  law  have  been  convicted  of 
crimes  and  offences.  But  as  I  have  in  a  former  paper  (No. 
XCVIII)  considered  the  subject  in  general,  and  particularly  in  re- 
lation to  the  general  government,  I  now  submit  some  observations 
as  it  respects  the  state  governments. 

According  to  our  constitutions,  it  appears  there  are  fifteen 
States  in  which  the  governor  alone  has  the  power  to  grant  par- 
dons, and  seven  in  which  he  may  do  it  with  the  advice  of  council, 
and  but  two  States  in  which  there  is  no  authority  given  to  grant 
pardons  in  any  case.  Most  of  the  States  consider  this  power 
necessary,  and  a  majority  entrust  it  to  a  single  individual. 

The  power  to  grant  reprieves,  that  is,  to  suspend  the  execution 
and  process  of  the  law  for  a  definite  time,  is  expressly  given  to 
the  Executive  in  some  States  ;  and  in  most  of  them  has  been 
more  or  less  used  and  practised.  But  I  do  not  recollect  any  au- 
thority given,  either  by  the  constitution  or  statute  laws  of  New- 
Hampshire,  to  the  Executive  to  grant  reprieves  in  any  case  ;  yet 
in  this  State,  since  the  establishment  of  our  constitution,  in  three 
or  more  instances  where  persons  had  been  convicted  of  homicide 
in  the  first  degree,  and  judgment  rendered  that  they  should  be  ex- 
ecuted on  certain  daj's,  though  the  executive  refused  pardons, 
they  reprieved  the  criminals.  The  practice  of  granting  re- 
prieves in  this  Slate  has,  I  think,  been  confined  to  offenders  who 
were  under  sentence  of  death  ;  and  even  then  it  ought  to  be  sel- 
dom exercised.  The  law  has  vested  the  judicial  tribunal  not 
only  with  the  sole  power  to  decide  upon  the  guilt  of  the  accused, 
but  entrusted  them  with  authority  to  fix  the  time  of  execution. — 
The  power  to  decide  whether  an  individual  has  forfeited  his 
life,  is  vastly  more  important  than  that  of  determining  the  day  on 
which  the  forfeiture  shall  be  exacted.  The  great  object  of  in- 
flicting capital  punishment  is  to  deter  others  from  the  commis- 
sion of  crimes,  but  reprieves  have  a  tendency  to  diminish  that  ter- 
ror, for  laws  have  never  such  a  powerful  effect  upon  the  fears  of 
the  wicked,  as  when  they  are  promptly  and  literally  executed. — 
1  know  only  two  cases  in  which  reprieves  can  with  propriety  be 
granted — convicts  who  are  «o/i  compos  ?» cutis,  and  women  in  cer- 
tain stages  of  pregnancy.  1  am  aware  that  some  eminent  men 
have  contended,  that  when  the  executive  are  fully  satisfied  that 
new  evidence  has  been  discovered,  which  if  known  at  the  trial 
would  have  acquitted  the  convict,  a  reprieve  ought  to  be  grant- 
ed.   But  I  think,  in  such  a  case,  the  executive  shonld pardon,  not 

2T6  Essays  of  Cincinnatus. 

reprieve.  For  existing  laws  allow  of  no  review  in  criminal  pros- 
ecutions. The  legislature  may  decline  passing  a  law  for  a  new 
trial — but  what  is  more  doubtful,  have  they  a  right  to  do  it,  and 
would  the  judiciary  sustain  it? 

Our  constitution  authorizes  the  governor  with  the  advice  of  the 
council  to  grant  pardons  to  such  offenders  only  as  have  been  coiU' 
victed  by  a  court  of  Ufw  ;  but  prohibits  them  from  pardoning  those 
who  have  not  been  convicted,  and  also  those  who  have  been  con- 
victed by  the  senate  upon  impeachment  of  the  house. 

It  reflects  great  honour  that  but  few  crimes  of  great  enormity 
have  been  committed  in  New-Hampshire.  Here  no  man  has 
been  convicted  of  treason  ;  and  but  very  few  of  homicide.  And 
to  the  credit  of  the  executive,!  believe,  not  a  single  instance  has 
occurred  in  which  they  have  pardoned  a  murderer — not  one  for 
the  last  forty  years.  The  certainty  of  punishment  has  done 
much  to  prevent  the  commission  of  crimes. 

Of  the  minor  offences,  instances  have  frequently  occurred;  but 
I  think  fewer  in  proportion  to  population  than  the  average  num- 
ber in  many  of  the  other  states.  But  considering  the  mildness  of 
our  criminal  code,  and  the  necessity  of  restraining  bad  men  by 
the  certainty  of  punishment,  too  man}'  of  these  offenders  liave 
been  pardoned  by  the  executive — such  as  those  who  were  con- 
victed of  passing  counterfeit  money  and  hank  bills,  of  theft,  of  li- 
bels, and  of  assaults  and  batteries.  But  here,  too,  if  we  compare 
the  executive  record  of  pardons  granted  in  this  State,  with  that 
of  some  other  Ststes,  we  shall  find  the  number  of  pardons  much 
less  than  theirs.  In  New-Hampshire,  in  five  years  and  nine 
months,  ending  with  June  1818,  there  were  one  hundred  and 
seventeen  convicts  committed  to  the  State  Prison  ;  of  these  only  six 
were  pardoned.  In  Massachusetts,  in  sixteen  years,  one  thousand 
four  hundred  and  seventy  one  were  committed  to  their  State 
Prison  ;  of  these  tw6  hundred  forty  two  were  pardoned  :  and  in 
New-York  in  1822,  there  had  been,  from  the  establishment  of 
their  state  prisons  to  that  time,  tive  thousand  sixty  nine  convicts 
committed,  of  whom  two  thousand  eight  hmidred  and  nineteen 
were  pardoned.  Hence  it  appears  that  in  Massachusetts  more 
than  one  sixth  of  the  convicts  were  pardoned,  and  in  New- York 
more  than  half,  but  in  New-Hampshire  not  one  in  nineteen. 

If  pardons  should  in  future  be  obtained  with  as  much  facility, 
and  continue  to  increase  as  they  recently  have  in  some  of  the 
States,  they  will  eventually  destroy  the  efficacy  and  usefulness  of 
our  penal  laws.  Their  influence  will  prove  fatal  to  our  peniten- 
tiary system — the  States  must  abandon  their  State  Prisons,  and 
with  them  the  consoling  hope  of  preserving  a  code  of  mild  and 
humane  criminal  law.  Crimes  will  then  be  suffered  to  exist 
without  punishment,  or  that  which  is  severe  and  sanguinary  must 
be  inflicted. 

The  executive  department  of  every  State  should  never  forget 
that  the  principle  of  self-preservation   requires    the  prompt   and 

Essays  of  Cincinnatus,  277 

faithful  execution  of  penal  laws,  and  that  the  certainty  of  execution 
should  seldom  be  impaired  by  pardons,  and  then  only  in  extraor- 
dinary cases — such  as  those  vvho  are  insane,  pregnant  women, 
and  those  who  had  witnesses  not  known  and  present  at  the  trial, 
who  could  prove  their  innocence.  Upon  these  principles  but 
few  pardons  would  be  granted,  and  the  law  would  be  executed 
with  such  certainty  as  would  afford  security  to  the  peaceable  and 
virtuous,  and  prove  a  terror  to  evil  doers. 

Pity  and  compassion  for  the  convicts,  and  their  families  and 
friends,  have  otien  beeii  the  sole  cause  of  granting  pardons. — 
Though  these  softer  and  tiner  feelings  are  honourable  to  the  man, 
they  are  blind  and  dangerous  guides  to  a  "public  officer,  who  is  re- 
quifid  to  txercise  his  authority  with  sound  discretion,  according 
to  the  principles  of  law,  of  reason,  and  of  strict  justice.  What  is 
mercy  to  the  convict,  is  cruelty  to  the  commaoity.  A  pardon  re- 
lenr^es  the  convict,  and  turns  him  loose  upon  society  to  commit 
new  crimes  and  make  further  depredation.  The  history  of  crim- 
inals proves,  that  the  principal  use  of  punishment  is  to  restrain 
the  criminal  whilst  coniined  from  committing  other  offences,  and 
to  deter  othars  from  evil.  Punishment  rarely  reforms  the  offen- 
der. In  New- York,  of  twenty  three  convicts  who  were  commit- 
mitted  to  the  state  prison  upon  second  and  third  convictions,  in 
the  year  1315,  twenty  of  them  had  been  previously  parc^oned  upon 
the  first  conviction. 

In  some  of  the  States,  particularly  in  the  one  last  mentioned, 
pardons  have  been  granted,  not  because  the  offenders  had  any 
claim  to  mercy,  but  because  the  state  prison  was  not  larg^  enough 
to  receive  the  new  convicts.  And  in  some  States,  offenders  have 
been  pardoned  upon  the  condition  they  would  leave  the  State. 
A  principle  too  narro-jj  and  selfish  tor  the  administration  of  jus- 
tice, and  the  security  of  the  country. 

Applications  and  petitions  from  many  respectable  men  who 
were  influenced  by  pity  and  compassion,  and  not  by  a  knowledge 
and  consideration  of  the  case,  have,  in  all  the  States,  had  an  undue 
influence  upon  the  executive,  and  too  often  induced  them  to  grant 
pardons  where  they  would  otherwise  have  retused  them.  But  few 
of  these  petitioners  consider  themselves  responsible  tor  the  truth 
of  their  statements,  and  none  of  them  unaccountable  for  the  pardon 
they  solicit  the  executive  do  grant.  Indeed,  instances  have  oc- 
curred where  men,  trorn  whom  we  had  no  reason  to  expect  such 
things,  have  been  induced  to  solicit  pardons  for  the  most  abandon- 
ed and  wicked  criminals — the  vilest  of  the  vile.  In  New- York 
we  are  informed  on  high  authority,  "  that  the  business  of  pro- 
curing pardons,  has  became  the  steady  and  profitable  employment 
of  many  individuals,  who  attempt  the  grossest  imposition  upon  the 
governor  "  It  would  not  be  an  improper,  or  uncharitable  rule, 
for  the  executive  to  receive  petitions  for  pardons  with  great  cau- 
tion and  much  distrust.  Indeed,  these  petition.?,  in  general,  merit 
censure  and  not  praise. 

278  Remarks  on  Longevity,' 

The  great  difficulty  of  ascertaining  the  facts  necessary  to  estab- 
lish the  propriety  of  granting  a  pardon,is  conclusive  evidence, 
that  where  pardons  are  numerous,  they  are  very  often  improper. 
The  number,  general  character,aBd  zeal  of  petitioners  is  not  suf- 
ficient. The  judgment  of  the  court  establishes  the  guilt  of  the 
convict,  and  their  records  import  absolute  verity.  Is  the  execu- 
tive to  try  the  cause  again,  and  review  the  judgment  of  the  high- 
est court  of  law,  and  that  without  the  aid  of  a  jury  ?  what  means 
have  they  of  doing  it  ?  The  petitioners  may  procure  ■willing 
witnesses  to  attend,  but  who  can  procure  those  against  the  crim- 
inal? The  convict,  or  his  friends,  may  procure  able  council  to 
argue  his  cause,  bat  who  has  authority  to  require  the  attendance 
and  argument  of  the  attorney  general  ?  In  some  States,  such  a 
course  of  proceeding  would  leave  the  governor  little,  if  any  time 
to  perform  the  most  important  duties  of  his  office  ;  and  in  the  eud 
be  attended  with  more  evil  than  good  to  the  community. 

The  only  safe  course  for  the  executive,  as  well  as  the  country 
is  to  grant  but  few  pardons,  and  those  only  in  extreme  cases. — 
There  are  some  crimes  of  such  an  atrocious  character,  inflict 
such  serious  injury  upon  society,  and  are  the  result,  not  of  a  sud- 
den impulse  of  passion,  but  of  deliberate  reflection,  and  of  such 
great  depravity  and  malignity  of  heart,  that  they  ought  never  to 
be  pardoned.  In  Great  Britain,yor^erj/  is  considered  an  unpardona- 
able  offence,  and  considering  the  extent  of  our  comerce,  and  the 
Tast  amount  of  our  bank  bills,  promissory  notes,  and  other  written 
contracts,  the  same  rule  might  with  propriety  be  adopted  in  this 

If  but  few  pardons  are  granted,  it  is  possible  an  innocent  man  may 
suffer  ;  but  where  pardons  are  numerous,  it  is  certain  the  commu- 
nity must  suffer.  Sound  policy  requires  us  to  avoid  a  course  that 
will  necessarily  produce  evil,  rather  than  that  which  is  only  possible. 


August  7th,  1824. 


Longevity  does  not  appear  to  be  restricted  to  any  par- 
ticular climate  ;  for  remarkable  instances  of  it  may  be 
produced,  both  from  very  hot  and  very  cold  countries,  though 
certainly,  they  appear  to  have  been  more  numerous  in  tem- 
perate climes.  It  is  highly  probable,  that  the  human  frame 
is  so  constituted,  as  to  adapt  itself  easily  to  the  atmosphere 
and  peculiarities  of  the  country,  in  which  it  receives  life,  or 
even  into  which  it  is  afterwards  removed.  Thus  France  and 
Sweden  are  countries,  differing  materially  in  soil  and  cli- 
mate :  the  general  mode  of  life  of  the  inhabitants,  is  like- 
wise very  different ;  yet  the  usual  rate  of  mortality  has  been 

Remarks  on  Longevity*  279 

found  nearly  the  same  in  both,  being  about  one  in  thirty-five 
per  annum.  Men  can  live  equally  well  under  very  different 
circumstances :  it  is  sudden  changes,  that  are  injurious  ;  and 
temperate  climates,  being  less  liable  to  such  changes,  are 
found  to  be  most  favorable  to  the  continuance  of  life.  There 
are,  however,  in  almost  every  situation,  particular  districts 
more  favorable  to  health  and  longevity,  than  others.  The 
cause  of  this  superiority  is  chiefly  a  free  circulation  of  the 
air,  uncontaminatcd  with  the  noxious  vapours  and  exhala- 
tions, which  destroy  its  purity  in  other  parts.  Thus  hilly 
districts  are  universally  found  more  healthy  than  low  and 
marshy  places. 

Of  145  persons  who  are  recorded  to  have  lived  to  the  age 
of  120  years  and  upwards,  more  than  half  were  inhabit- 
ants of  Great-Britain,  viz. 

63  of  England  and  Wales, 
23  of  Scotland, 

29  of  Ireland, 

30  of  other  countries. 

The  number  of  instances  in  Scotland,  compared  with  those 
of  England,  appears  to  have  been  more  than  twice  the  pro- 
portion of  the  population,  which  certainly  seems  to  shew  that 
the  climate  of  the  former  is  very  favorable  to  long  life. 

it  is  a  fact  pretty  well  established,  that  more  males  are  born 
than  females  ;  it  is  also  well  known,  that  in  almost  every 
form  which  animal  life  assumes,  the  male  appears  to  possess 
a  somewhat  superior  degree  of  bodily  strength  to  the  female. 
From  these  circumstances  it  might  be  expected  that  the  num- 
ber of  males  living  would  be  found  greater  than  that  of  fe- 
males, and  that,  in  general,  they  would  enjoy  a  greater  dura- 
tion of  life  :  the  contrary,  however,  has  been  asserted,  and 
evidence  produced  which  appeared  to  justify  such  an  opin- 
ion ;  but  it  seems  probable,  ihat  in  forming  the  accounts  from 
which  the  number  of  females  living  appeared  greater  than 
that  of  the  males,  sufficient  attention  was  not  paid  to  the 
number  of  males  engaged  chiefly  abroad  in  the  army  and 
navy,  and  of  the  emigrations  to  foreign  parts  being  chief- 
ly males.  And  that  the  apparent  deficiency  in  England 
arose  from  these  causes,  is  shewn  by  the  result  of  the  late 
enumeration  ;  in  which,  including  soldiers  and  seamen,  the 
totals  of  males  and  females  appeared  nearly  equal,  the  lat- 
ter exceeding  the  former  by  less  than  one  in  a  hundred  ;  a 
difference  that  may  be  easily  accounted  for  from  the  num- 
ber of  males  who  leave  England  for  the  East  and  West 
Indies,  and  other  foreign  parts.  In  America,  which  receives 
a  considerable  part  of  the  emigrants,  who  reduce  the  male 
population  of  the   European  states,  the  total  of  males  ap- 

280  Remarks  on  Longevity, 

pears  greater  than  that  of  the  females,  being  nearly  in  the 
proportion  of  one  hundred  males  Lo  ninety -six  females  :  so 
that  it  is  highly  probable,  if  correct  accounts  couid  be  had 
of  the  real  number  of  males  and  femah  s  belonging  to  any 
,  country,  they  would  be  found  nearly  equal  ;  and  the  great- 
er number  of  males  born  would  appear  a  provision  for  the 
greater  destruction  of  male  lives  by  war,  navigation,  and  va- 
rious casualties.  That  the  male  constitution  is  naturally  more 
durable  than  that  of  females,  may  be  inferred  from  the  pre- 
ceding account  of  145  persons  who  have  attained  unusual 
great  age,  more  than  two-thirds  "of  the  number  being  males ; 
but  the  greater  mortality  from  adventitious  causes,  which 
brings  the  numbers  of  each  sex  near  to  equality,  renders  the 
expectations  of  life  likewise  nearly  equal. 

Longevity  has  been  supposed  to  be  in  a  great  degree  he- 
reditary ;  and  as  weakness  and  disease  are  frequently  so,  it 
appears  very  probable  that  the  constitution  of  body,  and  dis- 
position of  mind  best  adapted  for  duration  may  prevail  much 
more  in  some  families,  than  others.  Dr.  Rush  says,  he  has 
not  found  a  single  instance  of  a  person  who  had  lived  to  be 
eighty  years  of  age  who  was  not  descended  from  long-lived 
-ancestors  ;  it  is  certain,  however,  there  have  been  in  this 
country  many  persons  who  have  exceeded  eighty  years, 
who  did  not  know  that  any  of  their  family  were  remarkable 
for  longevity.  The  form  of  the  individual  appears  of  more 
importance.  Moderate  siz<*d  and  well  proportioned  persons 
have  certainly  the  best  chance  of  longj  life.  There  arc,  how- 
ever, a  few  instances  of  persons  of  a  different  description 
having  attained  considerable  age.  Mary  Jones,  who  died 
in  1773,  alWem,  in  Shropshire,  agrd  100  years,  was  only 
tvvo  feet  eight  inches  high,  very  deformed  and  lame;  and 
James  M'Donald,  who  died  near  Cork,  20th  August,  1760, 
aged  117,  was  seven  feet  six  inches  high. 

Matrimony,  if  not  entered  into  too  early,  appears  to  be 
very  conducive  to  health  and  long  life,  the  proportion  of  un- 
married ladies  attaining  great  age,  being  r<^markahly  small. 
Dr.  Rush  says,  that  in  the  course  of  his  enquiries,  he  met 
with  only  one  person  b<^yond  eighty  years  of  age,  who  had 
never  been  marripd.  This  is  a  very  limited  remark  :  Mrs. 
Malton.  who  died  in  1733.  aged  105  ;  Ann  Kerney,  who  died 
the  same  year,  aged  110;  Martha  Dunridgp,  who  died  in 
1752,  in  the  100th  year  of  her  age  ;  and  Mrs.  Warren,  who 
died  in  1753,  aged  104,  had  never  been  married  ;  and  in  the 
list  prefixed  to  Sir  John  Sinclair's  Essay  on  longevity,  of  pen- 
sioners in  Greenwich  hospital  who  were  upwards  of  eighty 

Remarks  on  Longevity,  281 

years  old,  there  are  sixteen  who  were  never  married  :  the 
same  list,  however,  contains  five  times  as  many  persons 
who  had  been  married,  and  other  accounts  are  in  a  still  great' 
er  proportion. 

The  Chinese  erect  triumphal  or  honorary  arches  to  the 
memory  of  persons  who  have  lived  a  century,  thir.king,  that 
wit  out  a  sober  and  virtuous  liie,  it  is  impossible  to  attain  so 
great  an  age.  Temperance  is  certainly  the  best  security  of 
health  ;  and  no  man  can  reasonably  expect  to  live  long  who 
impairs  the  vital  powers  by  excess  which  converts  the  most 
natural  and  beneficial  enjoyments  into  the  most  certain  means 
of  destruction.  The  few  instances  of  individuals  who,  not- 
withstanding their  licentious  mode  of  life,  have  attained  con- 
siderable age,  cannot  be  put  in  comparison  with  the  immense 
number  whose  lives  have  been  materially  shortened  by  such 
indulgences.  Dr.  Fothergill  observes,  that  "  the  due  reg- 
ulation of  the  passions  perhaps  contributes  more  to  health 
and  longevity  than  any  of  the  other  non-naturals;"  and  the 
due  regulation  of  the  passions  constitutes  the  most  import- 
ant part,  if  it  is  not  the  very  essence,  of  a  virtuous  course  of 

The  cheerful  and  contented  are  certainly  more  likely  to 
enjoy  good  health  and  long  life,  than  persons  of  irritable 
and  fretful  dispositions  ;  therefore,  whatever  tends  to  pro- 
mote good  humor  and  innocent  hilarity,  must  have  a  benefi- 
cial influence  in  this  respect  ;  and  persons  whose  attention 
is  much  engaged  on  serious  subjects,  should  endeavor  to  pre- 
serve a  relish  for  cheerful  recreations. 

In  the  Boston  Centinel  of  the  7th  of  August,  we  find  the 
following  communication  on /am?'/i/  longevity,  to  which  we 
have  added  two  families  which  have  come  under  our  own  ob- 

"  An  account  of  the  extraordinary  longevity  of  the  family 
of  Peters^  has  recently  been  published  in  several  of  the  pa- 
pers.*    Of  this  account,  it  is  remarked,  that  it  "  is  an  instance 


It  is  believed  there  are  few  instances  of  family  longevity  so  extraordinary  as  that 
of  the  family  of  PETERS,  of  Medfield,  Mass.  of  which  the  following  is  an  accurate 
account : — 

William  Peter?,  (the  father)  died  about  the  year  1786  or  7— at  the  age  of  85  years. 
Hannah,  his  wife,  died  in        ...        .    1796,     aged        .         .      93    " 

Their  children  were 
Joseph  Peters,  died  Feb.  13,  ...    1800,        <»        .        .  71 

Benjamip  "  "  July, 

Mary  "  "  May, 

Adam         "  "  March, 

Eve  "  "  Dec.  1, 


1803,  "  .  .  72 

1813,  «'  .  .  81 

1813,  "  .  .  79 

1823,  "  .  .  87 


Remarks  on  Longevity, 

of  longevity  which  probably  has  never  been  equalled  in  this 
country."  Remarkable,  however,  as  that  case  is,  yet  it  will 
be  seen  by  the  following  notices,  that  it  has  been  surpassed 
in  several  instances. 

The  first  ot  the  following  accounts  is  extracted  from  Bel' 
knap^s  History  of  New-  Hampshire,  the  second  from  the  Mas- 
sachusetts Hiotorical  Collections ;  the  third  from  Dr.  Dwight^s 
Travels  ;  the  fourth  from  Xiles''  Register  j  the  fifth  from  the 
Nero- Hampshire  Historical  Collections  ;  the  sixth  from  the 
Transactions  of  the  Phil.  Soc.  at  Philadelphia. 

1.  Colone-1  James  Davis,  of  N.  H.  died  in  1749,  aged  88. 
He  had  9  children  of  the  following  ages. 

James,  .  .  .  .  .OS 








Phebe,  living  at  the  age  of 


Sum  of  their  ages,  .  «  764 

Average  age,  .  .  .  84  8-9 

2.  Enoch  Coffin,  Esq.  of  Edgartown,  died  in  1761,  aged 
83.     He  had  10  children  of  the  following  ages. 

Lovf*,  ....  88 









Tahpunis  "        "      Nov.  25,         .        .        .    1817, 
Andrew      "        "       Feb.  5,  .         .        .    1822, 

Nathan      "        "      Feb.  .        .        .    1824, 

Finis  "        "      Dec.  16,  .        .         .    1822, 

Jethro        "  (still  living)  born  June  13,  1744,  is  now 


955         * 
By  which  it  appears  that  the  average  age  of  the  ten  children  of  William  and  Han- 
nah Peters,  rather  exceeds  77  years  and  8  months — and  the  average  age  of  the  fam- 
ily (the  parents  included)  is  exactly  79  years  and  7  months. 

The  facts  were  furnished  by  the  venerable  Jethro  Peters,  the  only  surviving 
member  of  the  family,  who,  on  the  day  he  completed  his  80th  year,  travelled  osi 
foot  the  distance  of  13  miles. 

Remarks  on  Longevity, 


Beulah,  living  at  the  age  of 



Sum  of  their  ages,  .    ,  ,  816 

Average  age,  .  .  .        81  3-5 

3.  Deacon  David  Marsh,  of  Haverhill,  Mass.  died  in   his 
SOth  year;  his  wife  in  her  92d.     They  had  12  children. 
~ 84th  year. 

The  eldest  died  in  her 

The  second  in  her 

The  third  in  her 

The  second  son  in  his 

The  fifth  in  his 

The  Eldest  is  now  in  his     • 

The  third  in  his  . 

The  fourth  in  his 

The  sixth  in  his 

The  seventh  in  his 

The  fourth  daughter  in  her 

The  fifth  in  her  . 






8  2d 






Sum  of  their  ages,  .  .        940 

Average  age,  .  .  78  2-5 

4.  Dr.  H.  Martin,  died  at  Marblehead,  leaving  7  chil- 
dren, four  sons  and  three  daughters,  by  his  first  wife,  all  late- 
ly living,  at  the  following  ages  :  86,  87, 80,  76,  73,  71,  61. — 
Sum  of  their  ages  537 — average  76  5-7.  He  left  also  two 
other  children  by  a  second  wife,  age  53  and  51.  He  had 
besides  three  other  children,  one  of  whom  died  in  infancy, 
the  other  two  are  at  an  advanced  age. 

5.  Mary  Briggs  died  at  Wellington,  Mass.  in  1813,  aged 
102,  leaving  9  children,  aged  as  follows  :  79,  77,  73,  72,  70, 
68,  63,  60,  57.     Sum  of  their  ages  619 — average  68,  7-8. 

6.  Mr.  Temple,  of  the  County  of  Worcester,  Mass.  died 
in  176S,  aged  86.  He  left  8  children  4  sons  and  4  daugh- 
ters, all  living  in  1788,  at  the  following  ages  : — 89,  85,  83, 
81,  79,  77,  75,  73.     Sum  of  their  ages  644— average  80  1-2. 

The  average  age  of  the  10  children  of  the  Peters'  family 
was  77,  7-1 2.  But  with  regard  to  the  1st,  2d,  and  3d,  of  the 
above  families,  the  average  age  was  still  greater,  though  in 
the  third  instance,  7  out  of  the  12  children  were  living,  when 
the  account  was  written.  In  the  other  instances,  the  average 
was  given  for  persons  who  were  supposed  to  be  all  living. 

[  To  the  preceding  instances  of  Longevity,  we  take  the 
liberty  of  adding  the  family  of  Oliver  Farmer  of  Billerica, 

















334  Fecundil^. 

who  died  February  23,  1761,  aged  76.  His  wife  died  Feb- 
ruary 25,  1773,  in  her  77th  year.  They  had  nine  children 
who  attained  the  following  ages. 

years,     days. 

1.  Abigail  [Richardson]  died  Jan.  13,  1791,  aged   70    352 

2.  Mary  [Baldwin]  "     Sept.  25,   1803, 

3.  Sarah  [Jewett]  "     Dec.   8,    1819, 

4.  Betty  [n'ogers]        )  §.''     Sept.  17,  1805, 

5.  Rebecca  [Rogers]  \  S  "     Aug.  30,  1809, 

6.  Oliver  Farmer,  "     Feb.  24,  1814, 

7.  Isabella  [Warren]  "     Dec.  26,  1793, 

8.  Edward  Farmer,  "     Aug.    4,    1 804, 

9.  John  Farmer,  "     Jan.    9,    1806, 
Sum  of  their  ages  689  years,  27  days. 

Average  age  76     "     205     "      an   average  within 

a  year  as  great  as  that  of  the  Peters'  family. 

To  this  we  will  add  an  account,  published  in  the  Salem 
Gazette  of  1812,  of  a  family  of  eight  children  born  in 
Chelmsford,  who  were  all  living  at  the  conomencement  of 
that  year,  of  the  following  ages. 

1.  Ephraim  Warren,  born  Dec.  16,  1731, 

2.  John  Warren,  "  Sept.  14,  1733, 

3.  Esther  Warren,       "  April  27,  1735, 

4.  Isaac  Warren,  "  Jan.  30,  1737, 

5.  L'ydia  Richnrdson, "  Jan.    1,    1739, 

6.  Eiiz'ibethParkhurst,"  May  25,  1741, 

7.  Thomas  Warren,     "  April  5,    1743, 

8.  JosiahH\^rren         "  April  27,  1745, 
This  family,  excepting  Josiah   Warren,   now  in   his  80th 

year,  have  all  died  since  January,  1812,  and  the  most  of 
them  of  eighty  years,  or  upwards,  l^he  parents  of  the  pre- 
ceding averaged  about  80  years. — editors.] 

















(( ' 









FECUNDITY.  In  examining  the  records  of  the  town  of 
Billerica,  in  Massachusetts,  about  ten  years  since,  we  found 
recorded  the  names  of  twenty  six  families,  consisting  often 
children  each,  twenty  fvimilics  of  eleven  children  each,  twen- 
ty four  families  of  fw^/re  children  each,  thirteen  families  of 
f/irrfeen  each,  five  families  ofybitr/een  each,  one  family  offfteenj 
and  one  family  of  tieenty  one  children — total  ninety  families, 
consisting  of  one  thousand  and  forty  three  individuals.besides 
the  parents.  The  greatest  number  of  children  to  any  one 
family,  was  21,  and  these  were  by  two  wives.  Such  instan- 
ces of  extraordinary  fecundity  in  the  early  settlement  of  our 

Original  Letters.  285 

country  were  not  rare.  Dr.  Mather  mentions  "one  woman 
who  had  not  less  than  twenty  /zuo  children,  and  another  had 
no  less  than  twenty  three  children  by  one  husband,  whereof 
nineteen  lived  to  men's  and  woman's  estate,  and  a  third  who 
was  mother  to  seven  and  twenty  children."  The  mother  of 
Governor  Phipps  had  twenty-Jive  children  of  which  twenty- 
one  were  sons.  Rev.  John  Sherman,  the  first  minister  of 
Watertown  had  twenty-six  children  by  two  wives, — twenty 
by  his  last  wife.  Rev.  Samuel  Willard,  the  first  minister  of 
Groton,  and  afterwards  of  Boston,  and  Vice  President  of 
Harvard  college,  had  twenty  children.  Major  Simon  Wil- 
lard, his  father,  one  of  the  first  settlers  of  Concord,  had  a  fam- 
ily oi seventeen  children,  of  whom  nine  were  sons  and  all  at- 
tained mature  age  and  had  families. 


From  Col,  Scammell  to  Col.  Peabody. 

[For  a  biographical  notice  of  Col.  ScammelJ,  see  vol.  ii,  p.  166  of  these  Collec- 
tions. A  memoir  of  Col.  Peabody  was  published  in  the  January  No.  of  the  pres- 
ent year.] 

West-Point,  Sept.  29,  1779. 
[Extract.]  Does  Congress  mean  to  make  the  cfiicers 
any  permanent  consideration  ?  or  do  they  intend  to  coax 
them  on  by  doing  a  little  and  promising  them  a  great  deal, 
till  the  war  is  over,  and  then  leave  thtm  without  money, 
(consequently  without  friends) ;  without  estates,  and  many 
without  property  or  constitutions,  the  two  latter  of  which 
they  have  generously  sacrificed  in  defence  of  their  country. 
This  is  the  language  of  the  officers  almost  universally,  from 
all  the  states.  My  station  makes  it  my  duty  to  make  every 
thing  as  easy  and  quiet  as  possible.  But  I  shudder  at  the 
consequence<s,  as  I  am  convinced  that  in  the  approaching 
winter,  we  shall  lose  many  of  our  brave  officers,  who  must 
resign  or  doom  themselves  to  want  and  misery  by  remaining 
longer  in  the  best  of  causes,  and  which  in  justice  should  en- 
title them  to  liberal  considerations  and  rewards.  That  men 
who  have  braved  death,  famine,  and  every  species  of  hard- 
ship, in  defence  of  their  liberties  and  fighting  for  their  coun- 
try, should  thereby  be  reduced  to  slavery,  or  what  is  equal' 
ly  as  bad,  beggary,  will  be  an  eternal  stigma  upon  the  Unit- 
ed States,  and  prevent  proper  men  from  ever  stepping  forth 
in  defence  of  their  country  again. 

286  Original  Letters, 

The  bearer,  Mr.  Guild,  a  tutor  in  Harvard  College,  is  an 
honest,  clever,  sensible  whig ;  whatever  civility  you  shovr 
him  will  add  an  obligation  on  yours  truly, 


J^athaniel  Peabody^  Esq, 

From  Col.  Scammell  to  Col.  Peahody, 
Head-Quart*rs  Steenrapie,  near  Hackinsack  Old  Bridge,  Sept.  i,  1780. 

Dear  Sir — I  am  rxtremely  happy  to  have  occular  demon* 
3trati»n  thriit  you  are  well  enough  to  brandish  the  goose-quill 
again.  When  I  had  the  disagreeable  news  of  your  being 
dangerously  ill,  1  wished  to  ride  to  Morristown  to  see  you. 
I  attempted  to  write,  but  business  permitted  neither. 

The  army  regrets  the  recalling  decree  of  Congress,  and 
that  your  committee  should  be  absent  from  the  army  at  this 
critical  juncture,  when  famine  daily  extends  her  threatening 
baleful  sceptre.  What  will  be  the  consequence  of  the  pre- 
sent system  of  supplies?  Are  we  to  be  in  continual  danger 
of  a  dissolution?  Must  the  United  States  of  America,  re- 
plete with  the  sources — full  of  men,  rolling  in  luxuries — 
strong  in  allies — entered  on  the  scale  of  nations  under  a 
solemn  appeal  to  Heaven,  languish  in  the  field — her  vete- 
rans fainting,  her  officers  at  the  head  of  raw  troops,  obliged 
to  risque  their  lives  and  reputation  ;  with  troops  counting  the 
moments  in  painful  anxiety,  when  they  shall  return  home 
and  leave  us  with  scattered  ranks?  If  the  regiments  are  not 
filled  for  the  war,  our  cause  must  fail,  I  am  bold  to  pro- 
nounce. Not  a  continental  officer,  I  fear,  will  be  left  in  the 
field,  if  he  must  every  six  months,  become  a  drill  Serjeant. 
It  is  too  mortifying  to  risque  a  six  years'  repntation  with  in- 
experienced troops.  Our  good  and  great  General,  I  fear, 
will  sink  under  the  burthen,  though  he  has  been  posses- 
sed of  the  extremest  fortitude  hitherto,  which  has  enabled 
him  to  be  equal  to  every  difficulty,  and  to  surmount  what  to 
a  human  eye  appeared  impossible.  But  a  continual  drop- 
ping will  impress  a  stone,  and  a  bow  too  long  strained,  loses 
its  elasticity.  I  have  ever  cherished  hopes,  but  my  patience 
is  almost  thread-bare. 

We  yesterday  inclined  to  this  place,  and  took  a  new  posi- 
tion about  two  miles  from  our  former  one,  on  the  west  side 
of  the  Hackinsack.  Our  army  is  remarkably  healthy — but 
frequently  fasting  without  prayers.  1  condole  with  you  on 
the  disagreeable  news  from  the  southward,  and  lament  the 
fate  of  so  many  brave  officers  and  men.     After  suffering 

'  Original  Lttler^,  287 

the  extremes  of  hunger  and  fatigue,  to  be  basely  deserted  by 
the  militia,  and  pushed  on  to  be  sacrificed,  is  truly  distres- 
sing. Hunger  occasioned  so  great  desertion,  that  (heir  num- 
bers were  reduced  to  a  handful  in  comparison  with  their 
numbers  when  they  left  Maryland.  What  demon  could  in- 
duce General  G.  to  advance  so  far  towards  the  enemy 
with  so  few  men?  And  why  did  he  retreat  so  rapidly  and 
leave  his  brave  men  behind? 

Wishing  you  a  speedy  and  perfect  recovery  of  your 
health,  I  am  yours  truly, 


Col,  Peahody. 

From  Col.  Seammell  to  Col.  Peabody, 

Head  Quarteis,  October  3,  1780. 

Dear  Sir — Treason  !  Treason !  Treason  !  black  as  h — I ! 
That  a  man  so  high  on  the  list  of  fame  should  be  guilty  as 
Arnold,  must  be  attributed  not  only  to  original  sin,  but  actu- 
al transgressions.  Heavens  and  Earth!  we  were  all  aston- 
ishment, each  peeping  at  his  next  neighbor  to  see  if  any  trea- 
son was  hanging  about  him:  nay,  we  even  descended  to  a 
critical  examination  of  ourselves.  This  surprise  soon  set- 
tled down  into  a  fixed  detestation  and  abhorrence  of  Arnold, 
which  can  receive  no  addition.  His  treason  has  unmasked 
him  the  veriest  villain  of  centuries  past,  and  set  him  in  true 
colors.  His  conduct  and  sufferings  at  the  northward,  has  in 
the  eyes  of  the  army  and  his  country,  covered  a  series  of 
base,  grovelling,  dirty,  scandalous  and  rascally  peculation 
and  fraud ;  and  the  army  and  country,  ever  indulgent  and 
partial  to  an  officer  who  has  suffered  in  the  common  cause, 
wished  to  cover  his  faults :  and  we  were  even  afraid  to  ex- 
amine too  closely,  for  fear  of  discovering  some  of  his  ras- 
cality. Now  after  all  these  indulgencies,  the  partiality  of 
his  countrymen,  the  trust  and  confidence  the  commander 
in  chief  had  reposed  in  him,  the  prodigious  sums  that  he 
has  pilfered  from  his  country,  which  has  been  indulgent 
enough  to  overlook  his  mal-practices,  I  say,  after  all  this, 
it  is  impossible  to  paint  him  in  colors  sufficiently  black.  Av- 
arice, cursed  avarice,  with  unbounded  ambition,  void  of  ev- 
ery principle  of  honor,  honesty,  generosity  or  gratitude,  in- 
duced the  caitiff  to  make  the  first  overtures  to  the  enemy, 
as  Andre,  the  British  Adjutant  General  declared  upon  his 
honor,  when  on  trial  before  the  general  officers.  This  brave» 
accomplished  officer,  was  yesterday  hanged ;  not  a  singh' 

288  '  Original  Letters, 

spectator  but  what  pitied  his  untimely  fate,  although  filled 
with  gratitude  for  the  providential  discovery ;  convinced  that 
his  sentence  was  just,  and  that  the  law  of  nations  and  cus- 
tom of  war  justified  and  rendered  it  necessary.  Yet  his 
personal  accomplishments,  appearance  and  behaviour,  gain- 
ed him  the  good  wishes  and  opinion  of  every  person  who 
saw  him.  He  was,  perhaps,  the  most  accomplished  officer 
of  the  age — he  met  his  fate  in  a  manner  which  did  honor  to 
the  character  of  a  soldier.  Smith,  the  man  who  harbored 
him,  is  under  trial  for  his  life,  and  I  believe  will  suffer  the 
same  fate.  May  Arnold's  life  be  protracted  under  all  the 
keenest  stings  and  reflections  of  a  guilty  conscience — be 
hated  and  abhorred  by  all  the  race  of  mankind,  and  finally 
suffer  the  excruciating  tortures  due  to  so  great  a  traitor. 

I  am,  in  haste,  yoar  friend  and  servant, 


Col,  Ptahody. 

From  Col.  Scammell  to  Col.  PtahoSy, 

New-Windsor,  March  9th,  1781. 

Dear  Sir — I  was  very  sorry  to  hear  you  passed  by  with- 
out calling  upon  me.  I  hope  before  this,  you  have  perfect- 
ly recovered  your  health.  Your  friendship  and  anxiety  for 
the  good  of  the  service,  will  perhaps  make  any  intelligence 
from  us  by  no  means  disagreeable.  Now  we  have  got  a 
tolerable  supply  of  provisions,  we  want  men ;  no  recruits 
have  arrived  yet,  except  a  few  stragglers.  The  enemy  are 
penetrating  into  the  southern  states  in  several  parts,  ravag- 
ing, plundering  and  drstrojang  every  thing  their  licentious, 
unprincipled  murtherers  choose.  Lord  Cornwallis,  after 
Morgan's  victory,  having  divested  himself  of  all  his  baggage, 
made  a  most  desperate  pursuit  after  Morgan,  but  was  provi- 
dentially stopped  short  in  his  pursuit  by  the  sudden  rising 
of  a  river,  occasioned  by  a  heavy  rain  after  Morgan  had 
forded  it.  Cornwallis  then  changed  his  route,  and  pursued 
Gen.  Greene,  who  was  obliged  to  retire  before  him,  to  the 
borders  of  Virginia,  nearly  two  hundred  miles.  The  rapid- 
ity of  the  pursuit,  and  retrogade  movement  of  our  southern 
army,  I  believe,  prevented  the  militia  of  that  thinly  settled 
country,  from  reinforcing  Gen.  Greene  seasonably.  Howev- 
er, by  the  advices  this  day  received.  Lord  Cornwallis  was 
retiring,  and  Gen.  Greene,  in  turn,  pursuing  him.  A  pretty 
Feinforcement  is  sent  from  Virginia  to  General  Greene 
which,  I  hope,    may  arrive  in    season    to  enable    Gen. 

Original  Letters.  SS"? 

Oreene  to  act  offensively,  unless  Cornwallis  is  reinforced 
again.  Arnold  is  speculating  upon  Tobacco  and  Negroes,  in 
Virginia.  Another  part  of  the  enemy  has  landed  in  North 
Carolina.  The  Marquis  had,  by  our  last  advice,  arrived 
at  the  head  of  Elk,  with  the  light  infantry  of  our  ar- 
my. The  grenadiers  and  light  infantry  of  the  French  ar- 
my, I  expect  by  this  time,  have  joined  hira.  I  most  devout- 
ly wish,  that  the  Marquis  may  ruin  the  traitor,  and  catch  his 
party.  We  have  been  obliged  to  put  much  to  the  risk,  on 
account  of  the  present  weakness  of  our  corps.  1  hope  for 
success — but  it  is  wrong,  exceeding  wrong,  that  the  com- 
mander in  chief  should  be  put  to  the  dangerous  necessity  of 
putting  so  much  to  the  hazard  for  the  safety  of  the  southern 
states.  Had  our  regiments  been  filled  agreeable  to  the  re- 
quisitions of  congress,  Clinton  would  never  have  presumed 
to  make  such  large  detachments  from  New-York.  I  intreat 
you  to  make  use  of  your  utmost  influence  to  persuade  the 
state  to  raise  and  send  on  their  full  complement  of  recruits 
as  soon  as  possible ;  our  situation,  otherwise,  will  soon  be- 
come very  critical. 

I  am.  Sir,  your  most  obedient  friend  and  servant, 


Col,  Peabody, 

Original  Letter  of  Joseph  Woodbridge,  son  of  Rev.  John    Wood- 
bridge,  the  first  Minister  of  Andoxer,  Mass. 

Gentlemen, — I  thought  to  have  waited  upon  you  myself 
this  your  meeting,  but  having  such  illness  in  my  family,  that 
I  cannot  leave  them  now,  I  have  lately  writ  to  your  com- 
mittee that  are  to  appoint  and  settle  the  common  rights  in  the 
town  of  Andover  in  reference  to  my  Father  John  Wood- 
bridge  his  right,  &c. 

Gentlemen,  you  know  that  my  father  purchased  the  whole 
town  of  Andover,  of  Cushamache.,  the  Sagamore  of  the  Mas- 
sachusetts, in  behalf  of  the  inhabitants  of  Cochichawick,* 
which  were  then  but  nineteen  in  number,  besides  women  and 
children.  My  father  was  then  an  inhabitant  of  Andover,and 
then  had  a  wife  and  four  or  five  children,  and  managed  the 
affairs  of  said  town,  besides  carrying  out  a  considerable  es- 
tate, and  encouraging  of  people  to  settle  there,  a  considera- 
ble time  before  Mr.  Bradstreet  was  an  inhabitant  there.     I 

*The  Indian  name  of  Andover. 

2!)0  Miscdlanies. 

am  sensible  that  most  of  the  old  standards  are  dead  and  gone 
in  Andover,  as  well  as  in  Newbury,  and  those  inhabitants 
that  are  upon  the  stage  now,  know  but  little  of  the  set- 
tlers of  the  town,  so  I  would  have  this  distinctly  read  and 
considered  by  my  loving  friends  and  neighbours,  and  judge 
with  themselves  whether  my  father  had  not  an  honest  and 
lawful  right  thereto,  and  whether  he  ought  not  in  justice  and 
equity  have  as  good  common  right,  as  any  now  living  in  An- 
dover. If  I  had  lime  I  would  ask  how  you  had  come  by 
your  right,  for  my  father  nor  any  of  his  children  ever  dispo- 
sed of  any  of  what  he  bought  of  Cushamache,  and  until  you 
have  a  quit  claim  from  him,  how  can  you  proceed?  I  should 
be  glad  to  hear  from  you  in  some  convenient  time. 
Gentlemen,  your  humble  servant, 

Newbury,  May  14th,  1714. 

October 24th,  1645.  The  Rev.  Mr.  John  Woodbridge, 
was  ordained  by  Mr.  Wilson  and  Mr.  Worcester,  Teacher 
of  the  church  of  Andover. 

The  names  ot  the  Members  of  the  church  then. 
John  Wood  bridge.  Teacher,         John  Osgood, 
Robert  Barnard,  John  Frye, 

Nicholas  Holt,  Richard  Barker, 

Joseph  Parker,  Nathan  Parker, 

Richard  Blake,  Edmund  Faulkner. 


[We  have  been  lately  furnished  by  a  gentleman  of  MaS' 
sachusetts,  with  a  number  of  interleaved  Almanacks  pub- 
lished in  Cambridge,  soon  after  the  art  of  printing  was  in- 
troduced into  this  country.  Among  them  is  one  for  1650, 
by  Urian  O^kes,  afterwards  President  of  Harvard  College, 
having  the  well  known  motto,  Parvum  parva  decent :  sed  iirir 
est  sua  gratia  parvis,  and  several  by  Rev.  Samuel  Danforth, 
of  Harvard  College,  Philo-mathemat.,  afterwards  a  distin- 
guished minister  in  Roxbury.  From  those  of  the  latter,  we 
have  selected  ihe  following  interesting  Chronological  table, 
which  is  very  particular  as  to  the  exact  dates  of  several 



important  events  in  the  early  settlement  of  Massachusetts. 
It  will  be  recollected  that  the  year  began  in  March,  and  the 
months  are  numbered  accordingly. — Editors.] 


of  some  few  memorable  things,  which  happened  since  the 
f,rst  planting  of  Massachusetts. 


















1642   4 

The  Governour  and  Assistants  arrived  at  Salem,  bringing  with  them 
the  Patent,  and  therewith  the  Government  transferred  hither. 

The  first  ordination  of  an  Elder  [viz.  Mr.  Wilson]  in  the  Massachu- 
setts Bay. 

The  first  Magiitrate  that  dyed  in  Massachusetts  was  Isaac  Johnson, 
Esquire,  a  right  Nathaniel,  a  gentleman  of  singular  piety  and  synceri- 

The  first  and  most  seasonable  supply  of  provisions  from  England,  by 
Mr.  William  Pierce  in  the  ship  Lion. 

The  first  visit  which  the  Narraganset  Sachem  Miantonimoh  gave  to 
the  Governour  at  Boston. 

The  first  Pirate  from  Massachusetts  was  one  Dixy  Bull,  who  with 
15  his  consorts  robbed  Pemaquid,  and  so  vanished. 

The  first  winter  hazzard  of  the  Magistrates  and  Elders,  was  at  Nan- 
tascut,  where  they  were  frozen  up  2  dayes  and  2  nights,  ill  provided  of 
all  sustenance. 

The  first  great  mortality  amongst  the  Indians  by  the  small  pox, 
whereof  Chickatabut  Sachem  of  Naponset  and  John  and  James,  Saga- 
mores dyed. 

The  first  Pastor  that  dyed  here,  was  Mr.  Samuel  Skellon  Pastor  to 
the  Church  at  Salem,  a  faithful  minister  of  Jesus  Christ. 

The  first  Generail  Court  at  Cambridge. 

The  first  Plantation  at  Connecticut. 

The  first  Hiracane  whereby  many  lOOds  of  trees  were  ttirowije 
downe,  but  not  one  house  thatlheare  of. 

The  first  expedition  against  the  Block  Ilanders  or  Pequots  under  the 
command  of  Mr.  Endicot. 

The  first  treaty  and  peace  concluded  with  Miantonimoh. 

The  first  Synod  at  Cambridge. 

The  first  Military  Company  framed  at  Boston, 

The  first  visit  Osamekins  gave  the  Governour- 

The  first  great  and  general  Earthquake. 

The  first  visit  of  Uncas  the  Monhegin  Sacherrt  gave  at  Cambridge. 

The  first  printing  at  Cambridge. 

The  first  rfiscoveryef  the  great  mountaine  (called  the  Chrystall  Hills) 
to  the  N.  W.  by  Darby  Field.* 

[*  The  following  is  the  account  given  by  Hubbard  of  the  discovery  of  the  White 
Mountains  by  Darby  ¥ie\A.—Hist.  JV.  E. 

"  In  the  same  year,  1642,  one  Darbyfield,  an  Irishman,  with  some  others,  trav- 
elled to  an  high  Mountain,  called  the  White  Hills ,  an  hundred  miles,  or  near  upon 
to  the  west  of  Saco.  It  is  the  highest  hill  in  these  parts  of  America.  They  vass- 
ed  through  many  of  the  lower  and  rainy  clouds  as  they  ascended  up  to  the  top 
thereof,  but  some  that  were  there  afterwards,  saw  clouds  above  them.  There  is  a 
plain  sixty  feet  square  on  the  top,  a  very  steep  precipice  on  the  west  side,  and  all 
the  country  round  about  them  seemed  like  a  level,  and  much  beneath  them.  There 
was  a  great  expectation  of  some  precious  things  to  be  found,  either  on  the  top  or  in 
the  ascent,  by  the  glistering  of  some  white  stones.    Something  was  found  like  cry?- 




1644    1 




The  first  Indian  that  held  forth  a  clear  work  of  conversion  to  chris-" 
tianity,  was  Wequash  of  Saybrook. 

The  first  uniting  of  the  4  English  Colonies. 

The  first  time  the  Indian  Sachems  submitted  themselves  and  their 
people  to  the  English, 
viz    Puraham  and  Sacononocho. 

Cutchamakin,  Mascanomet,  Squaw  Sachem. 

Wassamegen,  Nailiawanon. 

Passaconoway  and  his  Sonnes. 

The  first  yeare  wherein  the  severall  colonies  agreed  freely  to  con- 
tribute to  the  furtherance  of  learning.  • 

The  first  time  wherein  through  the  tender  mercy  of  God,  the  Gospell 
was  preached  to  the  Indians  in  their  owne  language,  by  Mr  /.  JE. 
[Rev.  John  Eliot,  ]  teacher  of  4he  Church  at  Roxbury,  whereby  much 
illumination  and  sweet  affection  was  in  a  s  lort  time  wrought  in  diverse 
of  them  and  hopeful  reformation  begun,  in  abandoning  idleness,  filthy- 
ness  and  other  known  sinnes,  and  in  offering  up  themselves  and  their 
children  to  the  English  freely  and  gladly,  that  they  might  be  better  in- 
structed in  the  things  of  God. 

The  first  Indian  towne  given  by  the  Generall  Courte  to  the  Indians 
within  the  bounds  of  Cambridge,  called  Nonauntum,  that  is  to  say,  joy 
or  gladr^ess. 

The  lime  when  these  townes  following  began. 

1628  Salem 

1629  Charls-town 

1630  Dorchester 

1631  Cambridge 

1631  Marble-Head 

1633  Ipswitch 

1634  Newbury 

1635  Dedham 

1638  Hampton 

1639  Rowley 

1639  Gloucester 

1640  Woburn 

1641  Haverhill 

[The  Editors  have  recpntly  been  furnished  with  a  file  of  the 
"  Boston  Gazette^  or  Weekly  Journal,''^  for  1746-1748,  from 
which  they  make  the  following  extracts,  relating  to  the  In- 
dian hostilities  during  that  period,  in  this  quarter  of  the 

Extract  of  a  letter  from  Upper- Ashutlol,  \Keene'\  dated 
April  23,  1746. 

This  morning  an  army  of  our  northern  enemy  beset  us, 
and  fell  upon  some  as  they  were  going  a  small  distance  from 
the  Fort,  fired  upon  them,  and  followed  them  up  even  to 
the  very  walls,  though  faced  and  fired  upon  by  some  who 

tal,but  nothing  of  value.  It  appeared  to  them  that  made  the  most  diligent  observa- 
tions of  the  country  round  about,  that  many  great  rivers  of  New- England  rise  out 
of  that  mountain  as  Saco  and  Kennebeck,  to  the  north  and  east,  Conpecticut,  to 
the  south,  as  they  conceived ;  as  cosmographers  observe  that  four  great  rivers  arise 
out  of  the  mountains  of  Helvetia,  accounted  the  highest  land  in  Europe.  In  each 
of  these  rivers,  they  report  at  the  first  issue,  there  is  water  enough  to  drive  a  mill."} 

Miscellanies.  293 

were  at  the  gate,  and  plied  so  warmly,  both  by  soldiers  and 
inhabitants,  that  they  soon  bore  off.  They  shot  John  Bul- 
lard,  who  in  a  tew  hours  expired,  and  killed  an  aged  woman, 
the  wife  of  Daniel  M'^Kenney  ;  and  Xathan  Blake,  one  of  our 
inhabitants,  being  out,  is  not  since  been  heard  of,  whom  we 
surpose  to  be  taken  or  killed.  They  killed  several  of  our 
creatures,  and  fired  six  of  our  houses  and  one  barn,  (in 
"which  for  want  of  room  in  the  Fort)  there  was  considerable 
of  treasure  and  provisions  ;  and  we  being  but  few,  and  our 
enemy  so  numerous,  and  so  far  distant  from  any  help,  the 
time  appears  exceeding  gloomy  and  distressing. 

We  hear  from  No.  4  [Charlestown]  a  new  township  to 
the  westward,  that  three  men,  with  a  team  of  four  oxen,  hav- 
ing been  at  a  saw  mill  to  fetch  boards,  were  surprised  b}'^  a 
party  of  Indians,  and  the  men  being  missing,  are  supposed 
to  be  either  killed  or  made  prisoners,  the  oxen  being  found 
dead,  with  their  tongues  cut  out. 

We  likewise  hear,  that  the  Indians  have  lately  surprised  a 
garrison  house*  in  New-Hopkinton,  and  carried  away  captives 
two  men,  one  woman,  and  five  children. 

Boston,  May  13,  1746. 

Last  week  came  advice,  that  on  the  fourth  instant  one  Mr. 
Cook,  and  a  negro  man,  were,  killed  by  the  Indians,  at  a 
plantation  cnlh^d  Contoocook,  [Boscawen]  and  Mr.  Jones  of 
the  same  place  being  missing,  it  was  supposed  he  was  carried 
away  captive. 

About  the  same  time,  a  man  was  killed  near  Lunenburgh, 
and  scalped,  and  his  horse's  head  not  omy  cut  off,  but  carri- 
ed away.  The  man  had  in  his  pocket  five  hundred  pounds 
(Old  Tenor)  in  new  bills  of  credit  on  this  province,  which  he 
was  going  to  pay  to  some  soldiers  in  the  publick  service,  but 
the  Indians  carried  off  the  money,  and  the  man's  stockins:s. 

And  last  Friday  was  7  Night,  a  man  was  killed  at  No.  4 
[near  Hatfield]  of  the  Narraganset  towns,  by  a  party  of  In- 
dians who  had  hid  themselves  in  a  barn.  They  were  fired 
upon  by  some  of  our  men  who  happened  to  be  at  hand,  and 
it  is  thought  one  of  them  was  killed,  he  being  seen  to  fall, 
and  his  hatchet  and  blanket  being  found  upon  the  spot. 

Boston,  May  20,  1 746. 
We  have  advice  by  a  vessel  arrived  from  the    eastward, 
that  the  Indians  have  lately  killed  two  men  and  taken  anoth- 
er prisoner,  and  that  29  Indian  canoes  had  been  seen  to  pas? 
by  George's  Fort, 

254  Miscellanies. 

Boston,  June  24,  1746. 
On  Tuesday  last,  arrived  here  Capt.  Saunders,  in  the 
country  sloop,  from  the  eastward,  and  brings  advice  from  St. 
Gcorge''s,  that  about  a  fortnight  ago  13  of  the  soldiers  be- 
longing to  the  garrison  there,  being  at  some  small  distance 
from  the  Fort,  a  rivulet  running  between,  divided  into  two 
parties,  one  of  the  parties  consisting  of  five  men,  carelessly 
lay  down  their  guns,  and  strolled  a  little  way  from  them  ; 
about  7  or  S  of  the  enemy  Indians,  which  were  skulking 
about,  perceiving  it,  intercepted  and  got  between  them  and 
their  arms,  which  they  seized,  and  firing  upon  them  killed 
one  of  them  named  Timothy  Cummings,  wounded  another, 
and  carried  another  off,  the  rest  escaped  under  the  fire  of 
the  garrison,  the  other  party  retreated  as  fast  as  they  could, 
and  all  soon  got  to  the  garrison,  except  an  old  man,  who 
could  walk  IduI  slowly.  One  of  the  Savages  seeing  him, 
came  up  so  near  as  to  lift  up  his  hatchet  in  order  to  dispatch 
him  at  once,  but  the  man  having  his  gun  charged,  turned 
about  and  presenting  it,  shot  the  Indian  dead  upon  the  spot, 
and  being  within  the  reach  of  the  guns  at  the  Fort,  which 
kept  off  the  other  Indians  from  molesting  him,  he  stayed  and 
scalped  him  ;  and  we  hear  the  scalp  is  brought  to  town. 

We  are  informed  that  Thursday  was  7  night,  about  100 
of  the  Indian  enemy  assaulted  10  men,  who  were  at  work 
within  sight  of  Fort  Massachusetts,  at  Hoosuck,  in  the  coun- 
ty of  Hampshire,  and  killed  Elisha  Nims,  and  a  soldier  who 
wont  from  Marlb(>rough,  wounded  Gershom  Kawks  in  the 
arm,  one  Perry  escajped  and  went  to  Fort  Pelham ;  the  other 
men  with  great  resolution  fought  their  way  to  the  fort,  some 
firing  5  or  6  times  on  the  enemy  ;  one  of  the  Indians  was  shot 
dead  not  far  from  the  Fort.  The  enemy  being  so  much  Su- 
perior to  the  number  of  men  in  the  Fort,  lying  round  them 
till  the  evening,  they  could  not  go  forth  to  scalp  the  Indian 
that  was  killed. 

Boston,  July  1,  1746. 
We  hear  that  on  Thursday  the  19th  instant,  at  a  plantation 
called  No.  4,  Capt.  Stevens,  of  the  garrison  there,  and  Capt. 
Brown,  from  Sudbury,  with  about  60  m.en,  went  out  into  the 
woods  to  look  for  horses ;  and  coming;  near  a  causeway  they 
were  obliged  to  pass,  their  dogs  being  on  the  hunt  before 
them,  and  barking  very  much,  they  suspected  some  Indians 
were  near;  whereupon,  keeping  a  good  look  out,  they  dis- 
covered a  great  number  of  them,  supposed  to  be  a  hundred 
and  fifty,  lying  in  ambush,  waiting  for  them  on  the  other  side ; 
so  that  if  they   had  passed  over,  in  all  probability,  most  of 

Miscellanies,  295 

them  might  have  been  cut  off.  The  Indians,  upon  finding 
themselves  discovered,  suddenly  started  up,  and  a  smart  en- 
gagement immediately  ensued,  in  which  it  is  supposed,  the 
English  fired  first,  and  engaged  them  so  closely  and  briskly 
that  they  soon  drew  off,  and  being  followed  by  our  men,  re- 
treated into  a  large  swamp  ;  whereupon  the  English  return- 
ed to  (he  garrison,  not  caring  to  venture  after  such  numbers 
into  so  hazardous  a  place. 

Boston,  April  21,  1747. 

We  have  advice  from  the  eastward,  that  last  Tuesday  the 
Indians  killed  a  man  at  Black  Point,  and  on  Wednesday, 
about  one  o'clock,  they  killed  two  persons,  Mr.  Elliot  and 
his  son  at  Saco,  and  at  the  same  time  took  prisoner  one  John 
Murch,  who  was  in  company  with  them  not  far  from  the 

We  also  hear,  that  about  the  same  time,  one  man  was  kill- 
ed and  another  taken  prisoner  within  the  bounds  of  Fal- 
mouth ;  and  by  an  express  from  the  westward  we  have  ad- 
vice, that  two  men  have  lately  been  killed  at  Northfield. 

BiLLERICA,    IN   1680. 

'*  To  the  Hon.  Court  sitting  at  Cambridge^  March  31, 1680. 

In  observance  of  a  warrant  from  ye  Hon'd.  Deputy  Gov'r 
baring  date,  the  30th.  10m.  1679,  our  answer  is  as  follow- 

As  to  a  list  of  the  number  of  males  and  rateable  estates  in 
our  towne,  wee  have  sent  ye  list  that  was  taken  last  August, 
and  returned  from  the  commissioner's  meeting. 

As  to  the  number  of  families,  there  is  about  fivety  that  are 
able  to  bear  up  publick  charges.  There  is  more  of  the  aged 
that  are  helpless  ;  the  widowes,  and  poor  persons  that  want 
reliefe,  ten  in  number,  which  is  all. 

As  to  ye  annuall  alowance  to  our  reverend  Paster,  our  a- 
greement  is  seventy  pound  P^-  ann.  in  country  pay. 

As  for  schooles,  wee  have  no  gramer  schooles.  Ensign 
Tempson  is  appointed  to  teach  those  to  read  and  write  that 
will  come  to  him ;  also  severall  women,  schoole  Dames.  As 
for  tiething  men,  we  have  five  in  number. 

Theire  names  are  George  Farley,  Simon  Crosby,  John 
Shelden,  Joseph  Walker  and  Samuel  Manning ;  and  all 
sworne  to  the  faithful  discharge  of  theire  service  according 
to  law. 

296  Miscellanies, 

As  for  young  persons  and  inmates,  we  know  of  none  a- 
mong  us  but  are  orderly." 

By  order  of  the  Selectmen, 


After  tke  celebrated  Samuel  Johnson,  D.  D.  first  Presi- 
dent of  King's  (now  Columbia)  College,  N.  Y.  had  resigned 
his  charge  of  a  Congregational  Church,  in  Connecticut,  where 
he  had  been  settled,  and  had  laken  orders  in  the  Church  of 
England,  he  became  acquainted  with  Dr.  Franklin.  A  fre- 
quent correspondence  between  them  ensued,  in  which  Dr. 
Franklin  strongly  urged  him  to  remove  to  the  city  of  Phila- 
delphia and  accept  the  Presidency  of  a  College,  which 
Dr.  F.  was  engas;rd  in  founding  in  that  city.  [About  the 
year  1752.]  Dr.  F.,  as  an  additional  inducement  for  Dr. 
J.'s  removal  to  Philadelphia,  had  proposed  to  get  a  new 
church  erected  for  him.  Upon  Dr.  Johnson's  expressing 
some  doubts  as  to  the  propriety  of  this  measure,  Franklin 
endeavoured  to  remove  the  difficulty  by  some  arguments  so 
strongly  characteristic  of  the  man,  that  as  the  letter  has  nev- 
er been  published  in  any  edition  of  his  works,  we  cannot 
refrain  from  extracting  a  part :  "  Your  tenderness  of  the 
Church's  peace  is  truly  laudable;  but  methinks,  to  build  a 
new  church  in  a  growing  place,  is  not  properly  dividing,  but 
mnlliplying,  and  will  really  be  a  means  of  increasing  those 
who  worship  God  in  that  way.  Many  who  cannot  now  be 
accommodated  in  the  church,  go  to  other  places,  or  stay 
at  home,  would  go  to  church.  I  had  for  several  years 
nailed  against  the  wall  of  my  house  a  pigeon-box  that  would 
hold  six  pair,  and  though  they  bred  as  fast  as  my  neighbors' 
pigeons,  I  never  had  more  than  six  pair;  the  old  and  strong 
driving  out  the  young  and  weak,  and  obliging  them  to  seek 
new  habitations.  At  length  I  put  up  an  additional  box,  with 
apartments  for  entertaining  twelve  pair  more,  and  it  was  soon 
filled  with  inhabitants,  by  (he  ovei^ovvine;  of  my  first  box, 
and  of  others  in  the  neighborhood.  This  I  take  to  be  a 
parallel  case  with  building  a  new  Church  here." 

Marriage. — A  husband  and  wife,  who  love  and  value  each  oth- 
er, shew  their  children  and  servants  how  they  should  behave. 
Those  who  live  in  contention  and  despise  each  other,  ^-se  muck 
of  their  authority,  and  teach  their  children  to  act  uuuaturally. 

OCTOBER,  1824. 


Topographicnl  Sketch  of  Salisbury,  J^tw- Hampshire, 
This  town  is  pleasantly  situated  on  the  western  banks  of 
the  Pemigewassct  and  Merrimack  rivers,  15  miles  north  of 
Concord,  bounded  east  by  said  rivers,  south  by  Boscawen, 
j,)orth  by  Andover,  west  by  a  tract  of  land  called  Kearsarge 
Gore,  lately  annexed  to  Warner.  The  town  is  4  miles  wide 
from  N.  to  S. ;  9  miles  from  E.  to  W.  A  short  turn  in  the 
river  Merrimack  to  the  east  forms  a  fine  tract  of  fertile  in- 
terval in  the  S.  E.  corner  of  Salisbury.  This  tract  consists 
of  about  300  acres,  and  appears  to  be  an  alluvion  of  the 
Merrimack.  Here  are  several  farms  as  pleasant,  produc- 
tive and  valuable  as  any  in  town. 

The  original  growth  of  wood  on  the  land  adjacent  to  the 
rivers  was  pitch,  Norway  and  white  pines,  white,  black  and 
yellow  oaks.  The  most  valuable  trees  liave  been  cut  for 
building,  and  for  ship-timber.  From  the  interval  and  pine 
lands  on  the  Merrimack,  there  is  a  gradual  ascent  to  the 
uplands,  which  afford  a  pleasing  variety  of  hill  and  dale, 
till  you  arrive  at  the  valley  of  Blackwater  river.  The  hilly- 
lands,  in  their  natural  state,  were  covered  with  a  heavy 
growth  of  the  sugar  maple,  white  maple,  beech,  birch,  elm, 
ash  and  red  oaks  ;  the  valleys  were  interspersed  with  ever- 
greens. Wood,  though  plentiful,  has  already  been  wasted 
too  profusely.  Farmers  should  speedily  adopt  measures  to 
preserve  and  promote  its  growth,  for  its  utility  and  beauty, 
and  the  comfortable  shelter  it  affords  from  the  chilling 
blasts  of  the  northwest  winds. 

This  is  quite  an  agricultural  town.     The  soil  of  the  up« 

land  is  strong,  deep  and  loamy,  on  a  substratum  called  pan. 

When  well  cultivated,  it  is  productive  of  Indian  corn,  oats, 

peas,  beans,  flax,  rye  and  potatoes  j  and  in  some  seasons 


J298  Topographical  Sketch  of  Salisbury » 

good  crops  of  wheat  Imve  been  produced.  The  farmers 
send  annually  to  mm-ket  considerable  quantities  of  .'m  efj 
pork,  rauiton,  butter  and  cheese. 

The  hilly  land  alfards  some  fine  tracts  for  tillage,  but 
chii  fly  abounds  in  excellent  pasturage  for  shet  p,  horses  and 
cattle, — the  valleys  are  [x-oduciivc  of  gra>-s.  The  boggy 
and  low  lands  are  in  a  graluU  stale  of  improvement,  and 
promise  great  bcncfii  to  the  farmtr  in  the  artiele  of  fodder. 
Oh  Blackwatf^r  river,  ihr-re  is  sonic  very  fertile  inter- 
val, which,  with  the  adjact-nt  hilly  land,  compose  sc^verai 
very  valu.^ole  and  productive  farms.  From  this  interval 
there  is  a  rapid  ascent  to  the  assemblage  of  hills  which  form 
the  basis  of  Kearsarge  mountain.  These  lands  have  been 
extensively  Cleared  of  thrir  heavy  growth  of  wood,  and  con- 
verted to  most  excellent  pasture  grounds,  where  numerous 
herds  of  sheep  and  neat  cattle  graze  every  season  ;  many 
of  the  cattle  arc  driven  50  or  60  miios  to  these  pastures. 
These  lands  several  years  az^  were  considered  of  little 
value,  and  sold  very  cheap.  The  farmers,  who  own  thcnl 
at  present,  appreciate  their  value,  and  esteem  them  more 
productive  in  neat  profit,  in  proportion  to  the  expenses  in- 
curred, than  any  other  portion  of  their  farms. 

In  this  town  there  are  three  considerable  villages,  called 
the  South  R'lnd,  the  Centre  Road,  and  Pemigevmsset^  or  East 
Village.  The  sou'h  road  village  is  pleasantly  situated  on 
the  souih  road  running  from  cast  to  west  through  the  town, 
and  also  on  the  Fourth  N.  H.  Turnpike  road,  leading  to 
Hanover.  This  is  also  on  the  northern  mail  route  from 
Boston  to  Burlington,  Vt.  In  this  village  there  are  about 
thirty  dwelling  houses;  one  Congregational  meetinghouse, 
erected  in  the  year  1790;  two  stores  ;  one  book-bindery; 
one  tavern  ;  one  saddlery  ;  one  hatter's  shop  5  two  shoe- 
maker's shops  ;  three  wheelwright  shops  ;  and  two  black- 
smith shops.  Al^o,  a  post-olfice,  called  the  west  post-office  j 
two  law  offices,  and  an  Academy. 

The  centre  road  village  is  pleasantly  situated  one  mile 
and  a  half  north vv^est  of  the  south  road  village,  on  the  same 
great  mail  route.  Here  are  about  30  dwelling  houses  ;  a 
Baptist  church,  erected  in  1791  ;  three  stores,  one  tannery, 
two  shoe-maker's  shops,  two  cabinet-maker's  shops,  one 
blacksmith's  «hop,  and  a  law  office.  Both  villages  are  situ- 
ated on  elevated  grounds.  The  surrounding  scenery  is 
grand,  beaurlful,  and  picturesque.  The  distant  azure  moun- 
tains, the  fertilizing  streams,  the  cultivated  fi(dds,  the  glens^ 
and  valleys,  and  extensive  pasture  grounds,  interspersed  with 

Typographical  Sketch  of  Salisbury.  29& 

beautiful  copses  of  woodland,  conspire  to  render  it  delight- 
ful to  the  eye,  and  to  afl'urd  line  subjects  for  the  pencil. 

Pemigewasset,  or  east  village,  is  situated  in  the  northeast 
corner  of  the  town,  at  the  great  falls  on  Pemigewasset  river. 
This  is  a  pleasant  thriving  place,  already'  of  considerable 
and  increasing  business.  .  By  the  enterprize  and  liberality 
of  a  few  ii!(lividu;iis,  an  elegant  meeting  J;iouse  has  lately 
been  erected  in  this  vilhige,  and  ornamented  with  a  bell. 
Here  are  two  stores,  one  tavern,  one  tannery,  three  or  four 
cooper's  shops,  and  one  blacksmith's  shop.  On  a  fine 
permanent  sti-eam,  which  runb  through  this  village  from  the 
great  pond  in  Anduver,  ai-e  situated  three  saw  mills,  one 
grist  mill,  one  b!ac!<siniih''s  shoj>  with  trip  hammers,  and  one 
mannfaciuring  cstjl>!is!inien;.  This  stream  affords  several 
excellent  sites  for  a  variety  of  other  mill  machinery. 

A  toll  bridge  acro>s  the  Pemigewasset  leads  from  this 
vi'.lage  to  Sanbo  nton  and  Northfield.  There  is  a  posl- 
oflRce  in  this  village,  called  the  east  post-office. 

Ai)OUt  three  miles  below  this  village,  on  the  Merrimack, 
on  the  alluvion  first  mentioned,  ihr  cailiest  settlements  were 
ctlected.  This  is  a  pleasant  farming  village,  consisting  of 
about  ten  or  twelve  dwelling  houses,  two  taverns,  one  store, 
a  tannery,  one  blacksmith's  shop,  one  joiner's  shop  and  a 
law  office.  • 

Rivers — The  east  part  of  the  town  is  watered  by  the 
rivers  Pemigewasset  and  Merrimack.  The  union  ot  the 
Wmnepissiogee  with  the  Pemigewasset  forms  the  Merrimack, 
Boat  navigation  terminates  a  short  distance  above  the  junc- 
tion of  these  rivers.  When  -a  few  obstructions  shall  be  re- 
moved, and  one  or  two  locks  erected  on  the  Merrimack 
•above  Concord,  by  the  medium  of  the  Middlesex  Canal, 
boat  navigation  v\  ill  be  rendered  safe  and  easy  Irom  Bos- 
ton to  thec'^st  village  in  Salisbury. 

Blackwater  passes  thiough  the  western  part  of  Salisbury. 
It  takes  it  rise  in  the  hilly  regions  of  Danbury,  Wilmot  and 
New-London,  and  in  ils  passage  receiving  considerable  ac- 
cession from  tributary  streams,  traverses  Andover,  and  pass- 
ing round  the  east  end  of  lieech  hill,  throws  itself  into  Salis- 
bury, in  a  large  bay,  which  abounds  with  pickerel,  perch, 
eels,  and  a  variety  of  other  fish.  At  the  outlet  of  this  bay, 
there  is  a  gradual  descent  of  more  than  a  mile,  which  affords 
excellent  sites  for  mills.  On  this  part  of  the  rivf  r  klierc  are 
several  valuable  mills,  &c.  From  thence  it  rolls  its  dingy 
waters  through  Salisbury  and  Boscawen,  and  at  length 
unites  with  the  Contoocook,  in  the  north  part  of  Hopkinton. 

300  Topographical  Sketch  of  Salishury. 

Great  numbers  of  mill-logs  are  snnually  floated  down  this 
river  to  the  mills  in  Salisbury  and  Boscawen. 

Roads. — I'hree  roads,  or  range  ways,  running  from  east 
to  west  through  this  town,  were  originally  laid  out,  and 
called  the  south,  centre  and  north  roads  ;  these  are  inter- 
sected Hy  others,  all  in  good  repair,  and  passable  for  wheels. 
One  thousand  dbllars  are  annually  expended  for  the  laying 
our  new  I'oads,  and  repairing  the  old  ones.  'Ihe  F^ourth 
N.  H.  Turnpike  crosses  this  town  from  N.  W.  to  S.  E. 

Acadtmij^  Schools,  &c. — The  Academy,  siiuaicd  on  the 
south  road  viliag*^,  has  been  very  liberally  supported  by  the 
tuition  paid  bj'  students,  who  have  resorted  here  for  instruc- 
tion. The  students  have  formed  a  society,  called  the  Lite- 
rary Adelphi,  and  have  a  very  choice  collection  of  hooks. 
A  very  liberal  donation  of  one  thousand  dollars  has  recent- 
ly been  made  to  this  Institution  by  Benjamin  Gale,  Esq., 
late  of  Salisbury,  deceased  ;  he  was  one  of  the  most  suc- 
cessful and  enterprizing  farmers  in  town,  and  a  worl!i>  and 
respectable  citizen.  Ilis  liberality  will  be  recollected  with 
gratitude,  and  his  premature  death  will  be  for  a  long  tima 
sincerely  lamented. 

This  town  is  divided  into  thirteen  convenient  school  dis- 
tricts. In  some  of  the  largest  and  most  compact  districts, 
schools  are  kept  for  nine  months  in  the  year.  The  sum  of 
^900  is  raised  annually  for  the  support  of  schools,  exclusive 
of  the  interest  of  the  school  fund,  which  produces  yearly 
the  sum  of  $84. 

But  few  towns,  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  inhabitants, 
have  er^ucated  more  young  men  liberally  than  this  :  some 
of  whom  take  their  rank  among  the  first  advocates,  not  only 
in  this  State,  but  the  United  States.  Their  names  are  as 
follows: — Moses  Eastman,  1794  ;  Moses  Saivyer,  1799; 
Daniel  Webster,  1801  ;  Ezrkiel  Webster,  Ebenezer  O.  Fi- 
ficld,  Thomas  H.  Pettingill,  1 804 ;  Nathaniel  Sawyer,  1 805  ; 
John  True,*  1 806  ;  Ichabod  Bartlett,  Valentine  Little,  1 808 ; 
James  Bartlett,  Benjamin  Pettingill,t  1&12  ;  *Joseph  Ward- 
Tvell,  1813;  Charles  B.  Hadduck,  1816;  Benjamin  Hun- 
toon,  1817  ;  William  T.  Hadduck.  1819;  Joseph  B.  East- 
EQan,  1821.  They  all  graduated  at  Dartmouth  college,  with 
one  exception.  The  Salisbury  Social  Library  consists  of 
between  3  and  400  volumes,  and  annual  additions  are  made 
to  it. 

Mountains,  &c. — A  considf^rable  portion  of  Kearsarge 
ranges  within  the  bounds  of  Salisbury,  the  northwest  corner 

•  Deceased.  i  Middletury,  Vf. 

Topographical  Sketch  of  Salisbury,  801 

.l)Ound  of  which  extends  nearly  to  the  summit.  Th^  alti- 
tude of  this  mountain  was  taken  by  Capt.  Partridge,  in  Aug. 
1820,  by  means  of  the  barometer,  and  found  to  be  2461  ieiit 
above  tide  wattr.  It  is  composed  of  a  range  of  hills,  run- 
ring  from  north  to  south,  about  six  miles.  Its  general  as- 
pect is  rugged  and  craggy.  lis  northeast  and  southwest 
parts  are  sleep  and  precipitous.  It  may  be  ascended  with 
pretty  severe  exertion  from  the  northwest,  or  southeast 
quarter.  Its  summit  was  formerly  covered  with  evergreens. 
But  it  ha?  loni;-  been  stripped  of  its  primitive  honors  by  the 
combined  as,ency  of  fire  and  wind.  It  now  presents  a  ^ald 
rock  of  granite,  many  parts  of  which  appear  to  be  in  a 
gradual  state  of  disintegration.  In  th°  spring  of  1819,  a 
large  mass  of  rocks,  ot  several  thousand  tons' weight,  was 
loosened  from  the  southern  declivity  of  bald  hill,  and  pre- 
cipitated with  great  violence  to  the  valley  below,  carrying 
all  bffore  it  for  the  space  of  forty  rods  m  lengih  and  our 
in  breadth.  The  prospect  from  the  summit  of  this  moun- 
tain is  magnificent  and  beautiful.  Snow  and  ice  have  been 
observed  on  'his  mountain  in  the  mouth  of  July  in  the  clefts 
of  the  rocks,  on  a  northern  exposure. 

The  mineralogical  productions  have  never  been  scien- 
tifically examined.  The  prevailing  rock  is  granite.  A  vrry 
fine  quarfy  has  lately  been  discovered  on  Mr.  W  illiam 
Webster's  farm,  on  the  east  side  of  meeting  house  hill.  It 
yields  readily  to  the  wedge  and  hammer — has  a  due  propor- 
tion of  its  component  parts,  and  3'ields  in  beauty  to  no  rock 
of  that  description  in  this  part  of  the  State. 

The  delightful  and  interesting  study  of  botany  has  been 
neglected  in  this,  as  in  most  other  towns  of  the  State.  The 
beautiful  lines  of  the  poet  are  fully  verified, 

"  Full  many  a  floweir  s  born  to  blush  unseen, 
And  waste  its  sweetness  in  the  desert  air." 

The  study  of  mineralogy  and  botany  ought  to  be  intro- 
dueed  into  our  common  schools.  Natural  history  is  better 
calculated  than  any  other  study  to  occupy  and  interest  the 
tender  mind.  It  agreeably  exercises  the  memory,  and 
teaches  a  habit  of  attention.  It  disciplines  the  minds  of  the 
young,  and  they  acquire  a  habit  of  investigation.  It  is  bet- 
ter calculated  than  any  other  study  to  improve  the  morals 
of  youth  ;  as  from  the  contemplation  of  interesting  and 
bbautiful  objects  in  nature,  we  are  insensibly  led  to  adore 
the  au'hor  and  giver  of  all  good. 

[For  tbe  foregoiRg  interesting  descvirtirn  of  one  of  the  wealthiest  and  most 
tlariving  towns  in  this  part  of  the  State,  we  are  indebted  to  the  politeness  of  Moses 

503  General  La  Faytile. 

Eastman,  Esq.  We  should  esteem  it  a  particular  favor,  would  gentlemen  oi 
other  towns  communicate  similar  accounts.  For  the  history  of  Salisbury,  the 
leailci  is  referred  to  the  N.  H.  Gazetteer,  published  by  the  editors  of  this  Journal.!, 


fNumerous  biographical  notices  of  La  Favette  have  appeared,  all  more  or  less  im* 
perfect.  We  wait  with  anxiety  to  see  a  full,  authentic  and  well  written  biogra- 
phy of  this  gieat  man.  In  the  mean  time,  present  our  readers  with  the  follow- 
ing memoir,  translated  from  the  Biographic  Jes  Hommcs] 

Marie-Paul  Jopeph-Roch-Yves-Gilbert-JMottiers  de  La 
Fayette,  was  born  in  Auvergrie  in  the  year  1757,  of  one  of 
the  most  ancient  familii  s  of  that  province.  Hf  marrit  d  in 
1774  JVladt'moisellc  de  Noaillcs,  daughter  of  the  Duke  (TAy- 
en,  Captain  of  the  Botly  Guard.  At  that  time  he  was  in  pos- 
session of  a  considerable  fortune.  Before  the  intention  which 
had  been  formed  by  Louis  XVL  to  as.'^ist  the  Americans, 
was  known,  La  Fayette  privately  equipped  a  vessel,  which 
was  filled  with  arms,  and  escaping  the  vigilance  which 
watched  him,  sailed  to  Americ^i.  There  he  served,  first 
roereiy  as  a  volunteer  in  the  rcvolullonnry  army,  without  any 
design  except  that  of  gaining  distinction  as  a  soldier.  Ro- 
chambeau,  who  was  dispatched  to  that  country  at  the  head 
of  a  body  of  French  auxiliaries,  having  observed  his  courage 
and  activit}',  gave  him  the  command  of  a  corps  of  volunteers, 
who  joining  themselves  to  the  Inhabitants,  contributed  much 
to  the  success  of  the  American  Revolution.  During  this 
struggle,  the  young  La  Fayette  signalized  himself  in  so  bril- 
liant a  manner  that  he  became  the  friend  of  the  illustrious 
Washin£;ton.  Independence  being  established,  he  returned 
to  France  with  the  office  of  Field  Marshal,  loaded  with  tes- 
timonials  of  gratitude  from  the  Americans,  and  filled  with 
sentiments  of  liberty  which  the  success  of  that  people  and 
their  republican  deliberations  had  given  rise  to  his  mind. — 
lie  was  received  at  Paris  with  a  sort  ol  enthusiasm.  Noth- 
ing was  talked  of  but  La  Fayette,  his  glory  was  every  where 
sounded,  and  his  portrait  was  every  where  to  be  seen.  At 
the  convocation  of  the  .States  General,  he  was  chosen  deputy 
to  that  assembly,  without  opposition,  by  the  nobility  of  Au- 
vergne,  and  he  came  there  supported  by  the  public  opinion. 
At  that  time  a  constitution  was  calif  d  for  on  all  sides.  M. 
De  La  Fayette,  who  afterwards  placed  himself  in  the  first 

General  La  Fayette*  30& 

tank  in  constitutional  cnterprizes,  did  not  speak  on  the  occa- 
sion. He  continued  to  sit  with  the  majority  of  the  nobiiiiy 
in  their  own  chamber,  until  the  27th  of  June,  when  the  King, 
ialarmed  by  the  boldness  of  the  Revolutionist^,  commanded 
that  order  to  unite  to  the  two  others.  La  Tayettc  protested, 
■with  the  majority  of  his  order,  July  3d,  1789,  against  evf  ry 
thing  that  was  done  contrary  to  the  principles  of  the  monar- 
chy, aiid  the  individual  rights  of  the  orders — and  he  even 
demanded  that  an  act  should  he  passed  by  the  Chamber,  as 
well  as  his  colleagues  of  the  Auvergne  nobility,  declai-ing 
that  they  had  done  all  in  their  power  to  supporr  the  system 
of  voting  by  orders.  It  is  certain  that  it  was  not  until  all 
these  efforts  had  proved  fruitless,  that  he  determined  to  join 
the  Kaliimal  Assembly.  As  its  mandates  vvere  imperative, 
he  would  not  take  part  in  its  deliberations  until  he  had -ob- 
tained from  his  constituents  new  powers  in  which  this  clause 
was  not  stipulated.  He  demanded  leave  of  absence  in  or-* 
der  to  solicit'ihis,  and  it  was  not  until  hi«  return  that  he  be- 
gan his  revolutionary  career.  July  11,  1789,  he  proposed 
a  declaration  of  rights,  which  was  much  applauded.  It  was 
in  moving  this  declaration  that  he  made  the  remark,  that 
when  tyranny  is  at  its  height,  msui-rcction  becomes  the  most 
holy  of  duties.  The  sitting  of  July  11,  drev/  the  public  at- 
tenuon  still  more  upon  La  Fayette,  and  from  this  day  may 
be  dated  the  immense  power  which  he  acquired.  At  this 
period  the  Court  was  making  military  preparations  whicli 
seemed  to  announce  the  intention  of  dissolving  the  Assembly 
by  force.  The  evening  of  July  12,  a  violent  insurrection 
broke  out  in  the  capital,  which  had  for  pretence  the  dismis=« 
sal  of  M.  Nccker.  The  13th,  Lally  Tolendale  and  Mour- 
yier  passed  a  decree  that  the  public  debt  was  put  under  the 
guardianship  ofthc  honor  and  loyalty  of  the  French.  La 
Fayette  obtained  an  addition  to  this  decision,  that  the  minis- 
ters who  were  appointed  by  the  king  were,  as  all  civil  and 
military  agents,  responsible  for  an}'  undertaking  contrary  to 
the  rights  of  the  nation,  and  the  decrees  of  the  national  as- 
sembly. After  this  deliberation,  which  was  had  very  late, 
the  assembly  continued  to  sit  all  night,  M.  La  Fayette  pre- 
siding over  it,  in  the  place  of  M.  Le  Franc-de-Pampignan, 
Archbishop  of  Vienna,  who  on  account  of  his  extreme  o^e^ 
could  not  fill  an  office  so  fatiguing.  July  15th,  he  was  cho- 
sen by  the  Commune  of  Paris  Commander  of  the  Parisian 
militia,  which  was  almost  immediately  after  called  thb  JVa- 
tional  Guard.  The  young  general  accepted  this  nomination^ 
and  drav/ing  his  sword,  made  a  vow  to  sacrifice  his  life  t© 

304  General  La  Fayette. 

the  preservation  of  that  precious  liberty  the  defence  of 
which  they  had  rntrusted  to  him.  Every  thins;  was  then  in 
trouble  and  contusion  ;  not  only  those  who  had  nothing  to 
lose,  but  those  who  had  much,  helped  to  keep  up  the  state 
of  disorder.  Notwithstanding  his  extreme  popularity,  he 
"was  not  able  to  save  Fou'on.  whom  he  had  taken  under  his 
protection.  October  5,  a  new  insurrection  having  broken 
out,  the  French  Guards  appeared  again  in  front  of  it,  and 
summoned  their  general  to  lead  them  again  to  Versailles, 
not  to  ask  for  bread,  like  the  woracn  by  whom  they  were 
surrounded,  but  to  revenge  themselves,  as  they  said,  for  the 
insults  which  had  been  oflered  to  the  cockade  and  to  the  na- 
tional colors.  M.  La  Fayette  endeavored  in  vain  to  turn 
them  from  their  project.  He  repaired  to  'he  square,  mount- 
ed his  horse,  placed  himself  at  their  head  and  harangued 
them,  but  wi^thont  success.  Cries  oi  to  Versailles,  to  VcrsaiU 
les,  interrupted  him,  he  could  not  make  himself  heard.  At 
last  he  told  them,  that  being  only  head  of  the  armed  force, 
he  could  not  act  without  orders  from  the  representatives  of 
the  commune.  The  better  immediately  sent  an  order  for 
hira  to  go  to  Versailles.  The  populace  no  sooner  learnt 
this  decision  than  they  set  forward,  and  began  the  disorders 
at  Versailles  before  the  National  Guard  could  be  re-assem- 
bled. This  body  arrived  about  eleven  in  the  evening,  com- 
manded fey  La  Fayette,  who  ordered  all  the  posts  to  be  oc- 
cupied. Thinking  there  was  nothing  to  fear,  he  went  to  take 
some  repose,  having  assured  the  king  and  queen  that  tran- 
quillity was  restored.  But  at  six  in  the  morning  the  castle 
■was  attacked  by  the  mob,  who  had  introduced  themselves 
through  the  gardens.  Three  body  guards  were  murdered, 
and  the  queen,  forced  to  fly  half  dressed,  was  near  being  as- 
sassinated in  her  bed.  La  Fayette,  awoke  by  the  general 
noise  and  the  cries  of  the  multitude,  arrived  at  last,  placed 
himself  at  the  head  of  the  grenadiers,  and  expelled  from 
the  castle  the  ruffians  who  had  introduced  themselves  into 
it.  Fifteen  of  the  body  guard  whom  the}'  were  about  to 
murder,  were  saved.  But  this  was  the  day  when  Louis 
XVI.  yielding  to  the  cries  of  the  populace,  went  to  Paris 
"with  his  family — and  from  that  time  his  power  ceased.  A 
few  days  after,  La  Fayette,  in  a  very  animated  conference 
•which  he  had  with  the  Duke  of  Orleans,  gave  him  to  under- 
stand that  his  name  formed  the  pretext  for  all  the  disorder, 
and  that  it  was  necessary  he  should  leave  the  kingdom  for 
some  time.  A  pretended  mission  was  given  to  this  prince^ 
and  he  went  to  England.     From  this  period  to  the  departure 

General  La  FayeiUi  805 

of  the  king,  no  great,  crimes  were  commiupd  in  Paris,  al- 
though the  agitation  was  exlrrme.  One  individual  had  l)cen 
seized  bj  the  mob,  and  thcj  had  already  suspended  him  to 
a  lamp  post,  vvhen  the  commanding  geni  ral  hastened  to  the 
spot  and  himself  cut  the  cord,  and  saved  the  unhappy  man. 
But  ]VI.  La  Fayette's  greatest  triumph  is  the  period  of  the 
federation,  July  14,  1730.  It  was  on  that  d.-y  that  he  re- 
ceived the  general  command  of  the  national  guard  of  France. 
All  these  national  guards  and  the  troops  of  the  line,  met  by 
deputation  in  the  Champ  de  Mars,  and  swore  in  presence  of 
the  king  and  the  assembly  to  maintain  a  constitution,  which 
did  not  yet  exist.  The  eyes  of  all  France  were  turned  on 
the  commandant  general  of  the  national  guard.  Surround- 
ed with  the  homage  of  the  whole  arm}',  he  w^s  really  the 
master  of  the  kingdom,  and  his  power  was  immense.  The 
raindsof  the  people  were  then  in  the  greatest  agitation  :  eve- 
ry where  in>urrections  were  ready  to  break  out,  which  caus- 
ed the  apprehension  that  a  general  overturn  would  take 
place.  M.  La  Fayette  succeeded  for  a  long  time  in  restrain- 
ing them.  The  active  service  in  which  he  was  engaged 
prevented  his  sharing  in  many  of  the  deliberations,  but  he 
voted  for  all  the  important  innovations,  such  as  trial  by  ju- 
ry, the  civil  and  political  rights  of  people  of  color,  although 
not  for  the  immediate  abolition  of  slavery,  as  some  biogra- 
phers have  asserted.  He  wished,  with  Mirabcau,  whose 
life  he  saved  during  the  discussion  of  right  to  make  peace 
and  war,  that  the  introduction  of  this  law  should  be  left  to 
the  king. 

On  the  holy  v.'cek  of  1 791,  the  King  wished  to  go  to  St. 
Cloud.  As  soon  as  this  reached  the  ears  of  the  Jacobin  par- 
ty, they  reported  that  the  Monarch  was  about  to  leave  the 
Kingdom.  This  v/as  believed  by  the  National  Guard,  and 
instead  of  favoring  this  little  expedition,  they  prevented  it, 
notwithstanding  the  orders  of  their  General  to  the  contrary, 
vi'hom,  until  that  time,  they  had  obeyed  with  the ^eatest  en- 
thusiasm. La  Fayette,  vexed  with  this  disobedience,  re- 
signed the  command,  but  the  National  Guard  displayed  so 
much  regret,  that  he  resumed  it  again.  On  the  departure  of 
the  King  in  June  of  the  same  year,  he  was  accused  by  the 
Jacobins  of  having  favored  it.  The  truth  is,  that  whatever 
suspicions  he  might  have  of  the  monarch's  projects,  he  knew 
nothing  positive  with  respect  to  them.  When  he  heard  the 
news  of  it,  before  leaving  his  bed  in  the  morning,  he  would 
not  believe  it.  He  repaired  to  the  Mayor,  and  when  he  was 
seen  in  the  streets  they  shouted  Vive  La  Fayette,  and  a  ba^9 

306  General  La  Faydk, 

La  Fayeffe.  Mobs  were  formed,  and  they  began  to  clamoT 
for  his  head.  The  Deputy  Revvbell  eiiJeavored  to  infuse 
into  the  assembly,  which  was  hardly  formed,  suspicions  of 
his  Hdelily — but  Barnave  repulsed  these  insinuations  with 
much  energy,  and  it  was  to  this  deputy  that  M.  La  Fayette 
owed  his  safety.  The  king  having  been  arrested  at  Varen- 
nes,  by  the  measures  which  he  had  taken,  he  recovered  for 
some  time  his  popularity ;  but  he  became  more  than  ever  the 
object  of  hatred  to  the  loyalists.  As  to  the  Jacobins,  M.  La 
Fayette  had  already  provoked  their  tury  by  bis  conduct 
toward  the  Duke  of  Orleans,  and  from  his  causing  the  com- 
panies of  the  insurgent  regiments  at  Nanci,  who  were  com- 
ing to  Paris,  to  be  arrested.  From  this  moment  the  Jacobins 
kept  no  more  measure  with  him.  Then  Corypheus  Marat, 
author  of  the  Friend  of  the  people^  constantly  denounced  him 
as  the  traitor  La  Fayette.  The  aflair  of  the  Champ  dc  Mars 
brought  this  rage  to  its  height.  The  republican  party  unit- 
ed with  the  Jacobins,  and  this  union  formed  the  insurrection. 
La  Fayette  dispersed  it.  Firing  commenced  without,  or 
rather  contrary  to  his  orders.  Fournicr  fired  a  pistol  al- 
most at  his  breast.  He  was  arrested,  but  La  Fayette  caus- 
ed him  to  be  set  at  liberty.  Notwithstanding  this,  he  was 
accused  of  having  assassinated  the  patriots.  After  this 
event,  the  national  guard  grew  furious ;  they  imprecated 
the  Jacobins,  wished  to  destroy  by  a  cannonade  the  c/?(&, 
which  they  called  a  cavern,  and  disperse  the  people  who 
frequented  it.  La  Fayette  opposed  ihcm.  When  the  con- 
stitution was  accepted  in  1791,  he  voted  for  the  amnesty  de- 
manded by  the  king,  and  resigned  the  command  of  the  na- 
tional guard,  since,  as  he  derived  his  powers  from  the  revo- 
hition,  these  powers  ought  to  cease  with  it.  The  municipali- 
ty, then  constitutional,  caused  to  be  struck  otf  a  medal  of 
gold  in  honor  of  La  Fayette,  and  gave  him  a  bust  of  Wash- 
ington. He  had  sacrificed  a  great  part  of  his  fortnne  for  the 
jevolutioji^  never  being  willing  to  accept  the  remuneration 
which  the  city  often  offered  him  from  time  to  time.  When 
war  was  on  the  point  of  being  declared  by  the  national  as- 
sembly, against  Austria  and  Prussia,  the  king  gave  him  the 
com.mand  of  the  army  of  the  centre,  destined  to  cover  the 
frontier  of  Ardennes.  This  army  took  the  field  the  begin- 
ning of  May  1792,  but  remained  inactive.  At  the  time  of 
the  outrages  of  June  20,  he  addressed  to  his  army  an  order 
of  the  day  which  excited  in  it  a  universal  indignation  against 
the  Jacobins.  Addresses,  in  which  the  punishment  of  this 
crime  was  called  for,  were  signed  by  all  the  corps,  and  the 

General  La  Fayetle.  307 

General  was  desired  to  communicate  them  to  the  King  and 
the  National  Assembly.  The  republicans  who  till  then  had 
kept  terms  with  La  Fayette,  hoping  to  draw  him  over  to  their 
party,  came  out  against  him  with  the  greatest  violence.  The 
General  himself  went  to  Paris,  appeared  at  the  bar  of  the 
Assembly,  and  called  for  vengeance  on  the  insult  to  the 
King  and  the  constitution.  He  could  obtain  nothmg,  the 
business  was  referred  to  the  committees,  and  instead  of  suc- 
ceeding in  his  demand,  the  republicans,  in  concert  with  the 
Jacobins,  had  the  boldness  to  demand  that  he  himself  should 
be  indicted.  He  was  well  received,  however,  by  the  Na- 
tional Guard.  A  deputation  of  Grenadiers  from  the  differ- 
ent battalions  came  to  present  him  the  homage  of  his  former 
companions  in  arms,  planted  before  the  door  of  his  hotel,  an 
enormous  tree  of  liberty,  hung  with  tri-colored  ribbons,  and 
begged  him  to  place  himself  at  their  head,  and  destroy  be- 
fore his  departure  the  infernal  club,  where  all  the  disorder 
was  fomented.  H^  refused,  saying,  the  majority  of  the  As- 
sembly being  constitutional,  there  was  no  cause  for  alarm. 
Events  soon  taught  hin),  how  small  was  the  power  of  this 
nominal  majority  to  resist  their  audacious  adversaries.  Be- 
fore his  departure  he  invited  the  King  to  place  himself  in 
the  midst  of  his  army,  to  escape  the  swords  of  the  factious 
party,  and  he  offered  to  ensure  his  safety.  But  the  indeci- 
sion of  the  King,  and  the  prejudices  of  the  Queen,  prevented 
the  King  from  availing  himself  of  the  last  means  of  safety. 
The  republicans  introduced  into  the  Assembly  their  project 
of  indicting  the  General.  It  was  rejected  by  two  thirds  of 
the  voices;  but  this  deliberation  was  itself  the  signal  for  (he 
revolution  of  August  1 0th.  La  Fayette  was  just  on  the  point 
of  fighting  the  Prussians  when  he  heard  of  this  revolution. 
He  wished  at  first  to  face  the  storm,  ordered  the  commission- 
ers who  were  sent  to  depose  him  to  be  arrested,  and  adtlres- 
sed  his  troops  in  a  proclamation,  in  which  af'er  having  plac- 
ed the  affair  in  the  most  odious  color,  he  told  them  to  choose 
between  Pe<ton,and  the  King  and  consiilution.  No  one  hesi- 
tated, all  the  army  cried  Vtve  la  Roi,  Vixe  la  constitution. 
But  the  next  dny  he  left  the  army,  depending  but  little,  and 
with  some  reason  on  the  first  ebulliuon  of  enthusiasm.  He 
was  accompanied  by  some  of  his  officers. 

It  was  then  that  M.  La  Fayette  terminated  his  revolution- 
ary career,  a  striking  example  of  the  rewards  which  the 
people  reserve  for  their  favorites.  When  his  departure  was 
known,  the  Capuchin  Chabot  immcdiaU  !y  f'Ut  a  price  upon 
i)is  head — he  was  declared  an  emigrant,  and  the  commune 

308  General  La  Fai/eiu, 

of  Paris,  among  olhei-  outrages,  bad  the  die  of  the  uiedal, 
which  had  been  struck  in  honor  of  him  the  year  before, 
broken  by  the  executioner.  He  had  hardly  passed  the 
frontier,  when  he  was  arrested  at  Luxembourgij,  where 
some  emigrants,  who  regarded  him  as  the  principal  author 
of  the  revolution,  loaded  him  with  insults.  The  Duke  of 
Saxe  Teschen  even  told  him  that  be  was  reserved  for  the 
scaffold.  He  was  afterwards  delivered  to  the  king  of  Prus- 
sia, who  had  iiim  conducted  to  VVesscI,  and  then  to  JVIagde- 
burgu,  where  he  remained  a  year  in  prison. 

The  king  of  Prussia,  upon  making  peace  with  France  in 

1795,  gave  up  his  prisoner  to  the  Au;»trians,  who  transferred 
him  to  Olmutz,  where  he  was  still  more  severely  treated, 
and  suffered  Severely  from  sickness.  His  physicians  re- 
quested that  his  situation  might  be  ameliorated  ;  and  it  was 
at  this  time,  that  Dr.  BoUman,  and  a  young  man  of  the 
name  of  Huger,  (now  living  in  South-Carolina)  whose  father 
had  entertained  La  Fayette  at  his  house-  in  America,  exe- 
cuted the  daring  project  of  carrying  him  oiY,  at  the  time  he 
went  out  to  take  the  air  ;  but  he  was  retaken  eight  leagues 
from  Olmutz,  and  kept  in  still  closer  confinement.  His  ill- 
ness became  more  serious  ;  he  was  left  without  any  assist- 
ance, even  without  light  or  linen.     At  the  end  of  the  year 

1796,  his  virtuous  wife  and  daughter  obtained  permission  to 
share  his  confinement,  thereby  making  the  best  eulogy  of 
his  virtues  as  a  husband  and  father.  At  last  the  events  of 
the  war  brought  about  his  deliverance.  General  Bonaparte 
pursuing   his  success  against  Austria,  in    his  campaign  of 

1797,  forced  that  power  to  set  him  at  liberty.  M.  La  Fay- 
ette did  not  return  to  France  immediately.  He  stopped  at 
Hamburgh,  and  did  not  enter  his  country  till  after  the  18th 
Brumiare.  Bonaparte  offered  him,  at  that  time,  a  place  in 
his  senate,  but  he  excused  himself,  and  retired  to  one  of 
his  estates  which  had  not  been  sold,  and  where  he  has  liv- 
ed for  a  long  time  a  stninger  to  politics.  Bonaparte,  irritat- 
ed by  his  refusal,  swore  to  La  Fayette  a  hatred,  which  de- 
scended even  to  his  son.  Whatever  zeal  was  shown  by 
this  young  man  in  his  service,  he  would  never  promote 
him  in  his  rank,  nor  ever  bestow  on  him  the  cross  of  the 
Legion  of  honor  ;  whenever  he  found  the  name  of  La  Fay- 
ette in  a  repoi-t,  he  angrily  struck  it  out. 

After  the  20th  of  March,  1815,  the  Marquis  La  Fayette 
was  chosen  deputy  in  the  chamber  of  representatives,  by 
the  electors  of  the  department  of  Seine  and  Marne,  and  he 
obtained  fifty  votesfor  the  presidency.  He  did  not  speak 
in  this   assembly  until  the  moment  when   Bonaparte,  con- 

Gentral  La  Fayelle.  303 

qaered  at  Waterloo,  was  considered  as  irrecoverably  lost. 
La  Fayette  voted  then,  neither  lor  Napoleon  nor  for  his  son, 
but  lor  what  he  called  national  independence.  This  is  the 
speech  which  he  pronounced,  June  21,  1815,"  when,  lor  the 
first  time,  altera  silence  of  many  years,  I  raise  a  voice  that 
the  old  Iriends  of  liberty  may  still  remember,  1  ftel  myself 
urged  to  speak  to  you  of  the  dangers  of  the  country,  which 
you  alone  have  the  power  of  saving.  Dark  reports  were 
spread,  they  are  unfortunately  confirmed.  This  is  the  mo- 
ment for  us  to  rally  about  the  old  iri-colored  standard,  that 
of  '89,  that  of  liberty,  of  equality,  and  of  public  order  ;  it 
is  that  alone  which  we  have  to  defend  ourselves  against  for- 
eign pretensions  and  domestic  treachery.  Permit,  gentle- 
men, a  veteran  in  this  sacred  cause,  who  has  always  been 
a  stranger  to  the  spirit  of  faction,  to  lay  belore  you  some 
preliminary  resolutions,  of  which  I  hope  you  will  appre- 
ciate the  necessity.  Article  1.  The  chamber  of  represen- 
tatives declares  that  the  independence  of  the  nation  is 
threatened.  2.  The  chamber  declares  itself  permanent — 
anj'-  attempt  to  dissolve  it  is  an  act  of  high  treason  ;  who- 
ever is  guilty  of  such  an  attempt,  shall  be  declared  a  trai- 
tor to  his  country,  and  shall  be  tried  immediately  as  such. 
3d.  The  army  of  the  line  and  the  National  Guard,  who 
have  fought  and  are  still  fighting  to  delend  the  libertj^,  the 
independence  and  the  territory  of  France,  have  deserved 
well  of  their  country.  4th.  The  mitiistrr  of  the  interior  is 
invited  to  assemble  the  general  staiT,  the  commanders  and 
majors  of  legions  of  the  Parisian  national  guard,  in  order 
to  advise  respecting  the  means  of  giving  arms,  and  bringing 
to  the  greatest  perfection  this  citizen  guard,  whose  zeal 
and  patriotism,  tried  for  twenty-six  years,  offers  a  sure 
guarantee  to  liberty,  property,  the  tranquillity  of  the  capi- 
tal, and  the  inviolability  of  the  representatives  of  the  na- 
tion. 5th.  The  ministers  of  war,  of  foreign  relations,  of  the 
police  and  of  the  interior,  are  invited  immediately  to  meet 
this  assembly."  This  project  was  adopted  with  slight 
modifications.  M.  La  Fayette  was  afterwards  appointed 
one  of  the  commissioners,  chosen  by  the  commission  of  gov- 
ernment, to  enter  into  a  negociation  with  the  chiefs  of  the 
allied  pov/ers  who  were  approaching  Paris.  Jt  is  known 
that  this  mission  had  no  success.  After  the  chamber  was 
dissolved,  M.  Ln  Fayette  returned  to  his  home — he  re-ap- 
peared on  the  political  scenes,  at  the  elections  in  1817,  and 
he  obtained  a  number  of  votes  for  the  Paris  deputation. 

[With  the    subsequent  history  cftbis  great  ami  good  mnn,  almost  ever^- ncr?o» 

310  Brian  Oakcs, 

ifl  probably  acquainted.  No  man  ever  so  completely  engrossed  public  attention— 
uo  man  perhaps  eve»  more  richly  deserved  the  gratititde  and  veneration  of  a  free 



XJrian  Oakes  was  the  fourth  President  of  Harvard  col- 
lege, at  which  institution  he  graduated  in  1649.  He  was  a 
Dative  of  England,  from  whence  he  was  brought  to  America 
ivhen  very  young.  In  his  early  childhood,  he  exhibited  a 
mild  and  amiable  disposition,  by  which  he  was  distinguish- 
ed through  life.  He  appeared  to  have  a  fondness  for  as- 
tronomical pursuits,  and  the  next  year  after  he  graduated, 
he  pul)lished  a  set  of  calculations  with  the  following  title  : 
"  MDCL.  An  ALMANACK  for  the  year  of  our  Lord 
1650.  Bein^the  third  after  Leap  year  and  from  the  Crea- 
tion 5682.  Calculated  for  the  Longitude  of  315  dcgr.  and 
Elevation  of  the  Pole  Arctick  42  degr.  &  30  min.  &  may 
generally  serve  for  the  most  part  oi  JSczo- England.  Parvum 
parva  decent^  sed  inest  sua  gratia  parvis.* 

He  soon  went  to  England,  and  was  settled  in  the  ministry 
at  Titchfield,  in  Hampshire.  Being  silenced,  in  1G62,  with 
the  other  non-conforming  ministers,  he  found  an  asylum  in  a 
respectable  family,  and  afterwards  preached  in  another  con- 
gregation. Such  was  his  celebrity  for  learning  and  piety,' 
that  the  church  and  society  of  Cambridge,  on  the  decease  of 
Mr.  Mitchel  in  1673, sent  a  messenger  to  England  to  invite 
him  to  become  their  minister.  He  accepted  the  invitation  j 
but,  through  various  circumstances,  did  not  commence  his 
labors  in  Cambridge  till  Novembers,  1671.  Being  placed 
at  the  head  of  Harvard  college  after  the  death  of  Dr.  Hoar, 
he  commenced  the  duties  of  this  office  April  7,  1675,  still, 
however,  retaining  the  f'harge  of  his  flock.  But  on  the 
second  of  February,  1680,  the  corporation  appointed  him 
President,  atvd  persuaded  him  to  be  inaugurated,  and  to  de- 
vote himself  exclusively  to  this  object.  He  died  July  25, 
1681,  in  the  fiftieth  year  of  his  age,  and  was  succeeded  by 
Mr.  Rogers  in  the  college,  and  hy  Mr.  Gookin  in  the  church 
of  Cambridge.  He  was  a  man  of  extensive  erudition  and 
distlng'iished  usefulness.  He  excelled  ecjually  as  a  scholar, 
as  a  divine,  and  as  a  christian.  By  his  contemporaries  he 
xvas  considered  as  one  of  the  most  resplendent  lights  that 

*  This  Almanack  was  printed  at  Cambridge,  in  1650,  but  the  name  of  the  prin- 
ter is  not  mentioued  on  the  titlt  page. 

Ci)L  WilUam  Gregg^  34 1 

€Tcr  shone  in  this  part  of  the  world.  He  was  very  humble 
with  all  his  greatness,  like  the  full  ear  of  corn,  which  hangs 
near  the  ground.  In  the  opinion  of  Dr.  Mather,  America 
neyer  had  a  greater  master  of  the  true,  pure,  Ciceronian 
Latin,  of  his  skill  in  which  language  an  extract  from  one  of 
his  commencement  orations  is  preserved  as  a  specimen  in 
the  Magnalia.  He  published  an  artillery  sermon,  entitled, 
the  unconquerable,  all  conquering,  and  more  than  conquer- 
ing christian  soldier,  1672;  election  sermon,  1673:  a  ser- 
mon, at  Cambridge,  on  the  choice  of  their  military  officers  ; 
a  fast  sermon  ;  and  an  elegy  in  poetry  on  the  death  of  the 
Rev.  Mr.  Shepard,  of  Charlestovvn,  1678, 


William  Gregg  was  born  at  Londonderry,  N.  H.  Octo- 
ber 21,  1730.  He  was  the  son  of  Capt.  John  Gregg,  who 
emigrated  with  his  father,  Capt.  James  Gregg,  from  the 
county  of  Antrim,  in  Ireland,  at  about  the  age  of  16.  This 
family  were  among  the  first  settlers  in  Londonderry,  in  the 
year  1710. 

CoL  Gregg,  at  the  commencement  of  the  revolutionary 
war,  commanded  a  company  of  minute  men  in  the  town  of 
Londonderry,  which  he  marched  to  the  relief  of  his  coun- 
tcymen  in  Boston,  early  in  the  j-enr  1  775  ;  and  tarried  there 
till  more  urgent  calls  required  his  presence  at  home,  as 
muster-master  for  his  regiment,  and  a  member  of  the  com- 
Hiittte  of  safety. 

The  ensuing  year  he  was  commissioned  by  the  Council 
©f  the  State,  to  be  major  in  the  first  regiment  of  militia  rais- 
ed in  New-Hampshire,  to  recruit  the  army  at  New- York, 
where  he  performed  various  laborious  services,  and  suffer- 
ed numerous  privations  and  hardships.  In  the  year  1777, 
Col.  Gregg  and  James  Betton,  Esq.  were  appointed  agents 
to  proceed  to  the  seat  of  government,  then  at  Baltimore, 
where  they  obtained  and  brought  to  the  New-Etiglard  Stales, 
upwards  of  ^1100,000,  for  the  purpose  of  prosecutmg  (he 
■war.  After  making  disbursements  to  Gen.  Clinton,  in  New- 
York,  and  at  Hertford,  Conn,  he  returned  to  Boston,  and 
from  thence  to  his  native  State,  when  he  received  the  thanks 
of  the  Legislature  for  his  services. 

In  the  same  year  he  sustained  a  -commission  of  Lt.  Col. 
in  the  brigade  commanded  by  the  intrepid  and  immortal 
Stark,  and  commancleJ  the  vanguard  in  the  memorable 
battle  of  Bf^nnington,  where  he  was  honored  by  the  confi- 
dence and  approbation  of  that  distinguished  officer. 

.^12  Essays  of  Cincxnnaius, 

At  the  close  of  the  war  he  retired  to  his  farm,  and  era- 
ployed  himself  in  the  delightful  pursuits  of  husbandry,  till 
■■.viihin  a  iew  years  of  his  death.  He  deceased  at  London- 
derry, on  the  16th  September,  1824,  at  the  age  of  93. 

The  leading  feature  in  the  char^ter  of  Col.  Gregg  wa* 
perseverance.  AVhatever  he  undertook,  he  saw  accom- 
plished. In  the  prime  of  life,  his  industry  and  resolution  in 
the  discharge  of  his  affairs  was  unrivalled.  Those  who 
were  in  his  employ,  partook  of  the  same  spirit,  for  ht  went 
forward  and  cheered  them,  in  the  midst  of  severe  toil,  with 
tales  of"  high  emprize"  and  pleasing  anecdote.  He  inher- 
ited the  spirit  of  hospitality,  for  which  the  emigrants  of  Ire- 
land have  long  been  signalized.  His  house  was  ahvays  the 
resting  place  of  the  weary,  and  none  left  it  without  feasting 
on  the  bounties  of  his  board.  Youth  and  age  were  delighted 
in  his  company,  and  his  hospitality  gained  him  numerous? 
friends,  in  addition  to  those  who  esteemed  him  for  the  good- 
he  had  done  his  country. 




When  treaiing,  in  former  numbers,  of  the  government  of  tht 
United  8tatep,  I  inadvertently  omitted  the  executive  power  which 
the  constitution  and  laws  vest  in  certain  officers  ;  it  is  now  prop 
er  to  revert  to  them.  The  duty  of  these  officers  is  not  to, 
but,  under  the  direction  of  the  president,  to  execute  existing 
laws  ;  and  some  of  them  possess  a  porlion  of  judicial  authority, 
and  decide  the  accounts  and  claims  wliich  individuals  have  upon 
the  nation.  Several  of  these  offices  existed  before  the  constitu- 
tion of  the  United  States  was  formed  ;  and  that  instrument  expli- 
citly provides  that  the  president  "  may  require  the  opinion,  in 
writing,  of  the  principal  officer  in  each  of  the  executive  depart- 
ments, upon  any  subject  relating  to  the  duties  of  their  respective 

My  object  is  to  give  a  concise  account  of  the  origin,  and  prin- 
cipal duties  required  of  the  heads  of  the  several  departments. — 
The  first  in  order  of  time,  as  well  as  the  most  important  to  the 
nation  and  its  government,  is  the  department  of  State.  This  office 
grows  out  of  the  very  nature  of  national  government.  It  com- 
menced in  an  early  stage  of  our  revolution,  and  in  fact,  existeJ 
before  our  independence  was  proclaimed.  When  first  establish- 
ed, it  was  not  exercised  by  a  single  individual,  but  by  several 
*men  under  different  names,  and  with  different  degrees  of  authori 

Essays  of  Cincinnalus.  313 

ty.  On  the  29th  November  1775,  congress  resolved,  that  a  com- 
mittee of  five  of  its  members,  should  be  appointed  for  the  sole 
purpose  of  corresponding  ^vith  our  friends  in  Gi'eat  Britain.  Ire- 
laiit,  and  other  parts  of  the  world,  who  shotild  lay  the'ir  corres- 
pondence before  congress  when  required.  It  does  not  appear 
that  the  members  of  this  board,  were  to  receive  any  compensa- 
tion for  these  services,  but  provision  was  made  to  defray  the  ex- 
peace  that  should  arise  in  carrying  on  their  correspondence,  and 
such  agents  as  they  should  send  en  that  service.  On  the  ITth 
April  1777,  congress  changed  their  style  to  that  of  a  committee 
for foraign  affairs^  and  provided  a  secretary  with  a  salary. 

But  experience  proved  that  the  variety,  importance  nnd  in- 
creasing duties  of  that  orBce,  could  not  with  propriety  be  perform- 
ed by  a  committee  of  ■eongress,  unless  the  members  of  that  com- 
mittee grossly  neglected  or  totally  abandoned  their  duty  as  rep- 
resentatives of  the  states  who  elected  thern.  It  also  appeared 
that  the  duties  of  the  department  might  be  performed  with  great- 
er dispatch  and  safety,  and  with  more  propriety  by  one  man  than 
by  a  number.  Congress,  theretore,  on  the  10th  of  January,  1781, 
resolved,  that  an  othce  should  be  forthwith  established  for  the  de- 
partment of  foreign  affairs,  to  be  kept  in  the  place  where  con- 
gress should  reside,  and  for  the  dispatch  of  the  business  of  that 
otlice,  instead  of  a  committee,  a  secretary  should  be  appointed, 
to  be  styled  secretary  for  foreign  affairs.  That  it  should  be  his  du- 
ty to  keep  and  preserve  all  the  books  and  papers  belonging  to  the 
department  cf  foreign  aifairs  ;  receive  and  report  the  applica- 
tions of  all  foreigners ;  correspond  with  the  ministers  of  the 
United  States  at  foreign  courts,  and  with  the  ministers  of  foreiga 
powers,  and  other  persons,  ibr  the  purpose  of  obtaining  the  most 
extensive  and  useful  information  relative  to  foreign  affiiirs,  to  be 
laid  before  Congress  when  required  ;  to  transmit  such  communi- 
cations, as  Congress  shall  direct,  to  the  ministers  of  the  United 
States  and  others  at  foreign  courts,  and  in  foreign  countries;  and 
for  the  purpose  of  acquiring  better  intbrm.ation  of  the  affairs  of 
the  nation,  and  an  opportunity  of  explaining  his  reports  respect- 
kig  his  department,  he  had  libert}'  to  attend  Congrese,  who  then 
sat  with  closed  doors. 

On  the  22d  of  February,  1782,  congress  repealed  the  reiolve 
last  mentioned,  and  ordered  that  the  otScer  slioujd  be  called  sec- 
retary to  the  United  States  of  America  for  the  departmcni  of  for- 
eign affairs  ;  that  members  of  congress  should  have  access  to  his 
books,  records,  and  papers,  but  not  take  copies  of  those  of  a  se- 
cret nature,  without  the  special  permission  of  congress. 

That  the  correspondence  and  communications  with  the  min- 
isters, consuls,  and  agents  of  the  United  States  at  foreign  courts, 
should  be  carried  through  his  office,  and  that  he  might  corres- 
pond with  all  persons  from  v.hom  he  might  obtain  useful  inform- 
ation ;  but  letters  from  him  t©  our  rai&isters.  and  t(4  foreiga 

314  Essays  cfCincinnaiist» 

ministers,  relating  to  treaties,  convention?^  and  ftrcat  national 
subjects,  should  be  approved  hy  congiess  before  Ihej  were 

He  wa?  required  to  correspond  ivith  the  {governors  and  presi- 
dents of  the  several  States,  to  give  them  such  information  as? 
ivould  be  uselul  to  the  Stales,  or  to  the  United  States  ;  and  to  state 
the  complaints  that  should  be  urged  again?t  the  government  of 
any  of  the  States,  or  the  citizens  thereof,  by  the  subjects  of  for- 
eign povvers,  so  that  justice  might  be  done  agreeably  to  the  laws 
of  such  state,  or  the  charge  provcjd  to  be  groundless,  and  the  honor 
of  the  government  vindicated. 

To  receive  the  applications  of  all  foreigners,  relative  to  his 
department,  which  are  designed  to  be  submitted  to  Congress — ad- 
Tise  the  mode  in  which  the  memorials  and  evidence  shall  be  stated 
so  as  to  afford  congress  ihe  most  comprehensive  view  of  the  sub- 
ject, and,  if  he  judges  it  necessary,  accompany  such  memorial 
with  his  report  thereon  ;  he  may  concert  measures  with  the  min- 
isters or  cilfcers  of  foreigo  powers  to  procure  amicable  redress 
of  private  injuries,  which  any  citizen  of  the  United  States  may 
have  received  from  a  foreign  power,  or  the  subject  thereof. 

To  report  on  all  cases  expressly  referred  to  him  by  Congress 
for  that  purpose,  and  on  all  others  relating  to  his  department, 
which  may  appear  tolxim  necessary. 

He  had  liberty  at  all  times  to  meet  with  Congress,  but  whea 
summoned  or  ordered  by  the  president  he  was  bound  to  attend  ; 
and  might  personally,  or  in  writing,  explain  his  report,  and  an- 
swer objections.  He  was  to  have  free  access  to  the  papers  and 
records  of  the  United  States  ;  and  required  to  obtain  information 
of  the  state  of  foreign  countries,  their  commerce,  iinances,  na- 
val and  military  strength — the  character  of  sovereigns  and  min- 
isters, and,  generally,  such  political  intelligence  as  might  be  use- 
ful to  the  United  States. 

On  the  25th  of  November  following,  congress  authorised  him 
to  communicate  to  foreign  ministers  residing  in  the  United  States, 
all  such  acts  and  resolutions  of  congress,  and  articles  of  intelli- 
gence which  they  might  receive,  as  he  should  judge  proper,  ex- 
cept those  which  congress  should  specially  require  to  be  kept 

On  thellth  of  February,  1785,  congress  resolved,  That  all 
communications  to  and  from  congress,  on  the  subject  of  foreign 
affairs,  should  be  made  through  him,  and  all  letters,  memorials^ 
or  other  papers,  oh  the  subject  of  foreign  afi'aira  for  congress, 
shall  be  addressed  to  him  ;  and  those  which  are  in  a  foreign  lan- 
guage, and  which  may  be  communicated  to  congress,  he  shall  ac- 
company with  a  translation  into  English,  to  be  made  by  an  inter- 
preter, whom  he  shall  appoint  to  translate  all  such  papers  as  may 
be  referred  to  him.  Aud  on  the  12th  of  February,  1788,  con- 
gress authorised  and  directed  him  to  grant  sea-letters.  These  aro 
1^0  principal  powers  granted  to  this  officer,  and  the  duties  which 

Essays  of  Cinciimatus^  315 

be  w-as  require*]  to  perform,  previous  to  the  adoption  of  the  cou- 
stitotion  of  the  United  States. 

Alter  the  orgnnJz:ition  of  the  government  under  the  constitu- 
tion, variftus  laws  were  passed  by  cont^Tsss  relating  to  this  sub- 
ject. July  17,  1789,  tbey  enacted  a  hnv  for  establishing  an  ex- 
ecutive department,  which  they  denomini'.ted  the  department  cf 
foreign  affairs.  The  Secretarj^  to  perform  such  duties  as  the 
president  should  require,  relative  to  correspondelicies,  commis- 
sions, instructions  to  and  nith  our  public  ministers  and  consuls  ; 
negociatious  with  public  ministers  from  foreign  nations  ;  memo- 
rials and  applications  from  foreign  puWic  ministers,  and  foreign- 
ers, as  well  as  such  other  matters  respecting  foreign  affairs,  as 
the  president  should  assign  ;  and  conduct  the  business  of  the  de- 
partment as  he  should  direct  and  order. 

The  law  of  the  loth  September,  1789,  changed  the  name  of 
the  office  to  that  of  dtpartmer.i  of  slate,  and  its  principal  officei? 
to.  secretary  of  stats  ;  which  they  still  retain. 

The  Secretary  of  Stale  is  to  receive  and  deposit  in  his  office, 
the  original  laws  and  resolutions  passed  by  congress,  and  the  trea- 
iies  and  conventions,  made  with  other  nations,  and  record  them. 
1  ie  is  to  have  the  custody  and  keeping  of  the  seal  of  the  United 
States  ;  and  of  all  books,  records,  and  papers  Tvhich  were  in  the 
office  of  the  secretary  of  congress  previous  to  the  year  1789,- 
to  procure  from  time  to  time,  such  of  the  statutes  of  the  several 
states  as  may  not  be  in  his  office  ;  and  to  receive  and  record  deeds 
to  the  United  States  of  certain  lands  in  Georgia. 

He  is  to  publish  and  distribute  all  treaties  made  by  the  United 
States,  and  all  the  laws  and  resolves  passed  by  congress.  The 
iaws  and  treaties  to  be  published  in  not  exceeding  three  newspa- 
pers in  each  state,  and  at  the  end  of  each  session  of  congress, 
publish  eleven  thousand  copies  in  the  pamphlet  form,  witii  an  al- 
phabetical index.  To  publish  and  distribute  certain  documents,  and 
to  subscribe  for  others,for  the  use  cf  the  government.  To  pub- 
lish the  secret  journals  of  the  revolutionary  congress,  and  the 
■correspondence  of  its  ministers  ;  the  journal  of  the  convention 
that  formed  the  constitution  of  the  United  States  ;  the  laws  of 
some  of  the  territories;  every  second  year  a  list  of  all  the  offi- 
cers and  agents,  civil,  military,  and  naval,  in  the  service  of  the 
United  States,  with  the  annual  amount  of  compensation  and  pay 
allowed  to  each;  and  every  tenth  year,  the  census  of  the  inhab- 

Whenever  a  census  is  taken  of  the  inhabitants  cf  the  United 
States,  he  is  to  direct  and  instruct  the  marshals  of  the  several 
districts  in  the  principles  and  modes  of  doing  it,  and  the  forms  in 
which  the  returns  shall  be  made  to  his  office  ;  and  has  discretion- 
ary authority  to  allow  them  additional  pay  for  certain  extra  servi- 

He  is  to  grant  letters  patent  for  useful  inventions  and  discove- 
ries ;  and  receive  and  deposit  in  his  office  a  copy  of  every  map, 
chart,  ai^d  hookj  where  the  copy  right  is  secured. 

SI 6'  7\dcs  of  the  Revolution. 

He  has  authority  to  make  a  seal  for  his  Jeptirtmcnt.  and  all 
copies  of  and  papers  authenticated  under  it,  shall  he  evi- 
dence equal'.y  as  the  onginal  record  or  paper. 

He  is  ex-ojficio  commissioner  of  the  sinkings  fund. 

He  is  to  adjust  and  settle  the  accounts  of  our  ministers  to  for- 
eign  courts,  and  our  consuls  in  foreign  countries,  aed  in  some 
casaa,  upon  such  principles  as  he  shall  deem  just  and  cquitahle. — 
This  discretionary  equiti/-po-a>er  has  been  by  particular  laws  giv- 
en to  him  in  the  case  of  other  individuals. 

He  is  requirefl  to  advance  money  for  the  relief  of  sick  and  des- 
titute American  seamen  in  foreign  countries,  settle  tiie  accounts 
with  the  agents  to  whom  it  was  advanced,  and  annually  report  to 
congress  an  abstract  of  the  monies  so  paid.  And  for  monies  ex- 
pended for  foreign  intercourse,  in  cases  where  the  president 
deems  it  not  advisable  to  specify  the  purpose  for  which  it  wal 
paid,  the  secretary's  certificate,  made  hy  order  of  the  president 
is  to  he  received  as  conclusive  evidence  of  the  payment. 

He  is  bound  to  affix  the  seal  of  the  United  States  to  all  civil 
commissions  to  the  oificers  of  the  United  States,  and  countersiga 
them,  and  the  proclamations  issued  hy  the  president  relative  to 
the  ratification  of  treaties,  arrangements  with  foreign  nations, 
suspension  of  particular  laws,  &.c. 

He  is  not  oo)y  charged  with  drawing"  instructions  to  our  minis- 
ters at  foreign  courts  and  maintaining  a  regular  corresjiondence 
■with  them,  but  has  been  repeatedly  appointed  as  the  sole  agent 
for  the  government  to  negociate  treaties  with  foreign  ministers 
who  reside  in  this  country. 


Septembers,  1824. 



At  the  commencement  of  the  revolutionary  war,  Sergeant 
Jasper  enlisted  in  the  2cl  South-Carolina  regiment  of  infan- 
try, commanded  hy  Col.  Moultrie.  He  distinguished  him- 
self in  1  particular  manner  at  the  attack  which  was  made 
upon  Fort  Moultrie,  on  Sullivan's  Island,  the  28fh  of  June, 
1776.  In  the  w^^rmest  part  of  the- contest,  the  flag-staff  was 
severed  by  a  cannoH  ball,  and  the  ll^g  fell  to  the  bottom  of 
the  ditch  on  the  outside  of  the  works.  This  accident  was 
considered  bj  the  anxious  inhabitants  of  Charleston  as  put- 
ting an  end  to  the  contest,  by  striking  the  American  flag  to 
the  enemy.  The  moment  that  Jasper  made  the  discovery 
that  the  flag  had  fallen,  he  jumped  from  one  of  the  embra- 
sures, and  mounted  the  colors,  which  he  tiod  to  a  sponge 

Tales  of  the  Revolution.  SI  7 

Staft,  and  replanted  them  on  the  parapet,  where  he  support- 
ed thorn  until  another  fl^g-stafl'  was  procured.  'J'he  subse- 
quent activity  at^d  enterjirize  of  this  patriot,  induced  Col. 
Mouh.rie  to  give  him  a  sort  of  roving  commission,  to  go  and 
come  at  pleasure,  confident  that  he  was  always  usefully  em- 
ployed. Ho  was  privileged  to  select  such  mea  from  the 
regiment  as  he  should  choosc,to  accompany  him  in  his  c-ntcr- 
prizcs.  His  parties  consisted  generally  of  five  or  six  ;  and 
he  often  returned  with  pri;oncrs  before  Moultrie  was  ap- 
prized of  his  absence.  Jasper  was  distinguished  for  his 
humane  treatment  when  an  enemy  fell  into  his  power.  His 
anibitiQu  appears  to  have  been  limited  to  the  characteristics 
of  bravery,  humanit.v,  and  usefulness  to  the  eause  in  which 
he  was  engaged.  Vv'hen  it  w^s  in  his  power  to  kill,  but  not 
capture,  it  was  his  practice  to  permit  a  single  prisoner  to 
escape.  By  his  sagacity  and  enterprize  he  often  succeeded 
in  the  capture  of  those  who  were  lying  in  ambush  for  him. 

In  one  of  these  excursions,  an  instance  of  bravery  and 
humanity  is  recorded  by  the  biographer  of  Gen.  Marion, 
which  v/ould  stagger  credulity'-,  if  it  was  not  well  attested. 
Whi''e  be  was  examining  the  iiritish  camp  at  Ebenczer,  all 
the  sympathy  of  his  great  heart  was  awakened  by  the  dis- 
tresses of  a  Mrs.  Jonss,  whose  husband,  an  American  by 
birth,  bad  taken  ihc  King's  protection,  and  been  confined 
in  irons  for  deserting  the  royal  cause  after  he  had  taken  the 
oath  of  r.liegiance.  H&r  well  founded  belief  wa?,  that 
iiothi'^:;  short  of  the  lifo  of  her  husband  would  atone  for  the 
offence  v/iih  which  he  was  charged.  Anticipating  the  awful 
scenoofa  beloved  husband  expiring  upon  a  gibbet,  had  ex- 
cited inexpressible  eniotions  of  grief  and  distraction. 

Jasper  secretly  consulted  with  his  companion,  Sergeant 
Newton,  whose  feelings  for  the  distressed  female  and  her 
chi'd  were  equally  excited  with  his  own,  upon  the  practi- 
cability of  releasing  Jones  from  his  impending  fate.  The' 
the}'"  were  unable  to  suggest  a  plan  of  operatix)n,  they  were 
determined  to  watch  for  the  most  favorable  opportunity, 
and  make  the  effort.  The  departure  of  Jones  and  several 
others  (all  in  irons)  to  Savannah,  for  trial,  under  a  guard 
consisting  of  a  sergeant,  a  corporal,  and  eight  men,  was  or- 
dered upon  the  succeeding  rflorning.  Within  two  miles  of 
Savannah,  about  thirty  yards  from  the  main  road,  is  a  spring 
of  fine  water,  surrounded  by  a  deep  anfl  thick  underwood, 
where  travellers  often  halt  to  refresh  themselves  with  a 
cool  draught  from  the  pure  fountain.  Jasper  and  his  com- 
panion considered  this  the  most  favorable  to  their  enter- 

SIS'  Ttihs  of' the  Rtvolulion, 

prize.  Th^y  accordi»g1y  passed  the  guard,  and  concealed 
themselves  near  the  sprint^.  When  the  enemy  cnme  up, 
they  halted,  and  only  two  of  the  guard  rem